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Cyrus nothing was to be discerned but cheerfulness, emulation, courage, mutual exhortations, prudence, and obedience, which cast a strange terror into the hearts of the enemies. For, says the historian here, , it was observed that those who most feared the gods upon these occasions were the least afraid of men. The Assyrian archers, slingers, and darters of javelins, made their discharges before the enemy was within reach. But the Persians, encouraged by the presence and example of Cyrus came at once to a close engagement, and broke the first battalions. The Assyrians could not sustain so rude a shock, and took all to their beels. The Median horse moved forward at the same time to fall upon that of the enemy, who were also soon routed. They were briskly pursued as far as their camp. The slaughter was terrible, and the Assyrian king lost his life in the field. Cyrus did not think himself in a condition to force them in their entrenchments, and sounded a retreat.

The Assyrians in the mean while; their king slain, and the bravest men in the army. lost, were in a strange consternation. Cresus and the other allies lost also all hope. So that they had no thoughts but of escaping by favour of the night.

Cyrus had rightly foreseen it, and prepared for a vigorous pursuit. But this was not to be done without horse, and the Persians, as we have already observed, had none. He went therefore to Cyaxares, and told him of his design. Cyaxares very much disapproved it, and represented to him the danger there was in driving so powerful an enemy to extremes, who might perhaps be inspired with courage by being driven to despair; that it was prudent to use good fortune with moderation and not to lose the fruit of a victory by too much eagerness; that besides, he was unwilling to compel the Medes, or prevent them from taking the repose they had so justly deserved. Cyrus at last desired leave only to carry such with him, as were willing to follow him, and got the consent of Cyaxares with great difficulty, who had no thought but



of passing his time in feasting and rejoicing with his officers, for the victory he had so lately gained.

Almost all the Medes followed Cyrus, who began his march in pursuit of the enemy. He met in his way couriers from the Hyrcanians, who served in the enemy's army, to tell him, that as soon as he appeared, they were ready to submit to him, and in reality they did so. He lost no time, but marching all night came up with the Assyrians. Cræsus had sent his wives before in the cool of the evening, for it was then summer, and was following after them with some horse. The Assyrians were in the utmost consternation, when they saw the enemy at their heels. Many of them were killed in the flight; all that were left in the camp surrendered; the victory was complete, and the booty immense. Cyrus kept to himself all the horses that were found in the camp, designing from that time to form a body of Persian horse, which till then they had not. Every thing of the greatest value he set apart for Cyaxares. When the Medes and Hyrcanians were returned from pursuing the enemy, he made them partake of a repast he had prepared for them, bidding them send only some bread to the Persians, who had every thing else that was necessary for them both as to delicacy and drink. Their sauce was hunger, and their drink the water from the river. This was the manner of living, to which they had been accustomed from their infancy.

Cyaxares had passed the night, that Cyrus spent in pursuit of the enemy, in joy and feasting, and had got drunk with his principal officers. When he awaked the next morning, he was strangely surprised to see himself left almost alone. Full of rage and indignation, he immediately dispatched a messenger to the army, with orders to reproach Cyrus, and make the Medes return directly. Cyrus was under no concern at so unjust a command. He wrote back a respectful letter, but with a generous freedom, in which he justified his conduct, and reminded him of the leave he had granted to all the Medes that were willing to



follow hiin. He sent at the same time into Persia for

. fresh troops, designing to extend his conquests still farther.

Among the prisoners of war was a young princess of exquisite beauty, reserved for Cyrus. She was named Panthea, and was wife to Abradates king of Susiana. Upon the report of her beauty Cyrus refused to see her, apprehending, as he said, lest such an object should engage his affection too much, and divert him from the great designs he had formed, Araspes, a young Median lord, in whose custody she had been, did not suspect his own weakness so much, and affimed that a man was always master of himself, Cyrus gave him prudent advice, and put the princess again into his hands. Fear not, replies Araspes, I am secure of myself, and will lay my life on it that I do nothing contrary to my duty. However, his passion for the princess increased by little and little to such a degree, that finding her invincibly averse to his desires, he was upon the point of offering her violence. The princess made her complaints to Cyrus, who presently sent Artabazus to expostulate in his name with Araspes. This officer chid him with the utmost severity, and set his fault before him in such a light, as almost threw him into despair. Araspes, overwhelmed with grief, could not refrain from tears, and was struck dumb with shaine and terror. Some days after Cyrus sent for him; and he came all trembling and disordered. Cyrus took him aside, and instead of the violent reproaches he expected, spoke to him with the utmost mildness, owning that he had been to blame for imprudently shutting him up

with so formidable an enemy. Such unexpected goodness gave life to the young lord. His confusion, joy, and gratitude, drew tears from his eyes in abundance. It is now, says he, that I begin to know niyself, and sensibly to prove that I have two souls, one that inclines me to do well, and the other that urges me to mischief. The first is always superior, when you are by to assist me, and are talking with me; and I yield


to the other, and am overcome, when I am alone by myself. He made ample amends afterwards for his fault, and did Cyrus a considerable service, by retreating as a spy to the Assyrians, under the pretext of a pretended discontent.

Cyrus in the mean time prepared to advance into the enemy's country. None of the Medes would quit him, nor return without him to Cyaxares, whose rage and cruelty they apprehended. The army began their march. The good treatment Cyrus had given the prisoners of war, by sending them all back free into their own country, had spread a general rumour of his clemency. Many of the people submitted to him, and increased the number of his troops. When he drew nigh to Babylon, he sent a challenge to the king of Assyria, offering to decide the quarrel by a single coinbat. But this challenge was not accepted. However, for the security of his allies during his absence, he entered into a kind of truce and treaty with him, by which it was agreed on both sides, that the husbandmen should not be disturbed, but have full liberty to till the ground. And thus, after he had taken a view of the country, examined the situation of Babylon, enlarged the number of his friends and allies, he returned towards Media.

When he drew near the frontiers, he sent deputies to Cyaxares, to give him notice of his arrival, and to receive his orders. Cyaxares did not think it advisable to admit so considerable an armyinto his country, which was besides to be augmented by the addition of forty thousand men, lately arrived from Persia. The next day he set forward on his journey with the horse that remained with him. Cyrus advanced to meet him with his, who were very numerous and in good order. The sight of them awakened the jealousy and discontent of Cyaxares. He gave his nephew a very cold reception, turned aside his face, and declined his kiss, and even let fall some tears Cyrus commanded all that stood by him to withdraw, and reasoned with him upon the occasion. He spoke with so much mildness,

submission, submission, and force, gave him such strong proofs of his integrity, respect, and inviolable attachment to his person and interests, that he removed in a moment all his suspicions, and was perfectly restored to his good graces. They mutually embraced each other, and shed tears on both sides. The joy of the Medes and Persians was inexpressible, who waited for the issue of this interview with fear and trembling. Cyaxares and Cyrus immediately mounted their horses, and then all the Medes posted themselves behind Cyaxares, pursuant to the signal Cyrus had given them. The Persians followed Cyrus, and the other nations their respective princes. When they were arrived at the camp, they conducted Cyaxares to the tent which had been prepared for him. He was immediately visited by most of the Medes, who came to pay their respects to him, and make him presents, some of their own accord, and others by the direction of Cyrus. Cyaxares was extremely affected with it, and began to be convinced that Cyrus had not debauched his subjects from him, but that the Medes bore him the same affectionate regard they had done before.


This whole story is full of instruction. We see in Cyrus all the qualifications requisite to form a great man, and in his troops whatever renders an army invincible. This young prince, far superior in his sentiments to those of bis rank and age, placed not his glory in magnificent repasts, clothes, and equipages. He was unacquainted with the airs of haughtines and pride, by which young men of quality often imagine they distinguish themselves. He valued riches only for the pleasure of distributing them, and the opportunity they gave him of adding to the number of his friends. He [z] was surprisingly a master in the art of gaining the affections of others, and still more by

{z} Artificium benevolentiz of Cyrus. Ep. 1. ad Quint. Frasolligendz, says Tully, speaking trem.

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