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long hidden river Niger. Although Cap- covered with small reeds first, and then tain Riley, in traversing the desert, was with the leaves of the date trees : they always at a great distance from Tom. are round, and the tops come to a point
like a heap of stones. Neither the Shebuctoo, yet Sidi Hamet, the intelligent car nor hi
the intelligent gar nor his people are Moslemins, but Arabian merchant, who was so instru- there is a town divided off from the prinmental in effecting bis ransom, had cipal one, in one corner, by a strong made two journeys to that city with a partition wall, and one gate to it, which caravan, and related to Captain Riley at town, or Millah in Mogadore : all the
leads from the main town, like the Jews' Mogadore, after his liberation, the par- Moors or Arabs who have liberty to ticulars of them with so much clearness coine into Tombuctoo, are obliged to and precision, that he was enabled to sleep in that part of it every night, take down the relation in writing, and of go ou
and or go out of the city entirely, and no
stranger is allowed to enter that Millah bas published it at length in his narra- without leaving his knife with the gatetive. His description of Tombuctoo keeper ; but when he comes out in the and its vicinage, agrees in some particu- morning it is restored to him. The Jars with the account of Adarns, but in people who live in that part are all Mosother respects it differs very materially. Moors, are all mixed together, and
lemin. The negroes, bad Arabs, and Sidi Hamet says,
marry with each other, as if they were •Tombuctoo is a very large city, five all of one colour: they have no propertimes as great as Mogadore ; it is built ty of consequence, except a few asses : on a level plain, surrounded on all sides their gate is shut and fastened every by bills, except on the south, where the night at dark, and very strongly guardplain continues to the bank of the same ed both in the night and in the dayriver we had been to before, which is time. The Shegar or king is always wide and deep, and runs to the east; guarded by one hundred men on mules, for we were obliged to go to it to water armed with good guns, and one hunour camels, and here we saw many dred men on foot, with guns and long boats made of great trees, some with knives. He would not go into the Milnegroes in them paddling across the lab, and we only saw him four or five river. The city is strongly walled in times in the two moons we stayed at witb stone laid in clay, like the towns Tombuctoo, waiting for the caravan; and houses in Suse, only a great deal but it had perished on the desert-neithicker : the house of the king is very ther did the yearly caravan from Tunis large and high, like the largest house in and Tripoli arrive, for it had also been Mogadore, but built of the same mate- destroyed. The city of Tombuctoo is rials as the walls : there are a great very rich as well as very large ; it has many more houses in that city built of four gates to it; all of them are opened stone, with shops on one side, where in the day-time, but very strongly they sell salt and knives, and blue guarded and shut at night. Tombuccloth, and haicks, and an abundance of too carries on a great trade with all the other things, with many gold ornaments. caravans that come from Morocco and The inbabitants are blacks, and the the shores of the Mediterranean sea. chief is a very large and gray-headed From Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, &c. are old black man, who is called Shegar, brought all kinds of cloths, iron, salt, which means sultan, or king. The prin- muskets, powder, and lead, swords or eipal part of the bouses are made with scimitars, tobacco, opium, spices, and large reeds, as thick as a man's arm, perfumes, amber beads, and other trinand stand upon their ends, and are kets, with a few other articles; they
carry back in return elepbants' teeth, king. The whole of his officers and gold dust, and wrought gold, gum sene- guards wear breeches that are generally gal, ostrich feathers, very curiously dyed red, but sometimes they are wbite worked turbans, and slaves; a great or blue : all but the king go bareheadmany of the latter, and many other arti. ed. The poor people have only a sincles of less importance: the slaves are gle piece of blue or other cloth about brought in from the south-west, all them, and the slaves a breech cloth. strongly ironed, and are sold very The inhabitants in Tombuctoo are cheap ; so that a good stout man may very numerous ; I think six times as be bought for a haick, which costs in the many as in Mogadore, besides the empire of Morocco about two dollars. Arabs and other Moslemin or MabomThe caravans stop and encamp about medans, in their Millah, or separate two miles from the city in a deep val. town; wbich must contain nearly as ley, and the negroes do not molest many people as there are altogether in them : they bring their merchandise Swearah.' near the walls of the city, where the in Sidi Hamet then related a journey he habitants purchase all their goods in exchange for the above-mentioned arti
had made from Tombuctoo to a much cles ; not more than ffty men from any greater city, several hundred miles to one caravan being allowed to enter the the south, named Wassanah. The place city at a time, and they must go out be. he represents as carrying on a great fore others are permitted to enter. This ir
strade with the white people on the sea city also carries on a great trade with Wassanah, (a city far to the south east) coast; and as the river on which it in all the articles that are brought to it stands appears, from bis description, to by caravans, and get returns in slaves, be the same which he saw, and occa. elephants' teeth, gold, &c. The prin- sionally approached,shortly after leaving cipal male inhabitants are clothed with, blue cloth shirts, that reach from their
in Tombuctoo, Capt. Riley is led to venshoulders down to their knees, and are ture an opinion on this most problemavery wide, and girt about their loins tical subject; wbich, if future discovewith a red and brown cotton sash or ries shall prove it to be correct, will be girdle: they also hang about their bodies pieces of different coloured cloth one
in one of the most curious coincidences in and silk handkerchiefs'; the king is the whole history of African geography. dressed in a white robe of a similar : "This narrative I, for my own part, fashion, but covered with white and consider strictly true and correct, as yellow gold and silver plates, that glit- far as the memory and judgment of Sidi ier in the sun ;- he also has many other Hamet were concerned, whose veracity shining ornaments of shells and stones and intelligence I had before tested : hanging about him, and wears a pair of he had not the least inducement held breeches like the Moors and Barbary out to him for giving this account, fur. Jews, and has a kind of white turban on ther than my own and Mr. Willshire's his head, pointing up, and strung with curiosity ; and his description of Tomdifferent kinds of ornaments; bis feet buctoo agrees in substance with that are covered with red Morocco shoes : given by several Moors, (Fez mer. he has no other weapon about him than chants) who came to Mr. Willshire's a large white staff or sceptre, with a house to buy goods while Sidi Hamet golden lion on the head of it, which he was there, and who said they had carries in his band : bis whole counte- known him in Tombuctoo several years nance is mild, and he seems to govern ago. From these considerations com. his subjects more like a father than a bined, and after examining the best.
maps extant, I conclude that I have where they have seen pale men and strong grounds on which to found the great boats, &c. These I should nalufollowing geographical opinions, viz. rally conclude were Europeans, with
Ist, That the great Desert is much vessels ; and that it takes three moons higher land on its southern side (as I to get there, (about eighty-five days) bad proved it to be on the north by my at the rate of thirty miles a day, which own observations) than the surrounding is the least we can give them with so country, and consequently that its strong a current; it makes a distance whole surface is much higher than the from hence to the sea of about two thouland near it that is susceptible of culti- sand five hundred miles : in computing vation. 2dly, That the river which this distance, one-third or more should Sidi Hamet and his companions came be allowed for its windings, so that the to within fourteen days ride, and west whole length of the river is above four of Tombuctoo, called by the Arabs thousand miles, and is probably the el Wod Tenji, and by the negroes, longest and largest on the African contiGozen-Zair, takes its rise in the moun- nent. 5thly, That the waters of this tains south of, and bordering on, the river in their passage towards the east, great Desert, being probably the north- have been obstructed in their course by ern branch of that extensive ridge in high mountains in the central regions of which Senegal, Gambia, and Niger this unexplored continent, and turned rivers, have their sourses; and that this southwardly; that they are borne along river is a branch of the Niger, which to the southward, between the ridges runs eastwardly for several hundred of mountains that are known to extend miles to Toinbuctoo, near which city, all along the western coast, from Senemany branches, uniting in one great gal to the gulf of Guinea, and to round stream, it takes the name of Zolibib, and with that gulf to the south of the equacontinues to run nearly east, about two tor: that they are continually narrowbundred and fifty miles from Tombuc- ed in and straitened by that immense too ; when meeting with high land, it is ridge in which the great river Nile is turned more south-eastwardly, and run- known to have its sources; and which ning in that direction in a winding mountains lie in the equatorial region: course, about five hundred miles, it has that this central river receives, in its met with some obstructions, through lengthened course, all the streams that which it has forced its way, and form- water and fertilize the whole country, ed a considerable fall: for Sidi Hamet between the two before-mentioned having spent six days in passing the ridges of mountains: the waters thus mountains, came again near the river, accumulated and pent up, at length which was then filled with broken rocks, broke over their western and most feeand the water was foaming and roaring ble barrier, tore it down to its base, among them, as he observed, “ most and thence found and forced their way dreadfully.” This must be a fall or to the Atlantic Ocean, forming what is rapid. 3dly, That from these falls, it now known as the river Congo. In runs first to the south-eastward, and corroboration of this opinion, some men then more to the south, till it reaches of my acquaintance, who have visited Wassanah, about six hundred miles, the Congo, and traded all along the where it is by some called Zolibib, and coast between it and the Senegal, affirm, by others Zadi. 4thly, That as the in- that the Congo discharges more water habitants of Wassanah say they go first into the Atlantic, taking the whole year to the southward, and then to the west- together, than all the streams to the ward, in boats to the great water ; this northward of it, between its mouth and I conceive must be the Atlantic Ocean, Cape de Verd.'
Art. 7. Memoirs of my .own Times: by General James Wilkinson. 8vo.
3 vols. Philadelphia. Abraham Small, Printer.
THIS is, unquestionably, a work of is quite too much of it in the General's
great magnitude,--and of some im. Book. The second and third volumes portance. But its plan is so desultory of his Memoirs are filled with the deand its contents are so anomalous, that tails of bis persecutions, with the prowe bardly know how to attempt a de- ceedings of courts of Inquiry and courts lineation of the one, or a classification Martial, and with the multifarious eviof the other. So inuch of the work, in- dence requisite to the vindication of deed, is made up of controversy, which, his patriotism, valour, and capacity. though of a personal nature, has a po- Yet these recitals are plentifully interJitical bearing, that we are almost pre- spersed with reflections, not merely on cluded, by the restrictions which we events, but on characters. It is obvi. bave imposed upon ourselves, from en- ous that this part of his work offers littering into a consideration of its merits. tle allurement to the general readerWe do not mean to violate the pledge though by the statesman and soldier, it we have given, by taking any side in will neither be read with indifference, the General's quarrels, or pretending to nor lightly prized. pronounce upon the relative deserts of The first volume is more attractive, the parties. We may be permitted, and will always be perused with interhowever, to say that there is an acri- est, by readers of every description. mony in bis resentments, and a coarse. About half of it is occupied in describness in bis invective, that no provoca- ing those scenes and occurrences of the tion can justisy. He who appeals to revolutionary war with which our authe public, owes some respect to the thor was connected: this portion of the tribunal to which he prefers bis com- work comprises much valuable inforplaints, however little of that sentiment mation. General Wilkinson's official he may entertain for his adversaries. situation and the opportunities incident Violence is generally resorted to in the to it, have put it in his power to elucidearth of argument, and brings suspi- date inany transactions that had been cion on the best cause: A degree of either misunderstood or misrepresentdignity is inseparable from innocence ; ed. He has furnished us, too, with and consciousness of truth disdains as many anecdotes of bis distinguished coseveration.
temporaries, tending to illustrate their Memoirs are a very popular species characters, and the circumstances of of writing ; and happily suited to Gene- the times. He has taken pains to ins ral Wilkinson's propensities. It is the troduce us into the very centre of the most inoffensive mode of gratifying gar- camp, and to bring us acquainted with rulity, since it is at the option of every its bustle, its confusion, and its distresses. one whether he will be a listener, or He does not disguise the object which not. But egotism in any shape should has induced him to paint in such sombe administered in moderation. There bre shades the sad realities of war. He
ayows his wish to check the mistaken impulse, which can excite men of senardour of his countrymen in the pur-sibility to seek such scenes of barbasuit of tbe phantom of military glory.
rism; I found the courageous Colonel
Cilley a straddle on a brass twelveHe justly ridicules the rodomontade pounder, and exulting in the capturewith which we have celebrated the whilst a surgeon, a man of great worth, most trivial successes, and deprecates who was dressing one of the officers, the subserviency with which sturdy re
sturdy re. raising his blood-besmeared hands in a
frenzy of patriotisin, exclaimed, Wilkinpublicans can bow to a victorious chief, son
· son, I have dipt my hands in British however indebted to fortune for his tri- blood. He received a sharp rebuke umphs. He sees in this fondness for for his brutality, and with the troops I military fame, this disposition to mag- pursued
to mag. pursued the hard-pressed flying enemy, nify military
passing over killed and wounded, until achievenients, and this I heard one exclaim, “protect me, Sir, alacrity to fawn upon military beroes, against this boy.” Turning my eyes, a pregnant source of calamity to our it was my fortune to arrest the purpose country, and of danger to our most va- of a lad, thirteen or fourteen years old, lued institutions. General Wilkinson
in in the act of taking aim at a wounded
" officer who lay in the angle of a wormis not singular in his appreheosions in fence. Inquiring his rank, he answerthis regard. We have heard that a ed, “ I had the honour to command the gentleman who has occupied the high- grenadiers;” of course, I knew him to est station in cur government and be Major Ackland, who had been whose interest in its welfare has not
** brought from the field to this place, on
be the back of a Captain Shrimpton, of his ceased with his administration of its own corps, under a beavy fire, and was affairs, has intimated an intention, at here deposited, to save the lives of both. some period, to raise bis warning voice I dismounted, took himn by the hand, against so alarming a predilection.
and expressed hopes that he was not
badly wounded ; - not badly," replied As a faithful picture of a battle this gallant officer and accomplished ground, where 'grim-visaged war' is gentleman, “ but very inconveniently, rioting in recent desolation, we take I am shot through both legs ; will you, the following extract from General Wil- Sir, have the goodness to have me con
"veyed to your camp ?” I directed my kinson's account of the action between
en 'servant to alight, and we lifted Ackland the armies of General Gates and Gene- into his seat, and ordered him to be ral Burgoyne, on the 7th of October, conducted to head-quarters.' 1777.
The painting of the Baroness Rei• The ground wbich had been occupi- desel is not less vivid, when she deed by the British grenadiers presented a scribes the dreadful scenes she was scene of complicated borror and exulta- compe
de compelled to witness in the British tion. In the square space of twelve or fifteen yards lay eighteen grenadiers in camp. We have never seen the narthe agonies of death, and three officers rative of the Baroness, of which Gene. propped up against stumps of trees, two ral Wilkinson has presented us with of them mortally wounded, bleeding, some spirited translations. We are sorry and alınost speechless; what a specta.
ith that we bave not room for the extracts of cle for one whose bosom glowed with philanthropy, and how vehement the this journal of the Baroness, with which
VOL. 1, NO. I.