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D. Heu, heu, quam pingui macer est mihi taurus in ervo !
Idem amor exitium pecori pecorisque magistro.
M. His certe neque amor caussa est ; vix ossibus haerent.
Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos.
D. Dic, quibus in terris—et eris mihi magnus Apollo-
Tris pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas.
M. Dic, quibus in terris inscripti nomina regum
Nascantur flores, et Phyllida solus habeto.
P. Non nostrum inter vos tantas conponere lites.
Et vitula tu dignus, et hic, et quisquis amores
Aut metuet dulcis, aut experietur amaros.
Claudite iam rivos, pueri : sat prata biberunt.

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100-103.] 'D. My bull won't fatten: would not naturally express the ground it is love. M. My lambs won't either; possessed by or covering Caelius, so that it is the evil eye.'

the riddle, according to its traditional ex100.] Theocr. 4. 20. 'Ervum,' a species planation, does not even fulfil the condi. of tare : probably the hairy tare that grows tions of a good catch. • Apollo,' as the in our fields and hedges. Keightley. The god of divination. old reading before Heins. was "arvo,' which 106.] • Regum,' princes ;' the Homeric is found in the Rom. "Quam 'with macer.' Baoilies. So in Hor. 4 Od. 2. 13, “Seu

105.) For the construction non am- deos, regesve canit, deorum Sanguinem." plius tris ulnas,' see on G. 4. 207.

* Reges' is applied to Theseus, Pirithous, 102.] Theocr. 4. 15. •These of mine and Bellerophon. The flower meant is the are not even so well off as yours ; they have hyacinth, which was supposed to be insome malady more mysterious than love.' scribed with Ai Ai to express the name of

Neque' is for ne quidem,' used like Aias, or with Y for 'Yarivbos, the lost . Wagn. quotes Cic. Tusc. 1. 26,“ quo favourite of Apollo. nec in deo quidquam maius intelligi po- 108–111.] 'P. I cannot decide between test,” Pliny 17. 4, “Sed neque illa, quae those who feel so truly and sing so well.' laudatur, diu, praeterquam salici, utilis sen- 109.] Both ultimately wagered a heifer. titur.”

See v. 49. 'Et quisquis—amaros :' this is 103.] Comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 14. 37, “Non obscure and harshly expressed, but there istic (at his farm) obliquo oculo mea com- seems no reason to suspect the text. The moda quisquam Limat, non odio obscuro general sense no doubt is, as Serv. says, ' Et morsuque venenat."

tu et hic digni estis vitula et quicunque similis 104-107.] 'D. Guess my riddle, and vestri est,' any one who can feel love as you you shall be my Apollo. M. Guess mine, have shown you can, the alarm which atand you shall have Phyllis to yourself.' tends its enjoyment, and the pangs of dis

104.] According to Serv. Asconius Pe. appointment. The action may be put for dianus heard Virgil say that he had intended the celebration of the action, as in 6. 62 , in this passage to set a trap for the critics ; 9. 19; or Palaemon may mean that the and that the real answer was the tomb of lover is equal to the poet, as in vv. 88, 89, Caelius, a Mantuan who had squandered his the admirer seems to be equal to the poet. estate, and left himself only land enough None of the corrections that have been profor a tomb. The critics may be pardoned posed improve the passage. if they have fallen into such a trap with 111.] If Palaemon says this to his slaves, their eyes open, though their various guesses, it also alludes metaphorically to the stream e. g. a well, an oven, the shield of Achilles, of bucolic verse. • Rivos,' the sluices. the pit called 'mundus' in the Comitium, “Rivus est locus per longitudinem depresonly opened for three days each year, are sus, quo aqua decurrat,” Dig. 43. 21. 1. 2. not particularly happy. Caeli spatium'

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ECLOGA IV.

POLLIO.

The precise reference of this famous poem is still, and will probably remain, an unsolved problem. It seems, however, possible to arrive at certain proximate results.

The date is fixed to the year 714, when Pollio was consul and assisted in negotiating the peace of Brundisium. The hero of the poem is a child born, or to be born, in this auspicious year, who is gradually to perfect the restoration then beginning. It is difficult to say who the child was, for the simple reason that Virgil's anticipations were never fulfilled. It is not certain that the child was ever born : it is certain that, if born, he did not become the regenerator of his time. On the other hand, there is considerable scope for conjecturing who he may have been. Pollio himself had two sons born about this period : the treaty was solemnized by the marriage of Antonius with Octavia, and the union of Octavianus with Scribonia had taken place not long before. Tradition, as given by Servius, favours the claims of both of Pollio's sons, one of whom, called Saloninus from his father's capture of Salona in Dalmatia, died in his infancy, while the other, C. Asinius Gallus, who is said to have spoken of himself to Asconius Pedianus as the person meant, lived to be discussed by Augustus as his possible successor (Tac. Ann. 1. 13), and finally fell a victim to the jealousy of Tiberius (ib. 6. 23). Octavianus' marriage issued in the birth of Julia : Octavia's child, if it was ever born, was the child not of Antonius, but of Marcellus, her former husband, by whom she was pregnant at the time of her second marriage. Any of these births, so far as we can see, may have appeared at the time to a courtly or enthusiastic poet a sufficient centre round which to group the hopes already assumed to be rising in men's minds, and though the next three years may have made a difference in this respect, the poem would still continue to be in its general features the embodiment of a feeling not yet extinguished, and as such might well be published along with the other Eclogues. The peace of Brundisium itself was not so much the cause of this enthusiasm as the occasion of its manifestation—the partial satisfaction of a yearning which had long been felt, not merely the transient awakening of desires hitherto dormant. How far such hopes may have been connected with the expectation of a Messiah opens a wide question. The coincidence between Virgil's language and that of the Old Testament prophets is sufficiently striking: but it may be doubted whether Virgil uses any image to which a classical parallel cannot be found.

The allusions to the prophecies of the Sibyl and to the doctrine of the Annus Magnus will be found explained in their places. Some features of the poem, which seem to deserve attention, are noticed in the note on v. 18.

SICELIDES Musae, paulo maiora canamus!
Non omnis arbusta iuvant humilesque myricae ;
Si canimus silvas, silvae sint Consule dignae.

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1-3.] 'My rural song must now rise the species of which silvae' symbolizes into a higher region.'

the genus. They were moreover sacred to 1.] Sicelides Musae,' Muses of Theocri. Apollo, who was called uvpivaiog and uvpitus. See Introduction to the Eclogues, p. kevos, being represented with a branch of 7, note 3.

one in his hand, so that they are naturally 2.] Tamarisks form part of Theocritus' associated with poetry here as in 6. 10., 10. scenery (1. 13., 5. 101). Here they are 13. emblems of the lower strain of rural poetry, 3.] ‘Silvas :'comp. 1. 2. “If my theme is

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Ultima Cymaei venit iam carminis aetas;
Magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo.

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still to be the country, let it rise to a dignity guage borrowed from Jewish prophecy, and of which a consul need not be ashamed.' so 'finds no difficulty' in accounting for the A consul like Pollio need not be ashamed phraseology employed by Virgil (Hist. vol. of the rural glories of the golden age, 3. 89 iii. p. 232). Whether the ultima aetas' is note.

identical with the magnus saeclorum ordo,' 4–17.] “The golden age is returning. or whether the one is the end of the old A glorious child is born. Thy consulship, cycle, the other the beginning of the new, Pollio, will usher him into life, and inaugu- is not clear. The latter view is that most rate a period of peace, when the world will naturally presented by the passage : the obey a godlike king.'

former is countenanced by some obscure 4.] Cymaei carminis,' 'the Sibylline notices in Serv. about ten ages (comp. verses '—the Sibyl of Cumae being the Juvenal’s ‘nona aetas,' 13. 28), each with most famous. The original Sibylline books its appropriate metal, the last being the age having been destroyed in the burning of the of the sun. On v. 10 Serv. quotes the folCapitol in Sulla's time, the senate ordered lowing passage from the fourth book of a a collection of Sibylline verses to be made in treatise, ‘De Dis,' by Nigidius Figulus, a the various towns of Italy and Greece. contemporary of Julius Caesar, and esteemed After a critical examination about a thou second only to Varro in learning : “Quisand lines were retained as genuine, and dam Deos et eorum genera temporibus et preserved with the same formality as the aetatibus, inter quos et Orpheus: primum lost volumes. Varro however tells us regnum Saturni, deinde Jovis, tum Nep(Dionys. Halic. Antiq. R. 4. 62) that some tuni, inde Plutonis : nonnulli etiam, ut spurious ones were introduced, which might magi, aiunt Apollinis fore regnum : in quo be detected by their acrostich character, and videndum est ne ardorem, sive illa ecpyrosis this test was employed by Cicero (De Div. appellanda est, dicant:" i. e. the final con2. 54) to disprove a professedly Sibylline flagration. But this, though possibly the prediction brought forward by those who origin of Servius' notices, tells us nothing wished to make Caesar king. Later we about the Sibylline prophecy. Probus find that forgeries of the kind had become merely says “post quattuor saecula Talıyo common, private persons pretending to yeveoiav futuram cecinit.” The other exhave oracles in their possession, and the planation of Cymaeum carmen'

as the matter was accordingly twice publicly in- poem of Hesiod, whose father came from vestigated under Augustus (Suet. Aug. 31), Cyme in Aeolis, breaks down, as Hesiod's and under Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 6. 12). Of theory of the four (or rather five) ages is the precise oracle to which Virgil refers not a theory of cycles, and the last age he nothing seems to be known. We can only mentions is the worst or iron age, in which conjecture, with Voss, from whom this note he represents himself as living, though in is mainly taken, that it prophesied the re- an obscure passage (Works and Days, 180) turn of the golden age by the accomplish- he apparently holds out a hope that it too ment of the great cycle. The emperor Con- may be destroyed. Cymaei' is restored stantine in his oration to the clergy pre- by Wagn. and Forb., being found in some served by Eusebius, quotes an acrostich MSS. here, and supported by the Med. in oracle, which, though an evident forgery by A. 3. 441., 6. 98. Forb. remarks that the a Christian, imposed on many both before old name was Kóun, whence Kopaios, the and after his time. Augustine, who cites later Koõuai or · Cumae,' the adjective of a Latin version of it (De Civitate Dei, 18. which is · Cumanus.' 23) curiously enough, in his Exposition of 5.] The reference is to the doctrine of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, authen- the annus magnus,' or Platonicus,' a ticates it by this line of Virgil, but for vast period variously estimated at 2489, which he would have been unwilling to be- 3000,7777,12,954, 15,000, and 18,000 years, lieve that the Sibyl prophesied of Christ. to be completed whenever all the heavenly An elaborate edition of this and the other bodies should occupy the same places in Sibylline oracles has been published, with a which they were at the beginning of the Latin translation and notes, by M. Alexandre world. In each of these periods it was (Paris, 1851-7). Mr. Merivale believes supposed that the cycle of mundane and these oracles to be the representatives of human history repeated itself. Like the others of an earlier date, which spoke lan- ordinary year, the annus magnus' was

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Iam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna ;
Iam nova progenies caelo demittitur alto.
Tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primum
Desinet ac toto surget gens aurea mundo,
Casta fave Lucina : tuus iam regnat Apollo.
Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te Consule, inibit,
Pollio, et incipient magni procedere menses ;
Te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri,

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divided into three hundred and sixty-five 8.] ‘Nascenti-fave,' smile on or speed days, twelve months, and four seasons, the his birth.' It is difficult to say whether latter being identified by some with the 'quo' is to be taken as the ablative of the four ages of mankind, while others, such as agent (who shall put an end to the race of Aristotle, connected the winter with the iron and restore the age of gold'), or as deluge, the summer with the final confla- an ablative absolute or ablative of circumgration. See Voss's note, from which the stances, like 'te Consule'—under whom above is abridged, and compare Macrobius, the age of iron shall end,' &c. • Primum,' Somn. Scip. 2. 11, and Censorinus, De Die • at last ;' comp. 1. 45. Natali, c. 18. Whether this doctrine was 10.] If any reliance is to be placed on in any way connected with the Etruscan Serv.'s statement referred to on v. 4, that theory of secles, with which it might possithe Sibylline prophecy made the last of the bly be brought into some kind of harmony, ten ages the age of the sun, it is doubtless seems not easy to say, though the commen- he that is spoken of here as Apollo. tators appear to treat them together. •Ab Whether any further historical reference is integro,' *" columnam efficere ab integro," supposed-to Apollo as the reputed father Cic. Verr. 2. 1. 56. We also find • ex in- of Octavianus, for instance, must depend on tegro' and .de integro,' like .de novo.' the opinion held as to the hero of the The lengthening of 'intēgro,' though not Eclogue. See Introduction. •Tuus,' beusual, is found Lucr. l. 927, and elsewhere. cause Lucina and Diana (Eilithyia and Ar

6.] Heyne places a semicolon after temis) were identified. • Virgo. Wagn. strikes it out and adds 11.] .Tuque adeo ' are not unfrequently this note: 61 • Redit et Virgo, redeunt found together, as in G. 1. 24; Ennius, Saturnia regna' is the same thing as et Medea, fr. 14, “ Iuppiter, tuque adeo, sumVirgo et Saturnia regna redeunt.' For it is me sol, qui omnis res inspicis ;” adeo' to be observed that the repetition of a noun or here, as in other places, giving a rhetorical verb is sometimes equivalent to a repetition prominence to the word after which it is of the copula : A. 7. 327, Odit et ipse used. See G. 2. 323, A. 3. 203. pater Pluton, odere sorores Tartareae mon- 11.], Decus hoc aevi,' “this glorious strum;' 8. 91, `Labitur uncta vadis abies: age. Lucr. 2. 15, “ Qualibus in tenebris mirantur et undae, Miratur nemus insuetum vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc aevi fulgentia longe Scuta virum ;' ll. 169, quodcumque est.” Comp. also monstrum . Quin ego non alio digner te funere, Palla, mulieris," Plaut. Poen. 1. 2. 64, and deoQuam pius Aeneas, et quam magni Phryges, Tótov otúyos, Aesch. Choeph. 770. “Iniet quam Tyrrhenique duces, Tyrrhenum bit,'"commence,' as in anno ineunte,'.in. exercitus omnis ;' 12. 548, Totae adeo con- eunte aetate.' versae acies, omnesque Latini, Omnes Dar- 12.]. Magni menses,' the periods into danidae.' The preposition is repeated in which the 'magnus annus' was divided. the same way: A. 10. 313, `huic gladio See on v. 5. perque aerea suta, Per tupicam squalentem 13.] . Te duce,' under your auspices as auro, latus haurit apertum.' Virgo,' consul, giving the year its name.

SceleJustice,' who left the earth in the iron age. ris,' not general, like .fraudis,' v. 31, but G. 2. 474.

referring to the guilt of civil bloodshed. 7.] 'Nova progenies,' 'a new and better Keightley refers to Hor. 1 Od. 2. 29, “ Cui race of men.'

Gens aurea,” v. 9. With dabit partis scelus expiandi Iuppiter ?" and caelo demittitur? comp. G. 2. 385, Epod. 7. 1, “ Quo, quo scelesti ruitis ?" " Necnon Ausonii Troja gens missa Sopacatum orbem 'v. 17. coloni.”

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Inrita perpetua solvent formidine terras.
Ille deum vitam accipiet divisque videbit

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Permixtos heroas et ipse videbitur illis,
Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbem.
At tibi prima, puer, nullo munuscula cultu
Errantis hederas passim cum bacchare tellus
Mixtaque ridenti colocasia fundet acantho.

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Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae
Ubera, nec magnos metuent armenta leones.
Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores.
Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni
Occidet; Assyrium volgo nascetur amomum.

25 At simul heroum laudes et facta parentis 14.] Inrita,' in its strict sense, .by 19.] • Passim' goes with 'fundet.' What their abolition.'

now grows only in certain places will then 15.] Ille,' the 'puer' of v. 8. •Deum grow everywhere. It is doubtful what vitam, the characteristic of the golden bacchar' is : some say foxglove, others age; űOTE Dɛoi wov, Hesiod, Works, asarabacca, a creeping plant with leaves 112. Another of its privileges was that of somewhat like ivy. Colocasium' is the familiar intercourse with the gods on earth, Egyptian bean, which was introduced into Catull. 62 (64) ad fin., here expressed by Italy. • videbit.'

21.] · Ipsae,' of their own accord;' so 16.] Videbitur'expresses the reciprocal aúrós in Greek, e. g. Theocr. 11. 12. "The character of the intimacy. In Aesch. Eum. goats shall need no goatherd, and the kine 411 the Furies are said to be oőr' év Ozaior no keeper. They are to produce milk for προς θεών δρωμέναις.

thee, so lions and wolves will not approach 17.] • Patriis' of course cannot be ex- them. Comp. Hor. Epod. 16. 49, which plained without solving the riddle of the seems to be imitated either by or from Virg., Eclogue.

according to the date which we assign to its 18–25.] · Nature will do honour to the composition. babe: flowers will spring spontaneously : 23.] •Ipsa’ in the same sense as 'ipsae,' herds will come to be milked for its suste. v. 21, nullo cultu,' v. 18, No need to nance : poison will be taken out of its way.' make thee a bed of flowers. The ground

18.] The coming of the golden age will on which thou liest will of its own accord be gradual, its stages corresponding to those bring forth flowers to show its love.' in the life of the child. Thus its infancy is • Blandos' has the sense of • blandiri.' signalized by the production of natural gifts 24.] With this and the previous line and the removal of natural evils, things comp. Hor. 3 Od. 4. 17 foll. : which were partially realized even before :

“ Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis in its youth the vegetable world will actually

Dormirem et ursis, ut premerer sacra change its nature : in its manhood the

Lauroque collataque myrto, change will extend to the animals. Further,

Non sine Dis animosus infans." the particular changes would seem to be adapted to the successive requirements of The serpents and poisonous plants are rethe child. There are toys and milk for its moved for the child's sake. So in the rechildhood, which is to be specially guarded markable parallel to this whole passage in from harm; stronger food for its youth, Isaiah 11, “The sucking child shall play on which is not to be without adventure and the hole of the asp (v. 8).

* Herba military glory; quiet and prosperous luxury veneni,' poisonous herb.' • Veneni' is a for its mature age. “Munuscula,' as Keight- gen. of quality. Comp. Juv. 3. 4, “gratum ley well remarks, are gifts for children. “Non littus amoeni Secessus." • Fallax' is well invisa feres pueris munuscula parvis," Hor. illustrated by Serv. from G. 2. 152, “nec 1 Ep. 7. 17. .Nullo cultu' is a character- miseros fallunt aconita legentis." istic of the golden age. G. 1. 128. Hesiod, 25.] For “amomum' see 3. 89. Works, 118.

26–36.] 'When he advances to youth,

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