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one side; that is, either by laying that production of a more perfect system I shall raise my hand thrice, or that I of Astronomy, and that the Greeks shall not. If you seriously pretend merely changed the names of the that I am not free, you cannot reason- constellations, in honour of the advenably refuse the following offer. I will turous Argonauts. In this fabulous lay you a thousand guineas to one, period of Grecian history, it is imposthat, with respect to moving my hand, sible to ascertain the state of astronoI shall do quite the reverse of what you mical science, or even to name the may contend for, and you shall take individuals who contributed to its prowhich side you please ; so that, if you gress. lay that I shall raise my hand, I lay Hesiod and Homer, the most anthat I will not; and if you lay that I cient writers among the Greeks, and shall not, I lay a thousand guineas to who, according to Sir Isaac Newton, one that I will raise it. Do you think lived 870 years before the Christian the offer advantageous to you? Answer, æra, both mention several of the conYes, or No. If you think it advan- stellations. Hesiod, in particular, tageous, why can you not accept directs the farmer to regulate the time the wager, without passing for a fool, of sowing and harvest, by the rising or being such in reality? And if and setting of the Pleiades; and inyou do not consider it advantageous, forms us that Arcturus rose, in his whence can such an idea arise, unless time, as the Sun set, 60 days after the from the necessary and invincible opi- winter solstice. Homer informs us, nion you have of my being free; and that the Pleiades, Orion, and Arcturus, that it is in my power to make you lose were used in navigation. such a wager, not only once, but a Thales, the Milesian, was one of the million of times, if you should have the most ancient, as well as the most celefolly to repeat it so often. This is an brated, astronomers of Greece. He is argument not derived from scholastics; supposed to have been the first who it is neither abstruse, subtle, nor far- travelled into Egypt in search of knowfetched; but it will therefore make a ledge, and who brought from thence more irresistible and lively impression the first principles of that science, in on the mind.” Pere Buffier's Trea- which the Greeks afterwards made tise on First Truths; page 285. such surprising advances.
I am not a friend to gambling in any We are told by Diogenes Laertius, of its modes; but as the above is a very that Thales determined the height of singular wager, I send it for your in the pyramids, when in Egypt, by measpection: if approved, its insertion will suring the length of their shadows, oblige yours, respectfully,
when the Sun was 45 degrees in altiS. tude, and when, of course, the lengths
of the shadows of objects are equal to their perpendicular heights.
According to Sir Isaac Newton, (Continued from col. 345.) Thales lived about the 41st Olympiad, Astronomy of the Greeks. We must or 615 years before the Christian æra. not expect to find any thing relative to That the conjecture of Sir Isaac is Astronomy amonst the Greeks, of equal nearly correct, may be inferred from antiquity with what has been related the time of that famous eclipse, preof the Chaldeans and the Egyptians; dicted by Thales, which happened at but the lively imagination of this peo- the time the two armies, under Alyple, in order to exalt themselves, led attes, king of Lydia, and Cyaxares, the them to convert almost all their great Mede, were engaged. This being men into astronomers.
regarded by each party as When the Egyptian and Phoenician omen, inclined both to make peace. colonies arrived in Greece, they car- Diogenes Laertius observes, that s'hales ried with them into that country the was the first who taught in Greece, arts and sciences of their native land. that the true length of the solar year is So early as the 13th and 14th centuries 365 days; and Plutarch assures us, before the Christian æra, the position that he divided the earth into five zones of the stars, with regard to the circles by the polar circles, and tropies; that of the sphere, was established with he was acquainted with, and described great exactness; a strong proof that the the obliquity of the ecliptic, and sphere described by Eudoxus was the shewed that the equinoctial is cut at
HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY.
418 right angles by the meridians, which human mind. He rose above vulgar pass through and intersect each other opinions and prejudices, and gave new in the poles. Stanly says, that he light, not only to astronomy and the held the Sun's diameter to be one mathematics, but to every other branch 720th part of his annual orbit; which, if of philosophy. He was instructed in true, is a degree of precision much to the Greek learning in his youth, and be admired, in the rude knowledge of afterwards travelled in Phoenicia and these early times. He is also said, Egypt, being_recommended to king by some, to have observed the exact | Amasis by Polycrates, governor of time of the solstices, and from thence Samos, and by that means was admitto have deduced the true length of the ted to familiar conversation with the solar year; to have observed eclipses Priests, and, for many years, to a parof the Sun and Moon; and to have ticipation of Egyptian learning. taught that the Moon had no light of Pythagoras taught that the universe her own, but that she borrowed it from was composed of four elements ; that the Sun.
it was round, and had the Sun in the Anaximander, the disciple of Thales, centre of this mundane system: that followed his master, in the career of the Earth was round also, like a globe, discovery; and he seems to have been had antipodes, and that the Moon was the first of the ancients, who ventured enlightened by the rays of the Sun. to explore the heavens with the eye of He was of opinion that the Stars were a philosopher. He is said to have in- worlds, containing earth, air, and vented or introduced the use of the ether; that the Moon was inhabited gnomon into Greece ; to have observed like our Earth; and that the Comets the obliquity of the ecliptic; and to were a kind of wandering stars, which have taught that the Earth was the cen- disappeared as they ascended towards tre of the universe, that it was spheri- the superior parts of their orbits, but cal, and that the Sun was not less than appeared again at their return, after it
. He is said to have made the first long intervals of time. globe; and to have set up a sun-dial
(To be continued.) at Lacedæmon, which is the first we read of amongst the Greeks; the knowledge of which, together with that
Wholesome Advice, of the pole and gnomon, some think, was brought from Babylon by Phercydes, who was contemporary with him.
MAGAZINE. This Phercydes, together with Thales
Birmingham, 81h May, 1819. and many other ancient philosophers, held that water is the first principle of While learned men, of different reliall natural bodies; and as this doc- gious persuasions, are employing their trine cannot be derived from any very time and talents in controverting the obvious principles, some are of opi- opinions of those who differ from them, nion that it was traditional, and that it permit me to introduce into your Mahas some relation to the earth’s having gazine, the following extract from one been created originally in a fluid state. of Bishop Gibson's Pastoral Letters, Anaximander died in the second year which, in the plainest and most satisof the 58th Olympiad, or the 547th factory manner, shews what are the year before Christ.
true terms and conditions of the GosAnaxagoras was the third in succes- pel covenant, sion from Thales in the Ionic school.
CHRISTIANUS. He is said to have predicted the eclipse “ But if, after God has made so full of the Sun, which, according to Thu- and clear a revelation, in what way cydides, happened in the first year of and upon what terms he will save us, the Peloponnesian war; and to have men will resolve to be their own guides, taught that the Moon was habitable, and refuse to be saved in the way having plains, hills, and waters, as our which he has appointed, this is at their Earth has.
own peril. If some will affirm, that Contemporary with Anaxagoras, was trusting in Christ is their whole duty, Pythagoras, the Samian, whose sub- and so will excuse themselves from lime genius has scarcely been ever the observation of the moral law; and equalled: he was endowed with those others will aflirm, that the observation rare talents, which seldom adorn the l of the moral law is sufficient, and No. 5,--VOL. I.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
will forego the benefit of Christ's re- from my own imperfect knowledge of demption: if some will contend that the subject, and that a closer investiChrist has done all, and others that he gation might remove them. In this, has done nothing; to both these it is however, I have been disappointed; sufficient to say, that they are very for investigation, instead of removvain and presumptuous, in setting up ing my scruples, has only tended to the opinions and imaginations of weak strengthen and confirm them. I have, and fallible men, against the infallible therefore, taken the liberty of laying testimony of persons sent and inspired my difficulties before you, in order by God. The Scripture account is as that, if you think proper to give them plain and express as words can make a place in your useful Magazine, some it: On the one hand, that faith in of your ingenious correspondents may Christ is the foundation of a Christian's be led to direct their attention to the title to happiness: and, on the other subject; and thereby throw such light hand, that repentance and good works upon it, as may not only clear my are necessary conditions of obtain- doubts, but be of use to others, who ing it.”
are engaged in the study of their native tongue.
" The cause of my not receiving it," To Correspondents.
a form of expression made use of by
Dr. (Imperial Mag. col. 215,) is, TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL according to Murray, (notes and obser
vations under Rule 14, Syntax, incorSir,
rect, and ought to be “the cause of my CONVERSING lately with a person on not receiving of it.” But how much the meaning and application of the soever this additional of may improve phrases, “Moral good,” and “ Moral the sentence in pointof grammatical acevil,” Physical good,” and “ Physi- curacy, it certainly adds nothing to its cal evil,” I was led to think that they harmony. Again, "prudence prevents were little understood, or, perhaps, our speaking or acting improperly," misunderstood, by the generality of peo- a sentence authorized by Mr. Murray ple. Now, Sir, an explanation of the himself, puzzles me not a little in remeaning and application of the above solving it into its component parts: terms, with examples illustrative of for if the participles speaking and acteach of them, by some of your cor-ing, by having the possessive our berespondents, and inserted, as early as fore them, become nouns, and ought possible, in your valuable Miscellany, to follow the construction of nouns, will, I doubt not, be very acceptable to and not to have the regimen of verbs;' many of your numerous readers, and what shall we make of the adverb imto none more than to,
properly? Ought it not to be “ PruSir, yours', &c. dence prevents our improper speaking May 15, 1819. AN INQUIRER. or acting ?” Or might we not, in such
cases, consider not the participle alone,
but the whole clause, as a substantive? Inquiries respecting some minute Parti- Lastly, Mr. Murray objects to the culars of the English Language.
propriety of a noun's performing, at the same time, the offices both of the
nominative and objective cases;' (notes TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL and observations under Rule 22.) Is it
not equally an impropriety for a proSIR,
noun to perform, at the same time, the I had always looked upon Lindley offices both of the nominative and posMurray's truly excellent English Gram- sessive cases ? The pronoun theirs mar as, in all cases, the standard of serves this double capacity in the folpropriety, till of late I have been pes- lowing sentence: Theirs is more tered with doubts respecting a few commodious than ours :" nor can any particulars in that celebrated author; other nominative be supplied.
We not indeed very important ones, but may say, “ John's house is, &c.” or such as, if at all erroneous, ought not John's is, &c. ;” but we cannot say, to be suffered to pass uncorrected. At “ Their's house is, &c.” By considerfirst I endeavoured to silence these ing my, thy, &c. as pronouns in the doubts, thinking that they had arisen possessive case, and mine, thine, &c.
as compound pronouns, including both | then divided into three classes, and put the possessive case and the governing immediately in chains. For strong and noun, the difficulty would be removed: robust men, the weight of the chains is but this mode of classing the pronouns, one hundred pounds; for elderly perI apprehend, would be contrary to sons, sixty; and for young men or general practice.
boys, thirty. These chains are placed Your's,
A. B. round their bodies like a sash, with a Painshaw, June 21st, 1819.
long piece of chain hung on the right leg, and joined by a heavy ring, to be placed on the foot : all these chains are shut by a lock, and never can be taken
off. In this condition these unfortu[From Salamê's Narrutive of the Algerine Espe- nate beings are compelled to walk, to dition.]
work, and to sleep: they invariably On Friday, August 30th, 1816, “ I live in chains. I have seen round their went on shore,” says Mr. Salamé,“ to bodies and their legs very deep furreceive the slaves in the town. On my rows eaten into the flesh, which beway I met the Consul’s man, with a let- comes black, and as hard as a bone; ter for his Lordship, announcing, that the sight of which is really a most all the slaves were arrived from the in- heart-breaking thing. terior, amounting to upwards of one “ After these victims of piracy are thousand. Orders were then given to thus secured, they are compelled to the the fleet, to send a sufficient number of most laborious exercises; such as fellboats to bring them off; and likewise ing trees, cutting stone from the mountwo transports were ordered to go near tains, and carrying it for building; the town to receive them.
moving guns from place to place, and “When I arrived on shore, it was the strengthening the fortifications. And most pitiful sight, to see all these poor | as the Algerines have no machinery, creatures, in what a horrible state they their most difficult work must be acwere; but it is impossible to describe complished by the united energies of their joy and cheerfulness. When our these unhappy wretches. Every ten boats came inside of the mole, I wish- slaves are bound together, and directed ed to receive the slaves from the captain | by a guard, who stands with a whip in of the port, by number; but could not, his hand to direct their movements. because they directly began to push, They sleep all together in a large stable, and throw themselves into the boats by with a mat spread under them on the crowds, ten or twenty persons toge- ground; and no one can remove from ther, so that it was impossible to count his companion in misfortune, even to them until we came on board the ships. obey the calls of nature. It was indeed a most glorious and an “Their provision consists in a loaf of ever-memorably merciful act for Eng- very black bread, weighing eight or ten land, over all Europe, to see the poor ounces, made of barley and beans, slaves, when our boats were shoving one handful of peas, and about a thimoff with them from the shore, all at bleful of oil, for each man per day, once take off their hats, and exclaim with the exception of Friday, when in Italian, “ Long live the king of they have no provision whatever. An England, the eternal Father! and the Aga of the Janisaries, however, posEnglish Admiral who delivered us from sessing more humanity than the gothis second hell !” and afterwards they vernment, on observing the wretched began to prove what they had suffered, condition of these slaves, was induced by beating their breasts, and loudly to provide from his own bounty a porswearing at the Algerines.
tion of meat and of wheaten bread “I spoke with some of these unfor- for them on Fridays. This allowance tunate people, who had been for thirty- continued several years; but the Aga five years in slavery.
dying, deprived them of his bounty, as “When the Algerines, or any of the no one could be found to follow so beBarbary pirates, take an European nevolent an example. Such was the vessel, they seize their goods, and condition of these children of misforevery other thing. They do not, how-tune, until Divine Providence accomever, always take away the money plished their deliverance from bondage, which the prisoners have in their poc- through the medium of the British kets. These unfortunate captives are Government.”—p. 100-106.
On the Bible, by Sir William Jones. this, the utmost hardships are suffered ;
for this, the greatest difficulties are MR. EDITOR,
surmounted; for this, the most perilous The following testimony to the verity and authenticity of the Old and New dangers are encountered; and it is for
this, that all voluntary evils are sufTestament, which is from the pen of Sir William Jones, is, in my opinion,
fered among men. The man of honour deserving of a place in the Imperial Ventures his life with all its comforts,
pursues the horror and carnage of war, Magazine. Your's, &c.
that, as he says, when, having done
his duty, he may rest himself content“ I have carefully and regularly per- ed. The merchant for this, hazards his used the Holy Scriptures, and am of fortune, and many times his credit, to opinion, that the volume, independ- gain a competency, that in the later ently of its divine origin, contains period of his life he may live independmore sublimity, purer morality, more ently and contentedly. For this, the important history, and finer strains miser watches with wishful eyes both both of poetry and eloquence, than night and day over his hard-earned could be collected within the same money, and, with wan face and starved compass from all other books that were frame, waits the arrival of the period ever composed in any age, or in any when his golden soul shall say, It is idiom. The two parts, of which the enough, I am content. But it eviScriptures consist, are connected by a dent, that it is not in the power of any chain of compositions, which bear no creature to impart contentment to an resemblance, in form or style, to any immortal soul. No; honour, in this that can be produced from the stores of respect, is a mere feather; riches, Grecian, Indian, Persian, or even abject poverty ; yea, and even health Arabian learning: the antiquity of and friends, can by no means give spithese compositions, no man doubts ; ritual and lasting content. and the unrestrained application of By contentment, I do not mean that them to events long subsequent to their disposition which looks upon every publication, is a solid ground of belief event as the work of irresistible fate; that they were genuine compositions, and, therefore, inculcates a sceptical and consequently inspired. The con- notion of every act of Divine Provinection of the Mosaic history with that dence. But by contentment I mean, of the Gospel, by a chain of sublime that satisfaction which is the result of predictions, unquestionably ancient, the Divine favour being realized in the and manifestly fulfilled, must induce us soul, and manifested by a perfect acto think the Hebrew narrative more quiescence in the Divine will; having than human in its origin, and conse- no desire but what is conformable quently true in every substantial part thereto. of it; though possibly expressed in It is the operation of faith in God, figurative language, as many learned which expects, with holy patience, the and pious men have believed, and as fulfilment of those blessed promises, the most pious may believe without which are made to all believers in injury, and perhaps with advantage, Christ Jesus. to the cause of revealed religion.” It is manifest in the life by holy obe
dience and calm resignation to the will of God.
It is not beholden to any of the things Sir,
of time or sense for its continuance. If you think the following Thoughts on Names, titles, posts, employments
, Contentment worthy a place in the Im- riches, or poverty, are alike unheeded perial Magazine, by inserting them by those who possess this inestimable you will greatly oblige,
TO THE EDITOR.
treasure. Your's, respectfully, Η. Η.
There are many things which prevent Oldham-street, Manchester, May 19, 1819.
mankind from the enjoyment of con
tent; the first of which is, ignorance of THERE is no disposition more preva- God. Not knowing him, who is our lent in the mind of man, than a desire chief good, we shall be led to make an to be happy and contented. It is to undue estimate of other things, the attain contentment, that mankind make possession or nonpossession of which, such a bustle in this lower world. For 'will always be a source of discontent.
THOUGHTS ON CONTENTMENT.