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Moon as the ostensible causes of the first day, when the Sun, which is its variation of day and night, that all fountain, was not created until the things might conform to the general | fourth ?”?* order of the universe. This seems to With respect to that system of probe the answer to your question.—The gression manifested in the creation, it Light which existed previous to the is presumed, that the first day's work creation of the Sun, was created by may be looked upon as being prelimithe same power that would have en-nary to the work performed on the five dued the Sun with the property of emit- following days. If so, the light proting it. It was maintained in exist- duced on that day must be admitted ence by the same power which created within the circle of that consideration, it, without the intervention of any and, with equal propriety with the visible cause or agent. When living other things then created, be considerbeings, endued with perception, were ed in its first stage on the way to perto be placed in the world, the Creator, fection; particularly when it is obwith the same regard to regularity served by us, (though it is no object which he observed in the rest of his with the Almighty) that the heavenly work, exhibited the Sun, Moon, and bodies are believed far to surpass, in Stars, as the ostensible causes of the point of magnitude, that of our Earth, variation of light and darkness.-As which God in his wisdom thought proan objection to this hypothesis, it may per to take six days in perfecting. The be asked,

Why were they not cre- word “made,” as used in the 16th ated at first?” To this I reply, There verse of the 1st chapter of Genesis, is was no occasion for them; there were indefinite, as to the matter of which the no creatures who would be affected by Sun and Stars are composed, and the their influence. We hear of no heat time of their being called into existexisting previous to the creation of the ence; and it may be viewed as applying Sun: and one principal use for which to the Light created on the first day; the Sun and the heavenly bodies are then undergoing that particular modiplaced in the firmamentis, to be forsigns, fication, or, at that time, being “made" &c. Again: “Why was the distinction out of their former, to assume their between day and night made at all, present appearance; and, therefore, when there were no beings who would may as reasonably induce us to bebe affected by them ?” God, no doubt, lieve, that the substance of the Sun and contemplated the commandment which Stars was previously existent, as to he would give to his people on a future suppose that it was created on the day; in which he says, “For in six fourth day, when the luminaries with days the Lord made the heavens and which we now behold the skies decothe earth,” &c. Now, had not the suc- rated were made. This position may cession of days and nights been made, be fairly reconciled, by the fact of a similar to that which was apparent to human body being“ produced” before men, when this sentence was pro- the body of Eve was “made;" yet nounced, it is obvious what a confu- Eve may, with as great a degree of sion it would have caused, and how propriety, be accounted the fountain incompatible it would have been with of human nature, as the Sun can be the spirit of regularity that pervades the the “ fountain of light,” when the universe.

stars are believed to shine by their own AGRICOLA. native lustre.

If we were to suppose, that the Sun

and Stars were created on the fourth On Primeval Light.

day, independently of, and without having any reference to, the Light, which

appeared on the first day, we should Sir,

find ourselves under the necessity of Being led by the following inquiry, believing, that God differed (verse 4th) contained in

second number, into with the opinion he had previously enan investigation of the account handed tertained of his first day's work; that down to us of the first and fourth days' he then saw it defective, and therefore work in the Creation, I beg leave to sub-cancelled the decree of the first, to give mit to your consideration the annexed place to that of the fourth day; which opinions in answer to the question, would be in pointed opposition to the * How could Light be produced on the ideas we entertain of the infinite wie








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dom of Almighty God, who never goes But how will you be surprised when backward in his works.

I tell you! I can well conceive your

E. S.C. disappointment when you find, that Liverpool, 10th May, 1819.

our nation, which we thought so fallen in dignity and virtue, has much juster claims to them than these. Virtue ap

pears too simple to associate with so MAGAZINE.

much art. She seems offended with SIR,

men of so much knowledge ; and, preI have been, for some time back, in the ferring to dwell with Nature in the Metropolis, where I became acquaint-woods of the uncivilized, and the huts ed with a Mexican Chief, who at pre- of the savage, she has left these wretches sent resides there. One day I entered to struggle under the tyrannical domihis apartments, just as he was conclud- nion of vice. ing a letter to a friend of his in his As I know that the discovery of hunative country. He allowed me to take man degeneracy would only aftlict your a copy of it.

That your
readers may

benevolent heart, I shall abstain even see in what light foreigners are apt to from alluding to the depravity of this look upon our nation, I send you the corrupt people ; and confine myself enfollowing extract, which, after some tirely to those national follies, which, preliminary observations, relates to our as they are less fatal, we shall feel less national caprice and love of change, sorrow to review. particularly in dress. I had some dif- * ficulty in rendering it into tolerable There is one strange, and perhaps English, confused as it was by an unhappy, propensity pervading this abstruse hieroglyphical style, peculiar entire cluster of civilized nations; to the Mexicans. In one instance, his which, as they say, discovers, by its meaning was expressible by a term of advances, their progress to refinement, science, which I have taken the liberty I mean an insatiate thirst for novelty: of using. If you find the following ex- an appetite which seems only to intract worth your insertion, I shall have crease by gratification,* keeping invenpleasure in sending another; having tion perpetually on the stretch, and the same liberty to dispose of the whole feeding, with the utmost liberality, letter, as I have of the part now sent. those who have much fancy, but little Your's,

C. J. understanding. Some new object of

attraction they must always have; some Letter from a Mexican Chief, &c.

glittering bubble of any person's blow

ing, (Paris manufacture, to be sure, is I am afraid, my valued Phraar, when preferred,) which they may admire this you make your intended visit to these moment, and break the next; some countries, which fame had given us so fantastic gewgaw, to which the same high a character of, and drawn in such caprice gives birth and death with the inviting colours, that you will find same wantonness of humour. No matmany more objects to disappoint, than ter how empty the bubble, or how condelight you; more to gaze at, than ad- | temptible the gewgaw, if new, it is mire; and much to excite your pity, an object of adoration, for its novelty while there is little to attract your es- disguises all its deficiencies. teem. You would suppose, that king- The admiration and the age of such doms, which all the world pronounced objects are always in an inverse ratio;t so near to the goal of human know- the first diminishes as the last increases; ledge and perfection, had resigned to for admiration and novelty are coeval the uncivilized and the ignorant, all the and coexistent; and the first dwindles follies which degrade, and all the vices into indifference, as the last, by habiwhich debase, our nature; and that tude, loses what gave it interest. while they aspired to, and almost enjoyed, a seat on the pinnacle of human * My friend, I believe, has read Shakewisdom and knowledge, they would speare, and probably has taken this hint from leave vanity and vice to the pursuit the love which Gertrude bore to his father, he

Hamlet's first soliloquy, where, in alluding 10 of us, whom they consider as barbarous; and that in the relinquishment crease of appetite did grow by what it fed on.”

“Why, she did hang on him, as if inof these, consisted their superiority + This is the term of science to which I aland perfection.

says, -"


As this frivolous and unbecoming and that every individual might be disposition only discovers itself among allowed to follow his own taste, and these civilized nations, I have been cut his hair or pare his nails as his induced to think, that politeness and judgment or his inclination directed : folly are inseparable companions, and but this would be too extensive a privisit a nation precisely at the same vilege. If they have political liberty, æra. And reason seems to concur in it is enough. To shew their refineproving, what common observation ment, they must be slaves in their perhaps sufficiently warrants : for, as dress; and every individual, under the civilization and the fine arts go hand severest penalties, must conform to in hand, fancy and the arts are closely laws which are perpetually changing, connected, and fancy is one of the pa- and yield unqualified obedience to the rents of novelty. This foible, however, dominion of prevailing fashion. is attended with some advantages, (but Paris, the capital of France, is the what general vice or misfortune is not?) mainspring and source of all this folly since it affords an opportunity for the and fluctuation in dress. It is the hotexertion of those superficial and trifling bed in which every fashion and novelty qualities of the mind, of which nature is propagated. Here invention rehas been so lavish, while she has been sides: here is erected the throne, where so frugal of the higher powers: hence, Inconstancy sits in triumph, and smiles a livelihood here, can as easily be ob- around at the officious obedience and tained by the fancy, as by the under the true devotion of her subjects. standing

Mutability! thy name surely is Paris.* This propensity to be always chang- Surely, that place has been designed ing, and to dislike every thing but for a theatre, where the world might what is new, discovers itself in every see how far one human folly might be possible way:— in shows and enter- extended, and exhibit to mankind an tainments, and in every thing either object for their contempt, rather than of public or private concern. But the an idol for their adoration. chief department in which this Proteus

The nations around are at present loves to sport, is, the art of dress. under her discipline, and they receive Here, variation fatigues a stranger, by instructions in the art of dressing, its perplexing repetition : here, there gratis. The term of guardianship, I are no bounds to their inconstancy. imagine, will soon expire ; for they Change is perpetually the order of the seem now qualified to invent for themday; change is their delight; change selves, and may therefore be dismissed, is their subsistence: they live on it, at any time, from the tutelage of that and their love of it must be gratified kingdom. The present dress always sits uneasy,

From this centre of ideal delight, and every change seems only to in- the rays of enlightened folly diverge tó crease their dissatisfaction. Before the neighbouring nations, to illuminate one is completely on, they try another, and refine them. Here some idle and looking in vain for that perfection in fantastic head, of noble descent and it, which they seem destined never to ideas, proposes some new change in attain. Hence, after all their disco- apparel. He adopts it; and the whole veries, they have only the melancholy city is in a ferment, till it has made satisfaction of seeing, that, notwith the same reform. The news is blown standing the labours of their ancestors, hot across the channel, to our imitaand their own toils, they are still mere

tive friends in London, who become novices in this important art; and they immediate converts to a reformation, have every reason to think, that their recommended by the discerning Pariunhappy posterity will be doomed to sians; at the same time, blowing the make the same complaint, unless pris- bubble over the Irish Channel, to the tine barbarity shall happily intercede, civilizing metropolis of that kingdom. and redeem them from the miseries of That a change so fleeting, may be hope deferred, and expectation pro- fashionable in all places at the same tracted and fruitless.

time, the utmost expedition is necesIn this free and happy country, where sary in transferring it; and as it reLiberty, we were told, had built her quires a considerable time to transport temple, and resolved to reside, we ex

it over

so many channels, and so pected that freedom existed in trilling * This is another proof of my friend's acmatters as well as the most important; quaintance with Shakespeare. No. 5.--VOL. I.

2 F


435 Smythe's British Facilitator.False Reasoning detected. 436 much land and water, it frequently | he will have the goodness to answer in cools by the way; and the good people a future number. of Dublin are often seen to adopt a From his description of the machine new fashion, at the very time that it is it appears, that the two hindmost wheels receiving its dismission at Paris; and are fired upon the same axle; consethe gentry in the country towns and quently, as they must always revolve villages of the kingdom, are frequently at the same time and with the same enjoying a mode, which is several de- velocity, they will always pass over an grees removed back from the one then equal distance in the same time. Now, reigning at the source.

it is a well known fact to any person of They have always several dresses, observation, that the outer wheel of fashionable for the same period; and any carriage, in turning a corner, must in these they make hourly changes. necessarily pass over a greater space If a lady were seen in the morning and of ground in the same time than the evening with the same dress, she would inner one; and in some cases they will be looked upon as a mad-woman. I move in contrary directions. How will don't know with what severity she Mr. S. effect this ?— In my opinion, would be treated, if she sat down to whenever the traveller has occasion to two meals in habits of the same make; deviate from a direct line, he will be but to loll in a carriage in the same obliged to alight, and forcibly drag dress that is worn in the house, would his vehicle round, in order to continue be deemed the most decisive symptom his route. of degradation in taste, or of relapse

Your's, &c. SCRUTATOR. into barbarism.

Rochdale, June 22, 1819. The ladies, however, are not universally changeable. I shall treat them with candour: for I am not of that envious and malignant nature, which has B. SMYTHE has been favoured with only learnt to reproach, and cannot the letter sent by SCRUTATOR, of Rochbear to applaud, even where merit is dale, to the Editor of the Imperial obvious and eminent. There is at Magazine, respecting the means of least one instance of constancy for guiding his “ British Facilitator, or which I must give them credit; and Travelling Car;” and he takes 'this there is one fashion, to which they method of informing Scrutator, that have been most attached and faithful: the original drawing, previous to being the promise, I hope, and the dawn, of sent to the engraver, had a nut on one returning sense and wisdom.

end of the axle, and a linchpin on the (To be continued.)

other, to shew that one of the hindwheels was to remain fixed, and the

other loose, so as to turn on the axle On Smythe's British Fucilitator." similar to any of the gig-wheels in preTO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

sent use. By this means, the car will

turn a corner with the same facility as SIR,

any other vehicle. Since publishing a IN perusing the pages of your highly plan of the car, and description of it in interesting and useful Miscellany, my the Imperial Magazine, B. s. has attention was particularly arrested made a considerable improvement in by the plan and description of Mr. the simplicity of guiding his car, which Smythe's “ British Facilitator, or Tra- he has no objection whatever to comvelling Car.” This machine seems to municate to any person who may wish be well calculated to answer the pur- to try the utility of his vehicle'; propose intended, as long as it moves in vided such communication is not ata direct line ; but we are all well aware tended with any expense to himself. that the British roads are never rectilinear for any considerable distance. The ingenious inventor having anti

False Reasoning detected. cipated and answered two objections,

which, according to his view, are all that can possibly be made against the

SIR, practical utility of the machine," I beg It is remarkable, that the effrontery of leave to lay before him a third objec- Deistical writers is not more glaring tion, which I shall esteem a favour if | than their defective reasoning; but





since they profess to support their own put in opposition ; and in the last, we theory by reason, and attack every other find no contradiction, for their reason with the same weapon, it appears sur- and faith are alike delusive. The conprising that they have not learned to clusion is inevitable. — I have the house it with more dexterity. A tractate nour to be, Sir, of Diderot's fell into my hands the

Your obedient servant, other day, published by Carlile, Lon

PUDICUS. don, 1819, entitled, “ Thoughts on Etruria, June 9th, 1819. Religion," which abounds with examples of this kind, many of which are profane, and others blasphemous. I

TRENGROUSE'S LIFE PRESERVER. have selected a specimen of the profane, and beg leave to present it to Although there is no department of your readers, with its refutation. life which can exempt mankind from

“ If reason be a gift of heaven, and danger, it is exceedingly obvious, that we can say as much of faith, heaven some occupations are far more hazardhas certainly made us two presents, ous than others. We can, indeed, not only incompatible, but in direct easily conceive, that under the supercontradiction to each other. In order intending providence of God, there is to solve the difficulty, we are compel- no situation into which our fellowled to say, either that faith is a chi- creatures can be brought, that will mera, or that reason is useless.". place them beyond the reach of the Diderot, p. 4.

Divine protection. We ought not, The sophistry of this passage ap- however, when we make these calcupears obvious, by the author's being lations, to lose sight of the general compelled to offer a solution in the course of the divine economy. God choice of two absurdities. Thus, if rarely acts towards his intelligent reason and faith be gifts of heaven, creatures, but through the instrumenone must be a chimera, or the other tality of means. These he has conuseless, because it is assumed that nected with the end ; and the powers, they are incompatible. The postulate with which he has endued the human must therefore be absurd in argument: mind, may be considered as that interlet us see if it be not so in fact. Rea- mediate link, through which, means son is a faculty of the mind; but faith can be rendered efficient in the producis an act of the mind. There is, there- tion of those ends, which, thus apfore, this distinction: the faculty is plied, they are calculated to secure. power; but the act is the result of He, therefore, who neglects to use power. Now, the faculty, which is appropriate means, can never reasonpower, is the gift of God; and the ably hope for the attainment of those grace of faith also is the gift of God, ends which he has in view; and unless that is, the power to believe: but the we exercise those powers with which act is a man's own, resulting from the the Almighty has been pleased to power which God gives. Inasmuch, favour us, we can neither use the forThen, as reason is a faculty of the mer, nor secure the latter. mind, and faith an act of the mind, Among the departments of danger they cannot be incompatible; for the in which human beings are engaged, mind cannot act independently of its there is scarcely one more perilous faculties; and because what is con- than that which the ocean presents to trary to reason a man cannot believe, our view. The occupation of a marino act of faith incompatible with rea- ner is almost inevitably connected son can ever take place. Wherefore, with a waste of human life. Scarcely

“ that reason and faith are not a week elapses, in which we do not only incompatible, but in direct con- hear of individuals having been brought tradiction to each other,” is absurd, to an untimely grave, through the turboth in argument and fact.

bulence of this boisterous element; I am aware, Sir, it might be object- and too frequently we read of shiped, notwithstanding, that we read of wrecks, in various parts, in which hun-. persons under delusion that believe a dreds of our fellow-creatures, and even lie, which might seem to contradict of our country men, are in a moment my argument; but these either cannot precipitated into eternity, accompareason, or they reason falsely. In the nied with circumstances of horror, first instance, reason and faith are not on which the feeling mind cannot

to say,

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