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Church. New features, mostly taken from the Roman Catholic orders, are developed almost every month. Among the latest of these new developments is the introduction of a "forty hours' prayer, with perpetual adoration of the blessed sacrament," which was for the first time commenced at the Norwich Monastery on April 29. It was announced that "the sacred host" would be taken from the tabernacle and enthroned upon the altar," that the "adoration" would be conducted in silence, a certain number taking their turn upon the altar and to succeed one another, and that any person subscribing £1 for the new church which the brethren of the English Order of St. Benedict propose to erect in Norwich, would be prayed for during the forty hours.
The most celebrated convert whom Brother Ignatius has yet gained for his monkish ideas is Miss Sellon, who has come to Norwich to inaugurate a congregation of Benedictine Nuns. On Good Friday, when Brother Ignatius introduced for the first time the entire ceremonial of the Roman Catholic Church, the new convert was present at the service in her full robes as
Mother Abbess," an acolyte bearing her handsome pastoral staff, while she herself wore the Benedictine frock, scapular, and headdress. Miss Sellon, the foundress of "sisterhoods," has for years enjoyed in the Church of England a much higher and more widespread reputation than Brother Ignatius is likely to attain for some time to come, and her influence may be sufficient to build up within a short time the female branch of the English order.
Another order, consisting of boys, has been established in honor of and called after St. William. On one day in the forty hours' prayer above mentioned, one of the boys of the order knelt before the altar thirteen hours.
their appearance in the Scottish capi
PRESBYTERIANISM IN GREAT BRITAIN. -By an unusual coincidence the upper courts of the three great divisions of Scottish Presbyterianism were this year sitting in Edinburgh at the same time. Usually the United Presbyterian Church meets about ten days in advance of the General Assemblies of the Established and the Free Churches. This year the meeting of all three has fallen in the same week, and probably half the Presbyterian ministers of Scotland had made
The United Presbyterian Synod was opened on May 15th, and chose for their moderator the Rev. Mr. Marshall, of Coupar-Angus. The report on statistics read showed that the number of ministers belonging to the denomination was 580, and of elders 4.308; preachers, 102; students of divinity, 133; members, 170,590; average Sunday attendance, 199,101; congregational income, £178,858; income for missions and benev olence. £50,696: total income, including miscellaneous revenues, £232,316; average contributions of members, £1 68 11d.; number of Sunday scholars, 71,084.
In the Free Church Assembly, which was opened on May 18th, the retiring moderator, Principal Fairbairn, seconded by the Earl of Dalhousie, proposed as moderator the Rev. Dr. James Begg, whom the noble earl applauded for his resistance to Popish doctrines and influences, and for the strictness of his Presbyterian sentiments. Said Lord Dalhousie: "I am sorry to say that we now see the Church of England holding a dangerous flirtation with Popery, and that late circumstances have brought under the public eye the fact that even in our Protestant, or rather so-called Protestant Churches, that wretched device, the confessional, has again been established. Anything more degrading to liberalminded men, anything more detrimental to the virtue and harmony of society, never was invented by Satan himself than that system of the confessional which, it now appears, is rearing its head in the front of the Church of England. And if we look at home we see our true-blue Presbyterianism flirting with that section of the Church of which we all know we entertain no very pleasant memories."
Dr. Begg then delivered an address on the position and principles of the Free Church, characterized by strong expressions against the Church of Scotland, and still more the Church of England. He showed conclusively the happy results which had followed their separation from the State Church. He said:
Ever since the disruption the contributions toward the Free Church have aver
aged about £350,000 a year, or £50,000
a year more than the revenue of the Church Establishment, including the value of manses and glebes. We would
thus not only have been false to truth, but, as it has turned out, immense pecuniary losers, apart from the disruption. The amount contributed to the Free Church since 1843 has been no less than about £7,000,000 sterling.
far as the negotiations-which were narrated at length-had gone, they found a general agreement in principle with some diversities of practice. As the joint committees thought it necessary to move with care and deliberation, they were not yet prepared with a final report, and asked reappointment. The Synod resolved to express their interest in the statements of the report, and their gratification to learn that the conferences had again been characterized by mutual frankness and brotherly confidence and affection, and to reappoint the committee to continue to prosecute the object. On May 19th the sittings of the Free Assembly and United Presbyterian Synod were suspended, that a conference of both bodies might be held to promote Christian union. The Moderators presided in turn, and addresses on the state of religion at home and abroad were delivered by Principal Fairbairn, of Glasgow, and Dr. Cairns, of Berwick-onTweed.
The result of the opposite procedure on the part of those who remained in the established "Church of Scotland" had been very different. While our protest has never been answered, the settling of so sacred a matter as the ordination and induction of ministers is arranged now by a mere Act of Parliament, just as if ministers of Christ were only so many higher policemen. The Church has thus consented to merge herself so far into the State, and to become even in the most sacred matters only a part of one of the kingdoms of this world-all this, of course, to secure her endowments. In other words, she sells her own freedom and the kingship of Christ for pelf, and if the sinful and fatal concession thus made has not yet been driven to further issues by the civil courts it is only because an emergency has not yet arisen. Between obeying Christ and Caesar the distance is infinite. The ministers of the Established Church, even though willing, cannot now obey Christ in settling ministers, except in so far as they are allowed to do so by Lord Aberdeen's Act, and that Act expressly excludes the will of the people, apart from mere technical reasons, as entitled to the least weight in a matter so important; so that both Church and people are now equally enslaved by the civil power. The Jews might, therefore, as well have claimed to be loyal to Christ when they arrayed him in a scarlet robe, and put a reed in his hands, and a crown of thorns upon his head, crying "Hail, king of the Jews!" at the very time when their conduct as well as their words said, "We have no king but Cæsar," as our modern churchmen are entitled to claim that they are loyal to him when in every case of debate they regulate their conduct by Acts of Parliament, and not by the Acts of the Apostles.
The most interesting feature in the cotemporaneous history of Scottish Presbyterianism is the union movement. In the General Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church, the committee on the proposed union with the Free Church reported that the Reformed Presbyterian Church and English Presbyterian Churches had joined in the conferences, and so
The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland was likewise opened on May 10th by Lords Belhaven and Stenton, her Majesty's Lords High Commissioners, who for the twenty-seventh time since 1831 have been appointed to represent the royal person in the Supreme Court of the Scottish Episcopal Church. Dr. Macfarlane, Minister of Duddingstone, was elected Moderator. The Assembly had on May 23d and 24th an interesting discussion on the subject of innovations in public worship. The question was brought up by overtures from the provincial Synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and from the Presbyteries of Glasgow, Aberdeen, and others, calling attention to the fact that innovations had been introduced into the public worship of certain congregations without presbyterial sanction, representing that the deliverance of last General Assembly had been interpreted by some as giving countenance to these innovations, and praying the Assembly to legislate in such a way as should be conducive to uniformity and peace. The innovations specially pointed at were: 1st, changed postures of worship-kneeling instead of standing to prayer, and standing instead of sitting to sing; 2d, the use of instrumental music in the service; 3d, the use of quasi Liturgies; and 4th, the private dispensation of the Communion. The two latter were more particularly pointed to by the opponents of change, while above
the question of the expediency of one or more of the changes was the question of the constitutional right of congregations to introduce them. The changed postures and organs have already found their way into several churches, but the only alleged case of the use of liturgical forms was Old Greyfriars, (Dr. Lees,) the minister of which had also introduced the practice of private communion. The deliverance of last Assembly, without striking at any of the innovations themselves, simply conferred a determination to put in force the laws of the Church in respect to any innovations whereby the harmony of particular congregations or the peace of the Church might be disturbed. The object of the overtures was to obtain a more distinct expression from the Assembly in disapprobation of these changes, or at least of the method taken of introducing them-namely, at the will of particular congregations, instead of according to Presbyterian usage, obtaining the assent of their ecclesiastical superiors.
The debate was opened by Dr. Pirie, Professor of Divinity in Aberdeen, who moved a resolution, declaring that the introduction into congregations of changes on the long established forms of worship without the authority of Church courts, and under the pretense of congregational independence, was inconsistent with the principles of Presby terian Church government, and might not only bring the Church into collision with the civil courts, but prove subversive of the Presbyterian constitution; and, while recommending the utmost tenderness to the feelings of unanimous congregations as to matters of form, enacting that all such arrangements should be regulated by the Presbytery of the bounds, whose decisions should be absolute until and unless finally reversed by the Assembly; and the General Assembly strictly prohibit all ministers and office-bearers from assuming independent jurisdiction in such matters as are inconsistent with the vows of submission pledged by them at ordination to the inferior courts, on pain of the highest of censures; and in the event of disobedience, the General Assembly further authorize and enjoin Presbyteries to proceed with and prosecute such censures to such conclusions as may seem essential for restoring the peace and asserting the constitution of the Church.
This subject was ably and thoroughly argued by Professors Stevenson and Crawford, of Edinburgh: University, by Dr. Nisbet, Principal Tulloch, Dr. Norman Macleod, and Dr. Lee, and finally adopted by one hundred and seventy-three against one hundred and forty votes. Dr. Lee protested against the deliverance for himself, and those who should adhere to him. The resolution of the present Assembly is directly at variance with that of 1864, which tolerated all such changes as did not disturb the harmony of congregations. The result of the vote has created considerable sensation.
THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT AND THE POPE. The reaction against the claims put forth by the Pope in his late Encyclical is on the increase throughout Europe. Nowhere is it more significant than in France. Until the present year the government has always endeavored to avoid any disagreement with the Pope and the bishops, but this year the Minister of Worship made in the Senate a very significant speech against the claims of the Ultramontane party, severely attacking the Encyclical and the Council at Rome in 1863, and favoring the enforcement of the French laws against any encroachments of the hierarchy. Mr. Rouland showed up Ultramontanism in the most conclusive manner, and summed up his speech by the following:
For me, the Encyclical of Pius IX. tends only to the openly avowed aim of Gregory XVI., to bar the way before modern civilization, under whatever name it may present itself. There are two systems which ruin religious sentiment, the revolutionary and the Ultramontane. The first denies all divine revelation, exalts human reason, leaves the passions uncurbed, tells the Pope, (whom I wish with all the energy of my convictions to maintain in Rome,) "The hour for exile is come; go forth into the Christian world and seek a shelter; forsake the Eternal City," and when all begins to totter, a free Church in a free state will be decreed, in order the better to substitute indifference to faith! The second, the Ultramontane (from hatred of the one do not turn your eyes away from the perils of the other) exalts the pontifical power above the true state of things, denies the rights of the state,
even when the state merely interferes to maintain the national institutions and the public peace; alters, does violence to, our admirable religion, gives exigencies to her not her own, and doctrines of which she had never dreamt, and exposes her to become irreconcilable to the independence of the people, and to all legitimate liberty.
Mr. Rouland also gave the history of the syllabus, a copy of which had been in his hands for three years. It had been prepared by Bishop Gerbet, of Perpig
nan, and carried to Rome to be used at the nick of time against modern civilization, and to upset this small but estimable party of liberal Catholics. The time proved to be convenient, soon after
the Franco-Italian Convention of Sep
the temporal power, if necessary, by French bayonets. He contended that the temporal sovereignty of the Pope is absolutely necessary to the existence of the Roman Catholic religion, and that therefore the people of the pontifical states must be refused the right to change their form of government. Mr. Thiers has thus cut himself loose from the entire progressive party of Europe, who are unanimous in demanding the abolition of the temporal power. He has gained on the other hand, for the first time in his life, the applause of the Ultramontanes, though by no means their confidence; for while they pro-. nounce his political views to be correct,
they are by no means satisfied that his
theology has become orthodox. The amendment proposed by Thiers received eighty-four votes, a little less than one
third of the total vote.
tember 15, 1864.
No less dissatisfied than with the Minister of Public Worship, the Roman
Catholics are with the Minister of Public Instruction, who has made to the emperor an elaborate report on the condition of primary education in France, as compared with the leading Protestant countries. It appears from this report that there still are 881,800 childrer between seven and thirteen who are not taught to read; there are still forty per cent. who leave school in ignorance. In 1862, one third of the men of twenty years of age, when called to sign their names on the conscription list, were unable to do so. And twenty-eight per cent. of married men, and forty-three per cent. of married women, were not able to sign the wedding register.
The Ultramontane party found some consolation for the hostile attitude of the government in a speech made by Mr. Thiers on the Roman Question. Before the revolution of 1848 Thiers was regarded by the Ultramontane party as one of their most dangerous enemies. In his works he seemed to be a decided Voltairean; as a statesman he demand-pared ed, in 1846, that the Jesuits should be expelled from France. Since 1848, Thiers, like Guizot and most of the statesmen devoted to the interests of the family of Louis Philippe, have deemed it necessary to form an alliance with the Ultramontane party. Thiers, in his speech, undertook to censure the attitude of the French government as not favorable enough to the temporal power of the Pope, and proposed an amendment to the address to the crown, recognizing the necessity of maintaining
THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN ENGLAND.-As no religious census is taken in England, it is impossible to state the exact membership of those religious denominations which do not provide themselves at their stated meetings for a return of the statistics of their Churches. As the Roman Catholic Church does not officially ascertain the number of her members, her numerical strength in England is a matter of controversy. The accession to the Roman Church of many men of high social position has made many, both Catholics and Protestants, believe that she has of late made considerable progress. This opinion, however, is not born out by facts. If we examine, for instance, the official statistics of marriages, we find that the following number of marriages were registered in Catholic Churches in 1859, 1860, 1861: In 1859, 7,756; in 1860, 7.800; in 1861, 7,782. Comwith the number registered in other Churches, these figures indicate a» Catholic population of somewhat more than one million, a figure which is also in harmony with other statistics. If it is in the main correct, and of this we believe there can be no doubt, the Catholic population has increased in a less proportion than the aggregate population of the kingdom. In one respect only the Catholics stand at the head of the religious denominations of England: in the number of convicts furnished to the prisons. It appears, from official
documents laid before the English Par- | Thus while the Catholics constitute liament, that on January 1, 1864, the about one twenty-fifth of the total poputotal prisons in England contained lation, one fifth of all the prisoners are 27,307 prisoners, and that of this num- Catholic. ber no less than 5,538 were Catholics.
ART. IX.-FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
Eastern Church, consisting of three. chapters: 1. The Primacy and the Church. 2. The Primacy and the Patriarchs. 3. The Primacy and the Dogma. In the last part of the volume are the different theories as to the extent of the papal power prevailing in the Roman Catholic Church since the beginning of the sixteenth century. The work of Dr. Pichler is pronounced by the most competent critics a work of superior excellence. A Greek journal, the "Klio," published at Trieste, says that Dr. Pichler is the first Roman Catholic theologian who, although firmly adhering to the Roman Catholic dogma, has impartially written the history of the great schism. Professor A. Ritschl, of Göttingen, the author of the work on the old Catholic
Church, the New Evangelical Church of Berlin, the "Literarische Centralblatt," of Dr. Zarncke, and many other Protestant critics, regard the book as one of the most important productions of recent Catholic literature. The conciliatory spirit of the book toward the Greek Church has caused it to be put in the Roman Index of Prohibited Books, and the author has been summoned by Rome to submit to this sentence of condemnation. Several Ultramontane theologians of Germany, as Professor Hergenröther of Würtzburg, Professor Mittermüller, and others, have, at the same time, severely attacked him. To these Dr. Pichler has replied in a pamphlet entitled Au meine Kritiker, (To my Critics,) in which he defends his work.
Dr. Spiegel has made another valuable contribution to the literature on the Eastern Religions by a commentary on the Zendavesta. (Commentar über das Avesta, vol. 1. Der Vendidad. Leipsic, 1865.) Dr. Spiegel some years ago published a translation of the Vendidad, and in the prosecution of his study of the sacred books of the Parsees deemed it necessary to learn the Guzerati language, and to study the version of the Vendidad executed in that idiom by the Parsee Aspendiarjee Framjee. In his new commentary on the Vendidad he gives many corrections of his former views, derived from the study of the Guzerati version.
A very interesting phenomenon of the present age is the appearance of reformatory schools among the Mohammedans as well as the Hindoos. On the former an interesting essay has been published by H. Sherner, (Die Mutaziliten oder die Freidenker in Islam. Leipsic, 1865,) who believes that this youngest school of Mohammedan freethinkers bids fair to be more successful than their prede
The important work on the History of the Greek Church by Dr. Pichler, lecturer on Roman Catholic Theology at the University of Munich, has been completed by the appearance of the second volume. (Geschichte der Kirchlichen Trennung zwischen dem Orient und Occident. Munich, 1865.) This volume treats, in separate chapters, of the Russian Church, the Hellenic Church, the Nestorians, the Armenians, the Jacobites, the Copts and Abyssinians, the Maronites, and the Modern Protestant Missions in the Levant. Then follows a Historico-Dogmatic Treatise of the Papacy in its antagonistic relation to the
The eleventh volume of the Ecclesiastical Year Book of Matthes (Kirchliche Chronik, Altona, 1865) presents a brief outline of the Church history of the year 1864. The work is valuable, as far as the history of Germany and some other European countries is concerned, as it is the only periodical covering the ground; but as far as America is con