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place himself among the advocates of a revised version in the Welsh language. After the reading of the paper a discussion took place.
Mr. R. M. Lewis (Swansea), a gentleman whose excellent translation into English of "Gwilym Hiraethog's" Y Gôf must be fresh in the memory of most readers of the Red Dragon, has just reprinted a translation into Welsh of the first book of Homer's Iliad. We trust the attempt here so honestly and ably made will attract a widespread attention. The author's purpose would, we are sure, be admirably served were it to elicit the opinions of scholars as to the most suitable metre for the rendering into Welsh of passages from the Iliad. There is almost endless disputing on this question as regards the English. We never remember seeing any portion of the grand old epic in Welsh except the selections given by Dr. Edwards, years ago, in his Traethodau Llenyddol. These are in rhyme, and we have been told that other rhyming versions of certain books have appeared besides. Any effort in Hexameters we have never heard of. Mr. Lewis's, we trust, will meet with the encouragement it richly deserves.
In some competitions instituted by the Pall Mall Gazette, Miss Mary Davies has been returned at the head of the poll as the best English soprano, and also as the best female singer of English ballads.
At a meeting of the Liverpool Welsh National Society recently an address on "The Welsh Revival under the Tudors delivered by Professor J. E. Lloyd, B.A., Aberystwith College.
Miss Kenyon has received permission from Sir Theodore Martin to compile from his work a popular edition of the life of the Prince Consort. This book will be issued under the title of "Albert the Good: Scenes in the Life of the Prince Consort."
Lord Herschell attended an eisteddfod at Aberavon on Easter Monday, and in an address spoke of the practical benefits arising from such competitions, and said that although he did not understand the language used that day he had thoroughly enjoyed the beautiful singing.
Notes and Queries.
[CONFINED TO MATTERS RELATING TO WALES AND THE BORDER COUNTIES.]
A STORY OF GENERAL JOHN CADWALLADER.-Your New York contributor "Ap P. A. Môn" gives in his list of gallant Welshmen who took part in the American War of Independence (xi.-312) General John Cadwallader, of whom your readers may like to be told the following story. The general fought a duel near Philadelphia, on the 22nd of February, 1778, with General Thomas Conway, who received his antagonist's bullet in the mouth, and fell forward on his face. He then raised himself and addressed Cadwallader, humorously, as follows:-" You fire with much deliberation, General, and certainly with a great deal of effect." It is a noteworthy fact that Cadwallader challenged Conway-a bristling young Irish-American-for his persistent calumniations of General Washington, and that the hostile meeting between these two distinguished general officers of the Revolutionary Army occurred upon the birthday of the illustrious object of their dispute. Conway, as soon as he was able to sit up after his wound (and from which he recovered), wrote to his commander-in-chief a letter, in which he expressed great grief for all he had said or written, and asked Washington's forgiveness for any and all of his offensive acts. The story reads almost like a modern version of the Fluellen and Pistol one of old.
CELTIC FLORA (Xi.—371).—The Geiriadur Cymreig of "Cynddelw" (Caernarvon, 1868) is also worthy of being consulted on this subject, on account of the number of provincial equivalents he gives
Referring to the translation by "T.C.U." from M. Gaidoz, it should be noted that the best collection of Welsh names of plants will be found in the just published Flora of Cardiff, by Mr. John Storrie, Curator of the Cardiff Museum, and issued by the Cardiff Naturalists' Society.
"NANT OLCHFA."-I have refrained from making the following remarks on the fair writer's preface to this tale, in the Red Dragon for August, 1886, lest they should create prejudice against the tale itself, before it was finished. However, errors should always be corrected. The authoress professes great knowledge of the Welsh language, and criticises its construction very severely. But what she advances plainly proves that her knowledge of Welsh very imperfect. She tells us that "nant" means "a ravine." This is scarcely correct. Every Welsh schoolgirl knows that nant is a brook, and that cum is " a ravine." In some instances the hollow through which the brook runs may be called a ravine. "Nant Olchfa," without the article yr, is not Welsh, any more than its literal translation into the "ravine of the washing place" is tolerable. Indeed, this sounds very much like
nonsense. "Llysderw" also is not Welsh, but may be Chinese. Llys-y-dderwer or Llys-y-deri might pass. Then, we have "Cwm Eithin," rendered "Gorse Valley" but the fair writer's misfortune is her want of knowledge of nature. that eithin never spontaneously grow in a valley; but rather on mountainous and dry land. She tells us that, "by vocal mutation, g is liable to be sometimes omitted at the commencement of a word;" and, she might add, in the middle of a word. But she declares that, "should any uninitiated individual wish to know what the above-mentioned vocal mutation' is," she fears she "could give no satisfactory definition of it," which is very likely, and she adds, with considerable self-satisfaction, that she herself has " always regarded it in the light of a Welsh grammatical mystery whose rules are amongst the things that no fellow can make out." But the omission of G in Golchfa, so as to make it her "Olchfa," is not a vocal mutation; it is a suppression or excision of the initial G. The writer further complains that c mutates into "a guttural ng or ngh, which is only pronounceable at hazard of sore throat." Does she get a sore throat when she pronounces such English words as bang, clang, gang, long, prong, strong, thong, wrong, and hundreds of other such words? She concludes her prelude by telling us that she has often fancied that "vocal mutation is a special provision to keep strangers from learning Welsh." At all events something has kept her from doing so. Her tale, evidently, would have been more creditable" saus preface," and herself "sans chapeau," of which she writes.
BON Y GLER.
DAVIES OF HEREFORD'S "PSALMES OF DAVID."-I have in my possession a copy of The Psalmes of David in verse Begun by The Noble and Learned Gent. Sir Philip Sidney, Knt., and finished by the Right Honourable the Countess of Pembroke, His Sister; Now first Printed from a Copy of the Original Manuscript Transcribed by John Davies, of Hereford, in the Reign of James the First." Published in 1823. In the advertisement in the first pages of the book it is stated: "The MS. from which it has been printed is in folio, copied from the original by John Davies, of Hereford (writing master to Prince Henry), himself a poet of no mean attainments and a contemporary of Sir Philip Sidney." Can you, or one of your readers, give any information as to this John Davies? Was he a Welshman?
LOST TOWNS IN CARMARTHENSHIRE.-Legends of towns which have disappeared seem to be connected with nearly every Welsh lake. This is the case also with Tal-y-llychau, near Llandeilo, and Llanllwch, besides Carmarthen. Some of the traditions are in a good state of preservation; as, for instance, that in reference to Llyn Safaddan, Breconshire. But I have only seen slight references to the above two. It may be that some of your readers can tell us more about Tal-y-llychau than that it sank on account of the wickedness of the inhabitants; and more about Llanllwch than that it was swallowed up by an earthquake, giving place t a lake which gradually deteriorated into a very extensive marsh, thereby giving considerable annoyance to railway engineering skill.
THE REV. EVAN EVANS.-Jones, in his History of Wales, p. 256, says: Evans, better known as "Ifan Brydydd Hir," was born 1730; "Gwynionydd" (Enwogion Ceredigion) says the same, and so do J. T. Jones (Geir. Byw.), and Rowlands (Llyfryddiaeth); but the Penny Cyclopædia says he was born in 1731, and the Rev. D. Silvan Evans gives the date May 20th, 1731 (O.S.), on the authority of Evans himself. Jones says further (1824) that "a rough and
unhewn stone points out the remains of this ancient bard;" while "Gwynionydd" says (1869) there is no stone. It would be interesting to know whether a stone
has been since placed there.
JOHNSON'S DICTIONARY.-According to Boswell, Johnson was assisted in his dictionary-work by a Welsh gentleman. Is his name known?
THE THREE ROYAL DYNASTIES of WALES.-What were these? And what were their arms?
PRIODI. I would thank anybody who would tell me, for a literary purpose, the real root of the word Priodi. Is it Celtic or Latin?
"HAIL COLUMBIA."-Mr. Ap P. A. Môn, in his very interesting articles on "What America owes to Welshmen," states (xi.-311)-That Francis Hopkins ፡፡ was the author of Hail Columbia,' our national air." Will Mr. Jones (Ap P. A. Môn) kindly inform us whether Hopkins wrote the words or the air? Of course, I am aware that the apparent reading is, that he was the "author of the air," but the term "author" being generally used in connection with the writer of the words of a piece, and "composer" with that of the music, will I hope serve as sufficient apology for my asking for more precise information.
THE REV. JOHN LLEWELLYN DAVIES, M.A. (ix.—398; x.-282).—Am I right in saying that though the Rev. J. Ll. Davies may have been born in England, that his father, the Rev. John Davies, D.D., Canon of Durham, was a native of Llanddewi Brevi, where he was born December. 1795? He received his elementary education under the Rev. Eliezer Williams, of Lampeter, whence he went first to Oxford and then to Cambridge, graduated B.D. in 1830, and D.D. in 1844. He was the author of several works of considerable note. He died October 21st, 1861.
COKE'S "COMMENTARY IN WELSH.-Can any correspondent oblige me with the date when the Commentary was completed? According to Rowlands' Llyfryddiaeth (p. 574), it was begun in 1804, by the Rev. Owen Davies and John Hughes, and carried on by them to the end of the Old Testament, when the publisher, Mr. Hemingway, failed. After that six numbers were brought out under the care of the Rev. John Hughes [was it the same?] and Mr. Edward Williams, and printed by one Paris, in London, so bringing it to the end of the Gospels. Then the Rev. David Davis, son of the Rev. David Davis, of Castle Howell, became translator, and Mr. John Daniel, Carmarthen, printer, and the work was completed somchone in three volumes quarto-but when? It will be observed above that the name of the last translator is given as David. In the Life of the Rev. Timothy Davis, of Evesham, another son of Davis, of Castle Howell, the translation is said to have been done by him; that he began it before settling in Coventry in 1810, and continued it after. There are two articles touching on this subject in the Geninen, for April, 1886, one of them describing the translation as done "yn fwngleraidd." Would this apply to the whole or to a part only?
NAVIGATING THE BRISTOL CHANNEL IN A CORACLE.-In Hill and Valley, by
Catherine Sinclair, p. 269, published in 1839, is the following: "Some years since, a spirited boatman on the Wye astonished the natives at Ross by undertaking, for a wager, to navigate his coracle to the farthest extremity of the Bristol Channel, His voyage lasted a fortnight, during which he encountered difficulties beyond belief." It is intimated that the voyager succeeded. Is anything known of this voyage? It might throw light upon the possibilities of very ancient intercourse between the inhabitants of Wales, Cornwall, Ireland, and South Britain and the Continent.
CAPTAIN JONES.-Can any Red Dragon correspondent throw light upon the antecedents of a Captain Jones, who had a commission in the royal army of His Majesty King Charles I.? He commonded a troop of horse, apparently under Governor Sir Charles Lloyd, at Devizes, 1644, and his name appears in the history of that town the first time the following proclamation :
"To the Chief-constables of the Hundred of Potterne and Cannings, and every of them.
"These are in the King's Majesty's name to will and require you that you send out of your Hundred forty load of good sufficient hay, the same to be sent to the castle within the Devizes forthwith, all delays and excuses set aside. Whereof fail you not, as you answer the contrary at your utmost peril.
"Dated at the Devizes, this 28th of December, 1644.
"P.S.-I require you also to provide straw and provender, as much as Captain Jones shall think fit for the garrison."
This Sir Charles Lloyd was the king's chief engineer and quarter-master general, and he was commissioned to raise once more the fortifications around Devizes, and to restore (for a brief season, as it turned out) the military character of both tower and town. On the 14th of March, 1645, the two Parliamentary generals, Cromwell and Waller, left their quarters at Lavington, and proceeded to the relief of Taunton Having thrown succour into the town beleaguered by Lord Goring, they again retired eastward in two bodies. Cromwell took the route through Dorsetshire; while Waller proceeded to South Wilts, passing near Bath and Marshfield. Having amused himself by sticking a few petards in the city gates of the former place, he sent forward a party of horse in an expedition to the neighbourhood of Devizes, "who, falling foul of a troop of the Devizes horse, led by Captain Jones, were worsted in the encounter, and compelled to retire to Calne, leaving in Jones's hands a few prisoners." Waller left Calne with an army of five thousand men, in addition to a contingent of Cromwell's forces, and proceeded to the reduction of Colonel Boville's garrison at Lacock Abbey, but intelligence having reached him that Goring's cavalry were pursuing Cromwell in Dorsetshire, he changed his plans, and altered his course, in order to unite his forces with those of Oliver, and accordingly "traced a southerly course through Rowde, Potterne, and Lavington." As they passed by the old road at the foot of Cane Hill, "Jones's troopers, elated by their recent success, had the temerity, notwithstanding the smallness of their numbers, to issue out of the town (Devizes) and skirmish with his horse. The result was what might have reasonably been expected. After an action of very brief duration, Jones and his men were chased up into Devizes, the Parliament's horse entering pell mell with their adversaries, and dashing through the market-place with a view to secure the castle gates. Those of Jones's men who were fortunate enough to secure themselves behind the works lost the majority of their horses and arms, while others were pursued and shot down in the streets. The bold captain himself lost his life by the hands of one of the prisoners whom he had recently taken as above-mentioned near Calne; the manner of which tragical event, being set forth by Master John Vickars in the second part of his Looking Glass for Malignants, may as well be presented in its original garb."
Captain Jones, a Welshman, who had a command in Devizes, in Wiltshire, and led out the forces which Sir William Waller there lately took and routed: on the night before he went out to encounter Sir William's brigade, drank divers healths of strong waters and wine at an inn in the Devizes to the confusion of the Parliament, Sir William, and the Roundheads, on his bare knees, and did beat three or four in his company who did refuse to pledge them. The next morning some of