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Leporem sectatus equove] There is some confusion raised in this long sentence by the introduction of the words 'pete cedentem aëra disco.' Horace means at first to say, "When you have tired yourself with hunting the hare, with riding an unbroken horse, or (supposing the rougher sports are too much for you) with ball-play or throwing the discus, and are dry and hungry, then see if you will despise the commonest food, and call for rich mulsum.” Instead of which he says: "After hunting the hare or wearying yourself with riding, or if (supposing you are only accustomed to Greek sports, and the Roman are too much for you) ball-play occupies you or the discus, then throw the discus; but when fatigue shall have banished fastidiousness, and you are dry and hungry, then see if," etc.

10. Romana-Militia] This is a way of expressing Roman sports.

11. seu pila velox] The ball-play, which was so common an a usement in one shape or other among the Romans, was introduced from Greece, though the Romans had varieties perhaps of their own invention.

13. Seu te discus agit,] The throwing of the discus likewise was of Greek origin, and belonged to the heroic age. It had no resemblance to the quoit, by which name it is sometimes rendered, but was a round flat plate of metal or stone, sometimes nearly a foot in diameter.

14. Cum labor extuderit] 'Extundo' is nowhere else used in this sense, but it is a very apt word for the occasion. Hunger beating fastidiousness out of a man represents the power of the one, and the contemptible character of the other, very well.

15. nisi Hymettia mella Falerno] This constituted the drink called 'mulsum,' oivóuede, which was commonly drunk at the preparatory course called 'gustus' or 'promulsis' (see S. i. 3. 6, n.), the former name being taken from the dishes that were eaten as a whet to the appetite, and the latter from the mulsum that was taken with them. The use of the strong Falernian wine for this mixture, in which the usual proportion was four of wine to one of honey, is condemned below, S. 4. 25.

16. promus] This was one of the ‘ordinarii' or upper domestic slaves, whose duty it was to take charge of the wine-cellar and larder. He was hence called 'cellarius,' also 'procurator peni,' 'steward of the provisions.' Another name he bore was 'condus,' because he had to take into store ('condere ') the provisions that were left or brought in for consumption; and, as the same person who locked up also took out the provisions (promere '), both names were united in one, conduspromus.'

17. hiemat mare:] Hiemat' is copied from the Greek yeuaČeтaι.

18. Latrantem stomachum] Compare 'iratum ventrem' (S. ii. 8. 5). A hungry man is vulgarly said to "have a wolf in his belly," to this day. 19. Qui partum? The subject is only to be gathered from the context. 'Whence do you suppose this appetite springs, or how is it obtained ?’

20. pulmentaria quaere] The Scholiasts tell us a story of Socrates, that, when he was taking a long walk, he accounted for his activity by saying ovov σvváyw, 'I am getting sauce for my dinner.' See Epp i. 18. 48.

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21. ostrea Nec scarus] These were all served up with the 'gustus,' to stir up the appetite. Oysters were eaten raw or dressed. The 'scarus was a fish not known in these days. It was rare, even among the Romans, and imported from the Egean Sea. Martial says it was good for the stomach, but of poor flavor. The 'lagois' is described by the Scholiast as 'a bird of the color of a hare'; beyond which we know nothing about it. 'Ostrea' is here used as a dissyllable. Of the other things of which the 'promulsis' usually consisted, some are given below (S. 8. 8, sq.). The peacock was a dish lately introduced when Horace wrote.

23. posito pavone] Ponere,' for putting on the table, occurs below (S. 4. 14).

24. tergere palatum,]

To wipe the palate,' is a novel expression. 25. vanis rerum,] See C. iv. 12. 19, n. 28. Cocto num adest]

The 'm' is pronounced with the following word, as

is common in Terence. 30. deceptum te petere!] The infinitive 'petere' expresses a feeling of indignation. This infinitive is dependent on some such phrase as credendum est.' The sense is as follows: "To think that, although in the quality of. the flesh there is no difference, you should prefer the pea-fowl to the other, deluded by the superiority of its beauty." Hac' refers not to the bird last mentioned, but to that which the speaker prefers, or is defending; just as we have 'his' and 'illis' changing places below (36. 37).

31. Unde datum sentis] The sentence goes on thus: Be it so grant that you may be taken in by the eye, in the matter of the bird with a fine tail; but what sense can tell you whether such and such a fish was caught in the Tiber or in the open sea, between the bridges or at the mouth of the river?" This is not a very well chosen question. That part of the river which is meant by 'inter pontes' lay between the Pons Fabricius, which joined the Insula Tiberina with the left bank, and the Pons Sublicius, and between these bridges the Cloaca Maxima emptied itself. Here the stream was more than usually rapid, and jactatus,' tossed,' expresses this. It would not require a very keen epicure to distinguish a fish caught in those waters; and the fish taken at sea, if it was the same fish, would be out of season and coarse. The 'lupus' is said to have been of the pike kind.

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33. Ostia sub Tusci?] Sub' with the accusative, in phrases of place, seems to have the meaning it has in phrases of time, immediately after' (see Epod. ii. 44, n.); so that ‘sub ostia' would be immediately on entering the mouth.' But it usually in these phrases follows a verb of motion, and means 'close up to'; and if it be so understood here, the verb of motion must be supplied, as you approach close up to.' The Tiber is called Tuscus amnis,' as (C. i. 20. 5) it is said to be Mæcenas's 'paternum flumen,' because it rises in Etruria.

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34. Mullum] The mullet was a fish in high estimation for a great number of years. Martial speaks of one of two pounds as the least that should be put upon a fine dish. This, Pliny says, was a size it rarely exceeded. Juvenal tells a story of a man who bought a mullet of six pounds, at a thousand sesterces for each pound (iv. 15). The bearded mullet, as it was called, was held in highest esteem. Horace says the man is mad to admire a mullet of three pounds, since to be served up it must be divided into as many separate dishes (see Epp. i. 18. 48, n.).

36. Quia scilicet illis] 'Illis' does not refer to the more remote object here, but to the nearer, as in v. 29 (see note). His' refers to the mullet.

40. At vos, Praesentes Austri,] 'Now may ye, O potent south-winds.' 'At' is a particle of exclamation, when a sudden emotion is expressed, as mentioned above (Epod. v. 1). The winds are invoked as deities. As to 'praesens' in this application, see C. i. 35. 2.

41. quamquam] Though I need not invoke your help; for the boar and the fresh turbot lose their flavor, when the stomach is gorged and seeks stimulants.'

42. rhombus] This fish, if it was the turbot, was not less esteemed by the Romans than by ourselves. The finest were caught in the Hadriatic, near Ravenna, whence the fish that caused such a sensation in Juvenal's story (iv. 37, sqq.) he calls "Hadriaci spatium admirabile rhombi." But it is not certain that we know what fish is meant by the rhombus.' Respecting rapula' and inulae,' see below, S. 8. 51. On the use of eggs at the promulsis,' see Si. 3. 6. The sense in which Horace uses the words 'pauper' and 'rex' is nowhere more marked than here (see C. i. 1. 18, and C. i. 4. 14).

47. Galloni praeconis erat acipensere] This person, who lived in the time of Lucilius and was noticed by him, is said to have introduced the 'acipenser,' which fish is said to be a sturgeon. In respect to 'praeconis,' see S. i. 6. 86, n.

50. auctor docuit praetorius.] It is said one Rufus was the first to bring into fashion the eating of young storks. When he lived, it is impossible to say. He must have served the office of prætor, from the epithet Horace gives him. The stork went out of fashion, as Ofella predicts; and though gulls did not take its place, cranes came into vogue. See S. ii. 8. 87. As to ' auctor,' see C. i. 28. 14, n. The word 'edixerit' is a play upon the 'edictum' of the 'praetor.'

52. pravi docilis] Ever ready to learn what is bad.' The construction is like 'docilis modorum,' in C. iv. 6. 43. 'Pravus' signifies crooked,' as opposed to 'rectus,' 'straight'; and so 'pravum detorseris,' below (v. 55), is literally turn yourself awry.' 'Pravis talis' (S. i. 3. 48) are 'crooked


53. Sordidus a tenui] Horace goes on to show that moderation is not meanness, and that propriety lies in a middle course.

55. Avidienus,] This man was a miser, but nothing more is known of him. He was a dirty dog,' and so the name Canis was properly applied to him.

58. defundere] 'Diffundere' means, as mentioned before, to draw wine from the dolium' into the amphora,' 'testa,' or 'cadus,' (all the same kind of vessel,) in which it was kept till it was fit to drink. When poured thence into the crater,' to be mixed for drinking, it was said to be 'defusum.' This miser's wine was of a poor kind, probably not fit to be bottled in the first instance, but only to be drunk from the 'dolium.' He bottled it, and did not produce it for consumption till it was turned ('mutatum ').

59. licebit Ille repotia] On licebit,' see Epod. xv. 19. Repotia' was a 'coena' sometimes given, the day after marriage, by the husband. I am not aware that any explanation of the custom is to be met with. The marriagedinner was given by the husband. As that was usually a scene of nothing but unrestrained merriment, perhaps the religious ceremonies, required properly to inaugurate the new life of the married couple, and to propitiate the Penates and Lares, were usually deferred to this day; and the sobriety of the 'repotia' was probably designed to make amends for the license of the coena nuptialis.' The Romans observed their birthdays with religious accuracy. See note on C. iv. 11. 8.

61. albatus] They took care on every holiday to have their togas especially clean. The ordinary toga was not dyed. The natural whiteness of the wool was increased by the process of cleaning, in which it was rubbed with different kinds of fuller's earth (creta fullonis'), and also exposed to steams of sulphur, which removed stains of any kind. 'Albatus,' therefore, signifies in a toga which has just come from the 'fullo.' It was usual for persons who were canvassing for offices to have their toga unusually whitened with an extra supply of creta,' whence they were called 'candidati.'

cornu ipse bilibri] The cornu' was the horn vessel in which the oil was kept. Instead of having a cruet or small vessel suited to the dinner-table, such as wealthy people usually had of silver and others of cheaper material, he would bring down the big horn, and with his own hand (ipse'), lest others should be too liberal, drop the smallest quantity of oil upon the cabbage, while of his old vinegar, which would turn his guests, if he had any, from the dish, he was free enough.

64. aiunt.] Tò λeyouevov, as the saying is.' It was perhaps a common proverb to express a dilemma, though not now met with elsewhere.

65. Mundus erit qua non] A man will be decent so far as ('qua') he

does not offend by meanness, and is on neither hand sordid in his way of living.'

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67. Albuti senis] See S. ii. 1. 48, n. The Scholiasts say the savage old man used to flog his slaves before they did wrong, "because," said he, "when you do wrong I may not be at leisure to flog you." Dido,' to distribute,' is different in sense and etymology from divido.' The latter is connected with 'iduo,' 'idus' (C. iv. 11. 16, n.), the former with 'do.' 'Dido' is commonly used by Lucretius.

68. ut simplex Naevius] Of Nævius nothing is known. 'Simplex' is ironical. A story is told by Plutarch, in his Life of Julius Cæsar (c. 17), of Valerius Leo, who put before the dictator some asparagus covered with ointment instead of oil. Such simplicity,' amounting to an indifference to the decencies of life, and a want of consideration for others, which some people almost look upon as a virtue, Horace very properly describes as a great vice.

70. Accipe nunc] Horace now goes on to show the advantage of moderate living, especially as connected with health.

73. Quae simplex olim tibi sederit;] Which, before you mixed it with other things (while it was 'simplex'), remained quiet upon your stomach.' 76. Lenta pituita. The tough mucus secreted by the intestines. The first and third syllables of pituita' are long; the second, therefore, here coalesces with the third.


77. Coena -dubia?] This expression is copied from Terence, and means such a good dinner that you cannot tell what to eat first. Phorm. ii. 2. 28. 79. Atque affigit humo] Debauchery not only affects the body, but depresses the spirit, and unfits it for the duties of life. The expression ‘affigit humo' reminds us of the words of David, "My soul cleaveth to the ground." The same sense, though in a different connection, is conveyed by Cicero's words (De Senect. c. xxi.): "Est enim animus caelestis ex altissimo domicilio depressus et quasi demersus in terram, locum divinae naturae aeternitatique contrarium," which serves also to illustrate 'divinae particulam aurae.' This expression may have been taken from some old writer.

82. ad melius poterit transcurrere] May betake himself to better fare.' As to quondam,' see C. ii. 10. 17, n.

87. mollitiem,] Indulgence,' which, as applied to youth, must be understood in a bad sense; but to age or sickness in a good, as that which infirmity or disease requires.

89. Rancidum aprum] What Horace means to say is, that their hospitable forefathers, rather than eat their boar by themselves, while it was fresh, would keep it till it was high, in case a stranger should drop in to eat of it with them. 93. tellus me prima] See S. i. 3. 99.

94. Das aliquid famae] I suppose you allow something to good report, seeing that more welcome than music it comes to the ear of man. If so (he goes on), consider that these luxuries are as discreditable as they are noxious. Also, they leave you without friends, and will bring you to penury.'

95. patinaeque The patina' was a covered dish in which meats were brought in hot from the kitchen. Patruus' was as proverbial a name for tyranny on the male side of the family, as 'noverca' on the female. See C. iii. 12. 3. S. ii. 3. 87.

99. As laquei pretium.] This was a proverb, or became so after Horace. Jure, inquit, Trausius] The glutton is supposed to answer, This sort of language is suited to Trausius: but to one who is as rich as I am, it does not apply. Of Trausius the spendthrift, nothing is known. All we have to infer is, that he lived profusely upon small means, and ruined himself, which e speaker considers himself too rich ever to do. Vectigalia' is used for a private fortune, in C. iii. 16. 40. Its use is appropriate here, in connection with 'regibus.'

101. Ergo Quod superat] 'But if you have more than you want, cannot you find better objects to spend it on?'

103. indignus] This has the same sense as 'immeritus' (C iii. 6. 1, and elsewhere), 'innocent.' Forcell. gives other examples. As to the state of the temples and their restoration, see C. ii. 15, Introduction, and note on C. iii. 6. 1.

106. Uni nimirum] "He hath said in his heart, I shall not be moved, for I shall never be in adversity" (Ps. x. 6), is very like the argument Horace puts in his rich man's mouth, the man whose fortune was large enough for three kings. He argues that he is so rich that he never can be otherwise. As to 'nimirum,' see Epp. i. 9. 1, n.

107. Uterne Ád casus dubios]

compare C. iv. 9. 36.

On 'ne,' see S. i. 10. 21, and with 'dubios'

111. aptarit] Has fitted on his armor,' as it were.

112. Quo magis his credas,] He brings forward Ofella, as an instance, in particular, of the way in which a man who has been frugal in prosperity can meet the reverses of fortune.

113. latius] This word is used as 'angustius' in the opposite sense. It means more profusely.' I am not aware that it is so used anywhere else. 'Metato in agello' is the farm which has been marked out by the public surveyor ('metator'), and assigned to Umbrenus. (See Introduction.) This participle is used passively in C. ii. 15. 15. Fortem' has been explained in the note on C. S. 58, and for 'colonum,' see C. ii. 14. 12, n. As colonum' signifies a tenant, mercede' ('rent') is only added to give additional force to the contrast. It makes rather a clumsy sentence. Farms were held either on payment of rent, or of a certain part of the produce of the land; but 'merces' could not mean the latter. A 'colonus who held on the latter terms, was called 'partiarius.' 'Temere' signifies that which is done without consideration, because habitually done.

116. luce profesta] 'Profesti dies were working-days, as opposed to 'festi' or 'feriati' (S. 3. 144, sq.). Profestis' is opposed to 'sacris in C. iv. 15. 25. 119. operum vacuo] Compare C. iii. 17. 16, operum solutis," and A. P. 212, "liberque laborum."

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120. bene erat] We made ourselves happy.' See C. iii. 16. 43. 122. cum duplice ficu.] Some take this for a large coarse kind of fig ('marisca'), double the size of an ordinary one. Others take it for a fig split in two, and so dried. It is possible Horace may mean two figs.

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123. Post hoc ludus erat] "After this we amused ourselves by drinking with 'culpa' for our magister,' or 'rex bibendi,' σvμñoσíaрxos" (C. i. 4. 18, n.). It appears that they agreed between themselves as to some mode of drinking, and established a penalty for the transgression of it, which transgression ('culpa') was to do that which at drinking parties, where a president was appointed, he might do arbitrarily; that is, either mulet a guest of a cup of wine, or make him drink an extra cup, or anything else he chose, as a fine for misbehavior. In short, Ofella means it was a quiet and primitive sort of way of proceeding, unlike the new fashion introduced from Greece, and followed in fine houses, of having a symposiarch to preside (S. ii. 6. 69, n.).

124. Ac venerata Ceres ita] On this use of 'veneror,' see C. S. 49, n 'Ita' introduces the object of the prayer. It is usually followed by 'ut' introducing a condition. But as with 'sic,' that is not always the case. note on C. i. 3. 1.


127. parcius-nituistis] 'Have ye been in worse condition, less sleek and fat?' Ut,' 'ever since,' as "Ut tetigi Pontum vexant insomnia" (Ovid, Trist. iii. 8. 27). Propriae' signifies one's own in perpetuity, as below (v. 134), erit nulli proprius "; and S. ii. 6. 5. Aen. (í. 73); “Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo.”

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