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with all countries, and be every where free, and every where enjoy her privileges, on which confideration his highne's is permitted, whenever the whim shall take him, to add folly to folly, and guinea to guinea, anté fub-anté per-anté, without intermiffion, diminution, or interrogation, except when his jaw wags; therefore on thefe conditions, and in reward of his valour, we have affigned, and do affign on our fields of Mars, the fpoils which he fhall himself take from the enemies of France, for which no man fhall make him accountable: granted and detired on behalf of his highness.
At Dijon 'tis done in broad day, not by stealth, The prince being prefent, we drink to his
In one thousand fix hundred, one fix and one twenty,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
IN your number of the prefent month,
page 295, a correfpondent fuggests a variety of interesting enquiries, connected with the ftate of the poor and the ignorant, and which refpect the general interefts of fociety: that particular one, which regards circulating libraries in villages, and which has no doubt for its object the more extenfive diffusion of useful knowledge, will receive, I hope, as for the benefit of fociety it fhould, a negative reply the establishment of such libraries would require more encouragement than villages in general afford; but if practicable, the date of their opening would mark the beginning of that gradual corruption which muft neceffarily follow. If the mental conftitution of a
Where fools it is plain, are affembled in large town, with all the advantages of
Would it not be a confiderable recommendation to a Gazetteer, if the proper pronunciation of the German, French, Italian, &c. names of places were given.
There are many gentlemen in the country, who are fond of reading, and particularly of Geography, but who from their little intercourfe with the commercial and well-informed part of fociety, åre almost afraid to mention the names of places, and fometimes feel embarraffed if required to read a news-paper in a mixed company. A perfon may have a pretty good claffical education and yet, being ignorant of the continental languages, be entirely at a lofs for the pronunciation of many words he may meet with in almoft every page of Geography.
Should any gentleman, properly qualified, undertake a work of the above defcription, I have no doubt of his meeting with liberal encouragement from the public.
By fubmitting the above to your literary correfpondents, you will much oblige your conftant reader, May 4, 1799.
education, habit and exercise, can with difficulty refift the baneful effects of that poifon which lurks almoft invariably, in every corner of a circulating library, what havock would it not make in the country!
Inftead of a circulating library, under the direction of an interested individual, whofe immediate intereft, and the real advantage of his readers might be very different, fomething of a public nature ought to be attempted, wherein proper attention would be paid to the choice of books-to the total exclufion of fuch as might have a tendency to inflame the paffions or corrupt the heart-and the admiffion of thofe, that might make us better men, better chriftians, and better citizens, In a mountainous part of the south of Scotland, where I was occafionally laft December, I difcovered one of the best inftitutions. of this kind, that ever occurred to me-of great ufefulness and general practicability. Wanlockhead, the refidence of lead-miners, is excluded from the furrounding country, by high and steep hills with which it is encircled: its infulated fituation, together with the fpirit of investigation, for which its inhabitants have been long remarkable, taught them to feek refources for amufement and in formation within themselves; and a pub. lic library under proper regulations was established. A liberal donation of feveral valuable volumes, by one of the proprietors of the works, laid the foundation of their prefent valuable collection of books in hiftory, philofophy, mathematics and general literature ; a very triAling contribution from every subscriber, perhaps monthly, or every quarter, has
by proper management enfured thefe contented and industrious miners, fources of rational and manly entertainment, and diftinguished them by their general knowledge; fkill in their particular occupation; urbanity, public fpirit and fobriety, in which they have feldom been exceeded.
Another enquiry of your correfpondent, is, in what towns friendly focieties are eftablished for the relief of the poor?
One of this defcription, on a very liberal principle, was formed in the fummer of ninety feven, "for the relief of the friendless poor and fick in Newcastle upon Tyne and its vicinity"- the mental darkness as well as the bodily diftrefs, of multitudes who had no legal claim on parochial funds, or to whofe neceflities, even their proportion of thefe, was inadequate, excited the commiferation of the humane; the cup of admonition and reproof, the produce of the gospel vintage, has accordingly been fuccessfully mingled with the cordial of prefent relief; the fuccefs of this two-fold object, and the fupport of the public, have hitherto exceeded the moft fanguine expectations of the affociation; indeed men, devoting a part of their time and fubftance to the relief of fuffering indigence, from a principle of pure, difinterested benevolence, have a tronger claim upon public confidence, and public fupport, than the selfish and unfeelling will in general allow. May 16, 1799. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
A Correfpondent, lant of Brave your readers an account of Bristol--I fend you, Mr. Editor, by way of appendix to it, if you please, a fhort statement of those places and things, in its neighbourhood, moft deferving the notice of a stranger. In doing which, I fhall vifit every point of the compafs, juft as it may happen, and may be this minute ten, the next, twenty, miles diftant from my starting place. As my readers are to attend me in these fudden excurfions, I am afraid of their becoming weary; and fhall therefore pick up every thing by the way, I poffibly can, to amuse them.
St. Vincent's Rocks, whether we confider their magnitude or romantic beauty, certainly deserve to be first mentioned. Thefe evidently feem from their configurations to have once joined and poffibly were feparated from each other by fome great convulfion of nature. The chafin between them, through which the Avon flows, no where much exceeds one hundred
and fifty yards in breadth. Formerly this river is fuppofed to have had its courfe through the town of Weftbury, a place two miles diftant from St. Vincent's. Veftiges of fome ancient river, full as large as the Avon, are certainly traceable from Westbury, to a place near the Severn: the only reprefentative of it, however, which now remains, is an inconfiderable ftream known by the name of Trim.
An old fabulous ftory exifts in these parts, which may ferve to give some flight fupport to this opinion of the Avon's having changed its courfe. It is concerning two giants-one of whom lived at Weftbury, and the other at St. Vincent's. A quarrel taking place between them, the giant of St. Vincent's fevered the rocks afunder, for the purpose of taking away the other's river: this malicious fcheme fucceeded but too well, and Westbury has remained riverless ever fince. A large excavation, alfo, in these rocks goes to this day by the name of the Giant's hole.
All the Clifton fide of the river, for a long way, is devoid of trees and verdure; except in a few places, where a stem of ivy creeping up the rocks, accidently diverfifies their grey and barren appearance. On the other fide of the river their fummits and partly their fides are covered with a thick wood, in whose lofty receffes is a celebrated cave. Here it is not unusual, of a fine fummer's evening, for a band of musicians to affemble by torchlight, for the purpose of a concert; at which time, all the oppofite fide is covered with an attentive crowd of both fexes, who look among the shapeless
rocks, like fo many Thracians: Orpheus however never played fo fweetly!-The
mufic wafted over the water, and multi
plied by the numberless echos of the rocks, is truly enchanting.
To an obferver on the Clifton fide of
the river, the oppofite woods in fummer prefent a moft charming appearance: they contain almoft every foreft-tree indigenous to this country; among which the broadleaved fycamore, the majestic oak, the fombre yew, the graceful mountain-afh, the fprightly box, and adventurous forb; together with many others, are distinctly feen blending their hues together; and and exuberance is fcarcely to be equalled. forming a fcene of foliage, that for variety If we add to this the contrafted view of the neighbouring rocks, with the Avon winding at their bafe, the whole becomes truly beautiful and magnificent. Quis non malarum, quas amor curas habet, Inter hæc oblivifcitur!
almost every species of mofs and lichen; The botanist will find in thefe parts, together with a great affemblage of plants: geranium fanguineum ;-- found native in among which, is that delicate one, called no other part of the kingdom*. This plant is diftinguishable by a weak branchy talk, about a foot high; ornamented with divided leaves of five trifid lobes, having red or purple flowers, rising from the fide of the branches---one upon each foot talk. Some varieties of this plant have variegated flowers, and deep jagged leaves.
In these woods, nearly oppofite Clifton, particularly ferruginous, they approach, are the remains of a Roman castra stativa; which, according to the mode of defence one fpecimen, which is carefully preferved in colour, towards the topaz ;-and in and attack in those days, must have been in the cabinet of a virtuofo, at Bristol, remarkably ftrong. Behind, it is defended the cryftals are of a ruby colour :---this is by the river, and natural inacceffibility of owing to minerallized gold; a confiderable the rock, on which it ftands;-on one quantity of which, in a virgin itate, is hand is a valley, whofe fides are fteep and obfervable, scattered over the bed of the lofty; on the other, the ground is alfo cryftals. difadvantageoufly hilly; fo that it could be affaulted only in front. Here we find, the Romans had raised a triple fortification. The two exterior ramparts are aggera, or mounds of earth thrown out of the ditches; the third is by much the largeft, and feems to have been the chief defence of the ftation. This, as appears from the prefent ruins, mult have been a wall of confiderable height and thicknefs. The mortar, by which the ftones are cemented together, is formed without any mixture of land-for it is perfectly white, and even now, nearly as hard as the stone it envelopes; though it has been expofed for fixteen hundred years at least, to the decompounding effect of wind and weather. All the rocks here are formed of exquifite lime-ftone, and fupply from an inexhaustible fund, every want of the neighbouring cultivator and builder. workmen, who dig them, defcend over the The precipices, by means of ropes, but, with their best precautions, fometimes meet with accidents as they hang fufpended at their "perilous toil," fenfibility often turns her head afide, and fhudders for their fafety. To walk much on the fide of the river beneath, however inviting the appearance, is not advifeable, as great portions of rock are frequently diflodged, and feattered in all directions. Maffes of ftone, on thefe occafions, larger than any among our druidical remains, are fometimes feen whirled from an eminence of feventy or eighty yards.
Both the fofilift and botanist may find ample amufement in a ramble about St. Vincent's; but they should beware of its numberless smooth and tempting paths as a falfe ftep may precipitate the careless adventurerer down one hundred yards of perpendicular defcent: which was the cafe fome years ago, with a Scotch nobleman.
The petrefactions found here, are chiefly American fern, various kinds of bivalves and belemnites. The rock cryftals, alfo, are the hardest and brightest that this country produces; and for that reafon are called Bristol diamonds. their colour, refemble amethyfts on acSome, in count of the manganese which enters into their cryftallization;-where the bed is MONTHLY MAG. No. XLVI.
road to Wales, is the unfortunate cavern About five miles from Briftol, on the called Pen-park-hole; where a clergyman fome years ago loft his life. This fubterraneous place was first attempted to be explored in the year 1669, by one Captain Sturmy. In the courfe of his researches, or ghost of the place. Not liking his he faw, or thought he faw, the loci genius, companion, or thinking perhaps his prefence any longer would be an intrufion, he made fignals to be withdrawn; leaving to fome future adventurer the honour of finding out its dimenfions. Of this unpleasant rencounter he is fuppofed to have died; as he furvived it but a fortnight.
named Collins, refolved, in fpite of the
apertures above, and as they are partly
Park is a confpicuous place, called Blaze-
*It is found in North Wales.-Edit.
building, though a fanciful appendage to the pleasure-grounds of a private gentleman, is yet in fize very confiderable, and, at a distance, makes a formidable appearance. The eftate, thus defended by the caftle, and a train of artillery, belongs to a Quaker!
At Kings-Wefton, one mile from the laft mentioned place, is a fuperb houfe, belonging to Lord de CLIFFORD, built by Sir John Vanburg. This is a ftriking monument of the architect's tafte; which Sir Joshua Reynolds has refcued in fo honourable a manner from the temporary difcredit into which certain wits, at the beginning of the prefent century, had brought it by their false and malicious criticifms. In this building, parts, which in general architects with to hide, are made peculiarly ornamental; for the chimneys rifing boldly from the centre of the house, form a fquare arcade at top, and give to the whole a light and pleafing appearance. Few noblemen's feats contain fo valuable a collection of origi. nal paintings: they are chiefly felected from the Italian, Venetian, and Flemish fchools. The house, with the park and gardens, laid out in the firft ftile of elegance, may be seen every day in the week.
About fifteen miles from Bristol is Pearcefield, fituated on the banks of the Wye, and esteemed one of the most charming and romantic fpots in the kingdom. It is generally vifited by strangers, who come to the neighbouring parts; but is to be seen only twice in the week, on Thursday and Saturday,
Caer-Went, three miles beyond the New-paffage, and about thirteen from Bristol, is a place well deferving the notice of the antiquary; where are to be feen the remains of the ancient city of Venta. This was built by the Romans, whofe military works are ftill diícoverable fcattered about the modern village, which stands on its feite. About twenty years ago, as the vicar of the parish was digging a well in his garden, he lit upon a Mofaic pavement, in high perfection. The arrangement of the ftones, which were about three quarters of an inch fquare, and variously diverfified in colour, was full of elegance; and fhew to what a degree thofe old warriors united the refinements of art with the labours of war. If a little of the mania exploratoria, which actuated the French at Herculaneum, were to feize fome of our fober Countrymen, there is little doubt, but many valuable remains of antiquity might
be discovered in this ancient capital of the Silures.
But I turn from the ruins of antiquity to vifit again the beauties of nature. About ten miles from Bristol, in an oppofite direction to the last mentioned place, is Brockley-Coomb. This is a deep, rocky, vale, running tranfverfely into the fide of an immenfe hill, and forming the cooleft, and moft fequeftered fummer's retreat imaginable. The trees here are of the largeft growth, and promifcuoufly fcattered as they are by the capricious but graceful hand of nature, they mix with the rude fcenery around a confiderable portion of the beautiful. About the fides of this valley are feen maffes of rock, jutting out above the ftatelieft trees; yet fuftaining others of equal growth above: fo that the traveller, who vifits this place, as he winds along, is apprchenfive every moment for his fafety; and the more fo, on account of the numberlefs and perpetually augmenting ruins which ftrew his path. On the front of a neat cottage, in this valley, is the following infcription:
Lenis virorum non humiles domos Faftidit, umbrofamque ripam, Non Zephyris agitata Tempe.Agitated by Zephyr, or Boreas, he muft have pretty good nerves who could fleep pleasantly in fuch a fituation as this.
Cheddar, a place ten miles diftant from Brockley, and eighteen from Bristol, can boaft, perhaps, of one of the finest pieces of rock fcenery in the kingdom. It confifts in a winding vale, about a mile and a half long, of no very confiderable breadth, but whofe fides, in many places, are one hundred and thirty yards in perpendicular height. A fragment, standing by itself in one part, deferves notice: it is an immense lamina, about twenty yards high, as many broad, and three or four thick. In the fchifm that took place at the formation of the valley, this tion of rock feems to have ftood neuter between both parties, independently rooted to its original bed.
At one end of thefe rocks are fituated a number of cottages, inhabited by aged perfons who partly live by fhewing a fubterraneous paffage. It is—but I will not defcribe what-it is a charity to fee: fome things are intrinfically valuable; and others for the difficulty whereby they are attained; the fight of this paffage has the latter defcription of worth.
A communication is faid to exist be
tween these rocks and the famous fubterranean cavern, called Wookey-Hole; about fix miles off. The difcovery was made by means of a lady's lap-dog, who embarked, more out of neceffity than choice, on the ftream that runs through this latter place, and effected a terranautic expedition, in the courfe of a few hours, as far as Cheddar.
Wookey-Hole is a great curiofity of its kind, and has been the fubject of frequent defcription. Fancy has almoft exhausted her ftores in finding out refemblances between an old witch, with her household conveniences about her, and the accidental formation of the furrounding rock-bacon, cheese, grid-irons, ftools, tables, and even a train of cats, have not been over-looked. Nature, when she made this cavity, certainly seems to have been in fportive mood; but not altogether fo plaftic as fome admirers of this place would wish to reprefent.
I faid there was a communication:as it is fo handy, I could wish your readers would fancy themfelves conveyed through it back again to Cheddar. The paffage is dark, and incommodioufly narrow; but they will foon arrive at their journey's end. Day-light, you perceive, already appears;-and now they are fafely landed, under the lofty clifts which they before fo lately vifited, I beg they will look up, and contemplate the ftupendous height of thefe clifts, while I proceed with my narration.
About ten years ago, a gentleman walking beneath thefe clifts, heard the cry of hounds above, and presently after, faw the object of their purfuit, (which was a fox) coming with a bold leap over the higheft clift. For about fifty yards, (which is fomething less than half way) he defcended steadily, with his tail expanded like a parafol. Here, unfortunately, he loft his balance, and finished his expedition to the ground in rather a confufed and diforderly manner. He was far, however, from being difconcerted; for, having alighted, and suspecting his new acquaintance at the bottom to have no better intentions towards him than the dogs above, he endeavoured to escape a fecond time; but all in vain he ran only twenty yards, and refigned himself at laft to his fate.
This fact in natural hiftory being rather curious, and attefted by a refpectable perfon, who was eye-witnefs of it, and who ftill lives at the place where it happened, I thought, Mr. Editor, and
hope you will think fo too, that its recital was not altogether foreign to the purpose of fuch a mifcellaneous epiftle as this. I now return back to finish my rout.
From Wookey to Wells is three miles; at this laft place the cathedral will be found a fine specimen of early Norman architecture.
Half way between Wells and Bristol, is the village of Chew-Magna; in the neighbourhood of which is feen a venerable temple of our Druidical ancestors, in high perfection. The ftones form a circle, but are not fo large as thofe in fome other places of a fimilar kind. On breaking them, they appear red in the infide; and, as there is no quarry near, which yields a similar stone, they are fup pofed to be a compofition. No continuation of ftones, imitating the finuous bendings of the fnake, is difcoverable here branching off from the circle; as is the cafe at Aubery, in Wiltshire, defcribed by Dr. STUKELEY. Poffibly the temple at Chew-Magna differed as much from the latter, as a paltry parishchurch of modern days does from York Cathedral.
At the top of Dundry-Hill, between the last mentioned place and Bristol, is a finall quarry by the road fide, where excellent little fpecimens of the cornu-ammonis and echini are found at Keynfham, between Bath and Bristol, they are of a larger fize, and in greater aburdance. The country-people here call them fnake-ftones, and wonder they never find them with heads on!
As I do not recollect any thing elfe very curious in this neighbourhood, I conclude, Sir, &c.
June 4, 1799.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
WAS lately much gratified with an account given in one of your mifcellanies of modern Italian literature. catalogue fhewed, that the nature of the principal works it enumerated was such as renders them capable of being tranffufed, by tranflating them into the English language, with little diminution of their fpirit. And Italy does not, like France, pour forth works of fuch importance, as to make it unpleafant and inconvenient to wait for a tranflation. As I had spent. much time and labour in acquiring the Italian, I naturally recurred, as a juftification of myself, to thofe celebrated names, whofe works are fuppofed incapable of