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was done with all my heart; my

rascal The Henriade" was published in Lon. now was confounded and aitonilhed, I don by Thiriot, an humble friend, who had hope to-morrow to make a handtome bar. the profits. gain with him, and make hiin give the It is not unaccountable that he was rich, whole up, both what is printed and the he confesses that he was a dealer in the manuscript, of which I will give an ac- funds; whether he began in the time of the count to your majetty."

l'egent is not easy to know, but it is unneBy these means the “ Anti-Machiavelcessary to seek further than that he was of the Prince of Pruflia did never appear, well with Madame Pompadour, and was which would have taken place if his fa- fonetimes employed in confidential cabals ther had lived a few weeks longer. It is in foreign courts by Louis XV. curious to observe how foon his situation No man ever saw his name to give made him think it unnecessary to clog his countenance to any publication of his pursuits in life, with the inoral refutation works.

B. J. of this advocate for vice.

Thirty years ago it was common to For the Monthly Magazine. hear stories of Voltaire's meannuls, and cheating his book sellers.

"HE following pieces are translated The world is naturally averse To all the truth it sees and hears;

servir à l'Histoire de la Féte des Fous, qui But swallows nonsense and a lie,

faisoit autres Fois dans plusieurs Eglises, With greediness and gluttony.

par M. du Tilliot, à Lausanne et à Genéve, It was laid, that besides his printing in quarto, 1741.". They relate to a subject France and Geneva, he sold the copy in which has excited considerable enquiry Germany, then in Holland, and finally in among wen of literature and antiquarians, London ;

and yet the truth is authenti- and may therefore afford satisfaction to cated so as to satisfy the most incredulous, various persons who may not have hapthat he is, perhaps, the only instance in pened to have seen the work from which the wide history of literature, of an author they are taken. Indeed it appears from of any note, who never raised a shilling by many ancient records, that, though durhis writings. Mr. Pope created a hand- ing the barbarous ages the dramatic art Tome independance, reputably, by his was sunken and degraded to the most vulpublications, and if Voltaire had wished gar, ignorant, and offensive buffooneries, to have availed himself, suppose at three it never was entirely lost. different eras of his life, he might have The Feast of Alles; a solemn piece of received

many thousands of pounds more buffoonery, confisting of a procession of the for his works than any man that ever prophets and persons, lacred and profant, lived, which he always refuted to all book, who had foretold the coming of Christ.sellers, and other applications.

Balaam rode first on his ass; after him the Poetry and poverty are so generally al- prophets, Itaialı, Zachariah, and the holy lied, that the difficulty to many is to be- Elizabeth, John the Baptist, Simeon, the lieve that they are ever separate. Voltaire Erythrean Sybil, Virgil, Nebuchadnezzar, had a decent income from early time, and with Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, was never in distress. When I was in and the fiery furnace. Quitting the cloisFrance in 1770, he was reputed worth ter, the procesfion entered the church, and 40,000). was hospitable and generous, stopped between two rows of people, fupand elegartly entertained the first quality posed to be one Jews, the other Gentiles, in Europe, in several houses.

to whom the chanters addressed themselves. Once the flander was, that he had pur- They then called forth the prophets who loined from the vast subscription he pro- had mentioned the Messiah. Questions and cured for an establishment of Corneille's answers were repeated, consisting of verses niece ;-he had no temptation to a deed fo from the old Testament on this subject ; mean and horrid ;-he got her a husband, the fiery furnace was exhibited; Nebuto whoin of course he rendered a faithful chadnezzar made a speech ; the Sybil af

terward did the same; then His plays he generally gave to the prophets, and all in chorus sung a motter, players, but often to any young man re

which ended the ceremony. conimended to hiin as fond of literature, to The feast of Fools ; or in some places help him in his income; all his finall called the feast of innocents ; or the feast works were disposed of in the same way, of drunken deacons, deans, and priests, is for he was rich and liberal, even to his fuppofed to have been in imitation of the calumniators.

saturnalia of the ancients, and of great





came the

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Feast of Fools.

445 antiquity. A bishop or archbishop of his shoulders, and a pillow on bis head, fools was elected in the cathedrals, and con- instead of a bonnet, he went and feated secrated with numberlel's buffooneries ; himself in the episcopal chair, aslifted at in which spirit he solemnly bestowed his divine service and received the customary benediction on the people; and, in honours. The service over, the almoner churches that depended on the holy fee, called aloud, " Silete, filete, filentium baa pope of fools was chosen, with burlesque bete :to which the chorus replied, “ Deo ornaments and ceremonies, in imitation gratias." The bishop of fools, after havof the real pope. On these occasions the ing pronounced the adjutorium, &c. gave clergy affifted at divine service, in maf- his benediction ; which was immediately querade and pantomime dresses ; some followed by mock indulgences, thus difwith caricature masques, others with tributed, with assumed gravity, by his dauhed faces, to excite terror or laughter. almoner. Mass being over, they ran, leaped, danced, « In behalf of the lord bishop, may God tumbled, and stripped themielves almost grant you the liver disease, with a basket full naked; after which they were wheeled of pardons, scurf on your skin, and an itchabout the streets in barrows, and indulg

ing beard! His lordship further bestows on ed in all the whims that imagination you the tooth ache in all plenty, and to his could suggeft; fome acting the buffoon, other bounties, adds the gift of a red tail.” others dresling like women, or assuming We further learn that they had four the most monstrous forms. They even forts of dances; the dance of the deacons, fang obscene as well as satirical songs, and the dance of the priests, the dance of the played at dice on the altar, while the priest clerks, and the dance of the subdeacons. was celebrating mass; and so highly were They sung too, what they called the profe their follies and antics in vogue, that those of the ass, or the prose of the fools. who wished to discountenance these prac. They had likewise the profe of the ox. tices were regarded as worthy of excom- The profe of the ass still exists: it was munication. They sometimes shaved their sung by a double choir ; that, at interchief, in honour of whom the fealt was vals, and by way of symphony, imitated fuppoled to be made; and vicars gam- the Braying of an ass. boled before him, fome holding lanterns, At the feast of innocents, which was a with ridiculous and even obscene figures kind of branch or imitation of the feast of and imagery, and playing on fifes, drums, foo the Franciscan Friars, at Antibes, tongs, poker, &c. Sometimes they led used to be guilty of every kind of extravaan ass in procession, ornamented with a gance, and absurdity. The lay-brothers priest's cope, and tinging, “Ho, ho, good assumed the power and the functions of Sir Als," &c. from a rubric compoled for the initiated ; and the professed friars perthe purpose. These festivals were not forined their menial offices. The former only held on the continent, but most pro- clothed themselves in the facerdotal habably in England ; for, about the year bits, but all in rags, if they could find 1530, in an inventory of the church of them so, and turned inside out; holding York, a small mitre and a ring for the books the wrong lide upward, and prebishop of fools, are among the items. This tending to read them with large spectacles, festival was accused of being heathenith that instead of glass, were of orange peel. and idolatrous by the Sorbonne, in 1444; They sang neither hymns, psalms, nor to which its apologists replied, " that mattes, but muttered certain confused their ancestors, who were grave and reve- founds, and occasionally sent forth the rend men, had always kept that feast, and most discordant howlings, accompanied could they have better examples ? Belide,” with every kind of grinning and contorlaid they, “ the folly, which is natural to tion. us, and seems to be born with us, is diffi- Mere Folle, Mother Foliy, or Mother pated by this exhilarating annual recrea Madcap, was the title of a facetious focition. Wine barrels would burst, if they did ety; which is anciently supposed to have not give them vent holes; and man is but taken its rise from the above feast of an ill-hooped barrel, which the potent wine fools. It was most celebrated at Dijon : of wisdom would certainly crack, if it a country famous for its vineyards; and were to ferment in uninterrupted devotion : its antics were performed in carnival we must therefore, occasionally, give it time : when perions of quality, difair, that it may not be spilt, loit, and guised like bacchanals, mounted on carts, profitless.” Sometimes when the mock and sung songs, satirizing the manners bilhop had been dressed in his pontificals, and follies of those times. The members followed by his almoner with a cope over of the society wore fantastic dresses, of


green, red, and yellow ; with two-pointed The following is the account of the recaps of the same colours, garnished with ception of Henri de Bourbon, Prince of bells; and holding baubles, on each of Condé, first Prince of the blood, granted which was carved a fool's head. Mother by the company of la Mere Folle of Madcap was the principal personage ; and Dijon 1626. held her court, and had her guards, horie We the superlative, miralific and fci:nand foot, her doinestics, her magistrates, tific voters of the Dijon infantry, regents her chancellor, her master of the horse, of Apollo, and of the Muses, legitimate, and every other mock officer of the king: figurative children of the venerable Fadom. The judgments the pronounced ther Time-past, and of Marotte, or Fool's were without appeal. On great occafions, head, and of their children, grand chilthe society marched in procession: the dren, and great, great, great grand chilfoot-guards with colours flying ; yellow, dren ; red, yellow, and green, covered, un

l red, and green; painted with innumer- covered, and all in rags, to all fools, able heads of folly: A woman was seated arch-fools, lunatics, heteroclites, madin the centre, clad in the same colours ; caps, capricious-poets, paper.skulls, and with the same pointed cap, and holding logger-heads; almanacs, old and new, the same bauble; with numerous fool's past, present, and to come, greeting ; douheads projecting from her petiicoat, ble pistoles, ducats, and all the bad moround her waist. They had large car- ney of Portugal ; new wine, without the riages, or waggons; each drawn by fix gripes, or insurrection of the entrails : horfes, caparisoned with housings of three who would believe it, the High and colours, and conducted by coachmen and Mighty Henri de Bourbon, Prince of poftillions clothed in the same. These · Condé, first Prince of the blood loyal, carriages contained only those persons house, and crown of France, knight every who sung satirical songs ; dressing them- hair and inch of him,- who could have felves in imitation of the individuals they thought he would have honoured, by meant to satirize. At the head of the his presence, the greasy bearded, gutling proceflion, four heralds marched, followed blades of Mother Madcap, and have by the captain of the guards : to which deigned to demand in full assembly, to fucceeded the painted carriages, then be matriculated and racognizated as he Mother Madcap, preceded by two has been, yea and covered with this nonheralds, and mounted on a white horse, pareil Fool's-cap, laying his hand on the attended by her waiting ladies, six pages, cap and bells, and 1wearing in the behalf and twelve footmen. Then came an en- of Folly to a league offentive, and defenfign, followed by fixty officers, squires, five, therelry inviolably to maintain, falconers, the master of the hunt, and guard, and support Folly in all points, others; and afterward the standard, ac- and to aid and obey her on all occasions, companied by fifty cavaliers, the Fifcal requiring letters patent for this purpose, officer, and his two countellors, clothed to which our redoubtable dame and moin

green; and finally the Swiss guards. ther being inclined full of our science,

Sometimes Mother Madcap was drawn puissance, and authority, without other in a prodigious carriage, by twelve horses preceding information, and in full contirichly caparisoned; containing herself, dence of his princely intentions, she has and actors dressed for the ceremony, who here with alacrity by these presents, sung and recited their verses, and were hurly burly, with arms open and uncoaccompanied by a band of music. This vered, received and impatronized, we him generally happened when some extraordi- receiving and impatronizing in our Dijon nary event had taken place: as robbery, infantry in such fort and manner, that he murder, feduction, absurd marriages, &c. mall remain incorporated in the intestine which incidents were represented as they cabinet, and generally as long as Folly had occurred. The candidates, who shall endure, may, by her consent, there wished to be members of this fociety, ap- remain, hold, and exercise at his pleasure peared before the Fiscal: Mother Mad- whatever charge it shall please him in the cap, and her principal officers, being pre- honors, prerogatives, pre-eminencies, aulent. The candidate was Itanding ; the thority, and potency, which heaven, his Fiscal feated. Questions were put in birth, and his sword, have for him acrhyme, which were likewise to be an- quired; that his highness may manfully, swered in rhyme. When admitted of the and by force of arms aid Folly in eterfraternity, they gave him the three co- nizing herself, and that the may not be loured and alligned him eltates in the impeded, but with free egress and regress, moon.

may expose her merchandize, may traffic


1799.] Pronouncing Dict. of Proper Names....Wanlockhead Library. 447 with all countries, and be every where

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. free, and every where enjoy her privileges, SIR, on which confideration bis highnesis I Nyour number of fihe present month,

, whenever take page 295, a a him, to add folly to folly, and guinea to variety of interesting enquiries, connected guinea, anté sub-anté per-anté, without in- with the state of the poor and the igtermission, diminution, or interrogation, norant, and which respect the general inexcept when his jaw wags ; therefore on terests of society: that particular one, these conditions, and in reward of his va- which regards circulating libraries in lour, we have assigned, and do assign on villages, and which has no doubt for its our fields of Mars, the spoils which he object the more extensive diffusion of useThall himself take from the enemies of ful knowledge, will receive, I hope, as France, for which no man fhall make for the benefit of society it should, a him accountable : granted and detired on negative reply-the establishment of such behalf of his highness.

libraries would require more encourageAt Dijon 'tis done in broad day, not by stealth, ment than villages in general afford; but The prince being present, we drink to his if practicable, the date of their opening health.

would mark the beginning of that graIn one thousand fix hundred, one fix and one dual corruption which must necessarily twenty,

follow. If the mental constitution of a Where fools it is plain, are affembled in large town, with all the advantages of plenty.

education, habit and exercise, can with

difficulty resist the baneful effects of that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. poison which lurks almost invariably, in SIR,

every corner of a circulating library, I che medium bere pour ulterior magazine, country?

SHOULD be glad to know, through what havock would it not make in the whether a pronouncing Dictionary of Instead of a circulating library, under námes of places on the plan of SHERI- the direction of an interested individual, DAN's and Walker's has been pub- whose immediate interest, and the real adlished. Such a work has long appeared vantage of his readers might be very difto me very desirable, and I do not at pre- ferent, something of a public nature fent fee 'any fufficient objection to the ought to be attempted, wherein proper execution of it.

attention would be paid to the choice of Would it not be a confiderable re- books-to the total exclulion of such as commendation to a Gazetteer, if the might have a tendency to inflame the palproper pronunciation of the Gerinan, fions or corrupt the heart--and the admilFrench, ‘Italian, &c. names of places fion of those, that might make us better were given.

men, better christians, and better citizens, There are many gentlemen in the coun- In a mountainous part of the south of try, who are fond of reading, and parti- Scotland, where I was occasionally last cularly of Geography, but who 'from December, I discovered one of the best their little intercourse with the commer

institutions, of this kind, that ever occial and well-informed part of society, curred to me-of great usefulness and geåre almost afraid to mention the names of neral practicability. Wanlock head, the places, and sometimes feel embarrafled if residence of lead-miners, is excluded from required to read a news-paper in a mixed the surrounding country, by high and company. A person may have a pretty steep hills with which it is encircled : its good classical education and yet, being insulated situation, together with the spirit ignorant of the continental languages, be of investigation, for which its inhabitants entirely at a lots for the pronunciation have been long remarkable, taught them of many words he may meet with in al- to seek resources for amusement and inmost every page of Geography.

formation within themselves; and a pub. Should any gentleman, properly quali- lic library under proper regulations was fied, undertake a work of the above de- established. A liberal donation of sevescription, I have no doubt of his meeting ral valuable volumes, by one of the prowith liberal encouragement from the prietors of the works, laid the foundapublic.

tion of their present valuable collection of By submitting the above to your li- books in history, philosophy, mathematerary correspondents, you will much tics and general literature; a very trioblige your constant reader,

Aing contribution from every subscriber, May 4, 5799: EUPHONEUS. perhaps monthly, or every quarter, has




by proper management ensured these con- and fifty yards in breadth. Formerly tented and indultrious miners, sources of this river is supposed to have had its courte rational and manly entertainment, and through the town of Westbury, a place distinguished them by their general know- two miles distant from St. Vincent's. ledge; skill in their particular occupation; Vestiges of some ancient river, full as urbanity, public fpirit and fobriety, in large as the Avon, are certainly traceable which they have seldom been exceeded. from Westbury, to a place near the Severn:

Another enquiry of your correspon- the only representative of it, however, dent, is, in what towns friendly focieties which now remains, is an inconsiderable are established for the relief of the poor? stream known by the name of Trim.

One of this description, on a very li- An old fabulous story exifts in these beral principle, was formed in the fum-, parts, which may ferve to give fome flight mer of ninety seven, “ for the relief of support to this opinion of the Avon's the friendless poor and fick in Newcastle having changed its course. It is concernupon Tyne and its vicinity”- the men- ing two giants-one of whom lived at tal darkness as well as the bodily distress, Westbury, and the other at St. Vincent's. of multitudes who had no legal claim on A quarrel taking place between them, parochial funds, or to whole necessities, the giant of St. Vincent's fevered the rocks even their proportion of these, was inade- afunder, for the purpose of taking away quate, excited the commiseration of the the other's river : this malicious scheme humane; the cup of admonition and re- succeeded but too well, and Westbury has proof, the produce of the gospel vintage, remained riverless ever since. A large has accordingly been succesfully mingled excavation, also, in these rocks goes to with the cordial of present relief; the suc- this day by the name of the Giant's hole. cess of this two-fold object, and the sup- All the Clifton lide of the river, for a port of the public, have hitherto exceeded long way, is devoid of trees and verdure ; the most fanguine expectations of the asso- except in a few places, where a stem of ivy ciation ; indeed men, devoting a part of creeping up the rocks, accidently divertheir time and substance to the relief of fifies their grey and barren appearance. suffering indigence, from a principle of On the other side of the river their sumpure, disinterested benevolence, have a mits and partly their fides are covered Itronger claim upon public confidence, with a thick wood, in whose lofty recesses and public support, than the selfish and is a celebrated cave. Here it is not ununteelling will in general allow. usual, of a fine summer's evening, for a May 16, 1799.

NOSMOTH. band of musicians to assemble by torch

light, for the purpose of a concert; at To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. which time, all the opposite fide is

covered with an attentive crowd of both
sexes, who look among the shapeless

rocks, like so many Thracians : Orpheus
readers an account of Bristol--I send
you, Mr. Editor, by way of appendix to music wafted over the water, and multi-

however never played so tweetly!--The it, if you please, a short statement of those places and things, in its neighbourhood, plied by the numberless echos of the rocks,

is truly enchanting. most deserving the notice of a stranger.

To an observer on the Clifton fide of In doing which, I shall visit every point the river, the opposite woods · in summer of the compass, just as it may, happen, present a most charming appearance : they and may be this minute ten, the next, contain almost every forest-tree indigenous twenty, miles distant from my starting place. As my readers are to attend me leaved sycamore, the majestic oak, the

to this country; among which the broadin these sudden excursions, I am afraid of

the graceful mountain-ash, their becoming weary ; and shall therefore pick up every thing by the way, I posfi- together with many others, are distinętly


the sprightly box, and adventurous forb; bly can, to ainuse ther. St. Vincent's Rocks, whether we con

feen blending their hues together; and sider their magnitude or romantic beauty, and exuberance is scarcely to be equalled.

forming a scene of foliage, that for variety certainly deserve to be first mentioned. If we add to this the contrasted view of These evidently seem from their configu. the neighbouring rocks, with the Avon rations to have once joined and poflibly winding at their base, the whole becomes were separated froin each other by some

truly beautiful and magnificent. great convulsion of nature. The chalin between them, through which the Avon Quis non malarum, quas 'amor curas habet, flows, no where much exceeds one hundred

Inter hæc oblivifcitur!

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sombre yew;

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