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that affects Thee? Jesus answered them thus, I fear not this cross, nor am I yet affected with the ague, but I tremble before my Heavenly Father, in contemplating what He prepares for those who shall crucify Me; and for a truth to you I speak, that whatsoever man shall hear the words I say, and shall believe them, and shall do all that I have commanded therein, prostrating himself before his Heavenly Father, he shall never suffer from the ague, nor shall he have any fear. And now, O Lord Jesus Christ, grant that of thy mercy, the ague may not afflict or trouble thy servant, and the servant of God the Father from Heaven, neither now at present, nor at any other time during his life and existence in this world, in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. So be it. Ever Amen.

TO KNOW WHETHER A SICK MAN SHALL LIVE OR DIE. $ 810. Take an egg layed on Thursday, in the house in which the sick man dwells, and write the following thereon: F G 0 G ¥ L Q ¥ S, and put it in a safe place, outside the house. On the following morning break the egg, if blood comes out of it, he will die, if not, he will live.

FOR THE DROPSY, OR HYDROPS. $ 811. Rub young swallows with saffron, and in a short time the old swallows will bring them a stone; with this stone the patient will be cured of the hydrops. HOW TO LET BLOOD SO AS TO PRESERVE A MAN'S SIGHT.

$812. Whosoever is bled in the right arm on the eighteenth day of March, and the 20th day of the month of April, in the left arm, will never be blind, for it has been often proved.

FOR WARTS. $

813. Wash the warts with the water from a font in which the seventh son of the same man and wife is baptized. A WAY IN WHICH A THING CAN BE SEEN, WHICH IS INVISIBLE

TO OTHERS, $ 814. Take the gall of a cat, and a hen's fat, mixing them together. Put this in your eyes, and you will see things which are invisible to others.

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TO ENABLE A MAN TO HOLD FIRE IN HIS HAND. $ 815. Take marsh mallows, and the white of two eggs, anoint your hands therewith, mixed together; then cover your hands with powdered alum, and you may handle fire without harm, or hold fire and hot iron in your hand without fear.

A SNAKE'S SKIN. The following are the twelve characteristics of a snake's skin, which Alphibam testifies of, and states to be true and effectual to those that use it. I have translated them out of the Arabic to Latin, and from Latin to Cymraeg also.

When the moon is in her first increase, under the sign called Aries, or the Ram, which falls about the middle of the month of March, on the third day of the Calends of April, when the first seed under this sign are formed, then burn the skin of a snake, which has been cast in the time of harvest. Take the ashes, and keep them carefully, for they are the most precious application which any human tongue can order. Let the first instance at hand suffice : whosoever has a fresh wound, let him cover it with a little of this ash, and it will heal it in three days.

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Here follows a list of the names of the herbs, fruits, and vegetable substances, which every Physician ought to know and use, in order to heal wounds and diseases in the human body.*

The above herbs and plants, that is to say, as many as possible of them, ought to be grown by every Physician in his garden and orchards, in a plot of good land, sheltered, and facing the sun, that they might be at hand when there is need and occasion for them.

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* As the names are also given in Latin, and the English Synonymes are not properly translations of the Welsh terms, it has not been considered necessary to insert the list in this place. The reader is referred to page 281.

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Two pans,

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. The following exhibits the weights and measures, which every Physician should employ, so that he may know certainly what proportions to use, when necessary. Weights and measures of propor- Four cupfulls make one quart. tion.

Four quarts make one gallon. xx grains of wheat make one Four gallons make one pailful. scruple.

Four pailfulls make one grenn.t

Four grenns make one mydd. iii scruples make one dram. Four mydds make one myddi (or

hogshead.) piij drams make one ounce.

Even so are fluid and liquid ounces make one pound.

measures arranged. And thus are they written in the The following are other measures

noted by Physicians :Books of Physicians.*

Two eggshellfulls make half a pan. A grain thus

Two halfpans, a pan. A scruple thus

a phioled. A dram thus 3

Two phioleds, a cupful.

Two cupfulls, a quart. An ounce thus ?

All the measures of solids and A pound thus S

fluids should be of warranted And thus are they arranged in weight and measure, so that they accordance with these characters, formation, in order that the me

may afford warranted and just inXX

dicines administered to the sick

may neither be ineffective nor iij to

poisonous, and that every dose

may be of the proportion intended. uiij s to }

The following are conjectural xij i to s } S

measures, dependent upon the

Physician's judgment. Fluid or liquid measures are

Four grains of wheat, one pea. arranged thus. Four podfulls make one spoonful. Four acorns, one pigeon's egg. Four spoonfulls make one egg - Four pigeon's eggs, one hen's egg. shellful.

Four hen's eggs, one goose's egg. Four eggshellfulls make one cup

Four goose's eggs,

one swan's ful.

egg

G to e

Four peas,

one acorn.

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of " A large earthen vessel." W.0. P.

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USEFUL THINGS. The following are things useful to be known by every

Physician, and head of a family even :INFUSION. Pouring water or other ESSENCE. An amorphous or odo

fluid in a boiling state upon riferous substance, which may herbs, or whatever other in- be taken in a draught by

gredient that may be required. mouth, or injected into the DECOCTION. Boiling the herbs or

nostrils, head,* rectum, or ingredients in the water or

other part. fluid required.

ELECTUARY. Substances incorPottage OR PORRIDGE. Pouring porated into a dough so as to boiling or cold water, or other

be eaten.

The disposition fluid such as may be required ContsITUTION. upon the herbs or other ingre

which is in a man, or other dients, leaving them to stand,

living being, or herb, or other then straining under a press.

matter; being their virtue, inSoakage. Pouring cold or boiling Pills. Incorporated medical sub

herent property, or nature. water, or other fluid on any

stances, formed into small substance capable of being in

balls so as to be taken at a fluenced thereby, so become incorporated with

gulp.

Batu.An infusion or decoction what is poured thereupon.

in which the patient or his CONFECTION. Fluids mixed with limb is to be put.

powders or other substances FoMENTATION. To be applied as capable of being administered

a wash to a hurt, whether hot as a draught.

as to

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or cold, as may be wanted. Potion. A draught or fluid pre- REGIMEN. The food and drink as pared according to art.

regulated by medical advice.

* External ear, + This word (ennaint) is improperly rendered “ointment

of Geraint ab Erbin.

99

in the Mabinogi

THE ESSENTIALS OF A PHYSICIAN. These things should be in the possession of a Physician : and then follow the characteristics which should distinguish him, which are called the Essentials of a Physician.

i. A lancet to bleed or open an abscess, also a knife somewhat larger.

ij. A steel or silver spatula to spread plaster.

iij. A pipe and bladder in order to inject to the urinary organs or rectum.

iiij. His plasters, his ointments, his pills, his powders, his potions, carefully preserved to meet any demand and occasion.

1. A garden of trees and herbs, where such herbs, shrubs, and trees, as do not everywhere grow naturally, may be kept cultivated, and where foreign trees and plants, which require shelter and culture before they will thrive in Wales, may be grown.

uj. He should also have his dry herbs, roots, seeds, and barks kept at hand, so that they may be had in winter, and other times when they are not to be obtained growing, or above ground.

vij. He should also have at hand, his honey, his wax, his pitch, his rosin, his gums, his oil, his tallow, his grease, his lard, his marble slab, his ale, his wine, his mead, his distillations, and other articles as may be required.

viij. He should also have at hand his mortars, his strainer, his press, his stone ware, his glass ware, his wooden vessels, his fire utensils, and his vessels for keeping articles, whether of glass, earthen, or silver, with good covers, so that the drugs may not become inert, or poisonous from want of keeping, carelessness, or ignorance.

ir. He should also have weights and balances at hand, either of silver or tin, so that nothing deleterious might get into the drugs. All his liquid or fluid measures should also be made of silver or tin, for the same reason. Likewise his surgical instruments generally, with the exception of lancets, cutting scalpels, and probing needles.

I. All his weights and measures, whether of solids or of liquids, should be of warranted weight and capacity, that he may be certain of the proportions of all ingredients, so that he may neither exceed or come short of the quantity required, as this would render the remedy either inert or poisonous.

rj. He should also have his warranted Books of Art authorized by a master, so that he may be cunning in the judgment and science of the wise and skilful Physicians who have preceded him, and who have written with authority in the Cymraeg, the Latin, and the Arabic.

xij. He should be also declared competent to practice by authority of the wise and learned masters of the art.

xiij. He should be a kind man, gentle, mild, meek, intelligent, wise, and gentlemanly in act and deed, in word and conduct, being careful not to shame those whom he has to examine, particularly when he has to examine women.

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