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er-in-cbief of the forces in India, of India to undertake the equipinent took place. The most extensive powers of different armaments, connected were vested in his Lordship, and eve- with the general operations of the ty part of his wise and energetic go- war; and though such expeditions vernment proved that they could not were generally attended with success, have been confided to abier or to the expenses which they necessarily better hands. It is from the period involved, led to the progressive acof Lord Cornwallis's administration cumulation of that load of debt that we may date a iaclical change in which presses now op the finances of tbe cond:ict of affairs in India. The the Conrpany. history of India had, before that pe- “In 1798 the charge of the su. riod, afforded examples of wise states. preme government devolved on Lord men, and of able generals; but their Wellesley, who undertook the duties exertions in the cause of their coup- of that arduous office at a moment try were impeded by the defects in- big with difficulty, and when our inherent in the system under which terests in India were surrounded with they acted. Those defects it had imuninent dangers. It would be un'been the object of the bill of 1784 to suitable, in a sketch of this nature, to remedy; and Lord Cornwallis, in as. enter on tbe subject of the achiere suming the government of India, on ments of Lord Wellesley's administrathe foundation established by that tion. It is sufficient to observe, that bill, entered on a field that was open after a long course of vigorous meafor the exertion of a great and be sures, and of exploits of signal valor nevoient mind.
and enterprize, the British empire in “ It would be unnecessary to recur, India has acquired a degree of stabiliin this place, to the decisive success ty and security unknown at any former that attended our army 'under his period; and we may with confidence Lordship's direction, or to the im- hope that a few years of internal tresportant consequences to the national quility will suffice to restore our security in India which followed from Indian finances, and to reduce wbut achievements that obtained the ligh- has been emphatically called the est testimonies of public approbation greatest enemy of the Company, the and gratitude. Our attention sliould Indian debt. Dot be less directed to the salutáry ar- “ The two great measures which rangements which Lord Cornwallis marked the commencement of Lord carried into effect for the internal Wellesley's administration, were pargovernment of the Britisil territories ticularly connected with the interni in Bengal--arrangements, which fixed of the Presidency of Madras, namely, on immutable principles the general the subjugation of the French force in rights of property, and whichi secured the Decan, and the war of Mysore, to our native subjects the inipartial which terminated in the conquest administration of justice, under laws Seringarátam, and the overthrow ei grafted on the native institutions and the house of Hyder Ally. tempered by the wisdom and mid- “ Lord Wellesley proceeded to ness of British jurisprudence. This Madras for the purpose of superinwas a work which rendered his Lord tending personally the arrangemen's alip the benefactor of mankind, and connected with the war in Mysore, oi which, as observed by an enlighten. but after the termination of that need writer, an Antoninus Pius might :norable campaign, the atfairs of that have had reason to beast.
Presidency again devolved on ile “ Lord Cornwallis resigned the of local government, in which Lord fice of Governor-general in 1793, at Clive then presided. The territory which time lodia enjoyed a state of of Marras had been considerably el profound tranquillity and creasing Jarged by the cession of countliy prosperity. But at this period the which took place under the treais revolutionary war of France had com- concluded by Lord Cornwallis with menced, and the consequences of that Tippoo sutan in 1792, and was aga19 sanguinary contest were quickly ex- fariber encreased by the share ri jended to our eastern dominions. It territory wbied was acquired on the became necessary for the government conquest of Mysore in 1799. Frum
that period the limits of this part of introduction of laws, or the establishthe Company's dominions were rapid- ment of a regular government, must ly extended. In 1799 Tanjore was be impracticable. It accordingly be... ceded by the Rajah on the terms of came a first duty to apply a remedy the treaty then concluded. In 1300 to this evil, on the same principle as the districts South of the Kistnah the measure of annulling the feudal were ceded by the Nizam; and in tenures, and of disarming the inhabit1801 the authority of the British go. ants of the Highlands of Scotland, sernmeut was established throughout was a preparatory and an indispensithe Carnatic, in conformity to the ble step towards placing them in the treaty concluded with the present sank of obeclient subjects of the goNabob. Within the period of thiee vernment of the country. After a years an entire change took place in long course of vigorous exertions and the political circumstances and rela. of active miiitary operations, during tions of the Presidency of Madras, the administration of Lord Clive, During the existence of the house of and subsequently of Lord William Hyder Ally, that part of the Com- Bentinck, and after the subjugation pany's dominions had always been of different formidable rebellions, most vulnerable, and most exposed to this object was happily effected unthe attack of open, and to the ma- der the government of Fort Saint chinations of secret enemies. Our George.
Lord Clive was enabled, power in that quarter had existed by previously to his embarkation for the most precarious tenure, and had Enzland in 1803, to introduce in a been more than once in imminent considerable part of those territories hazard of annihilation. By the over- the system of law and of established throw of Tippoo Sultan, the most property which Lord Cornwallis had pressing of our dangers bad ceased introduced in Bengal, and under to exist, and the territories of that in- which our territories in that quarter veterate fue of the British name, be- had attained a high degree of prospe. came, under the existing treaty with rity. Previously to the extension of the Rajah of Mysore, a source of that system to Madras, the rights of strength and of additional security to property had beer in a great measure our interests. By the oiher treaties undefined ; and criminal justice hav. which have been inentioned, the Bri- ing ceased to be administered in a tish, dominion was established on a large portion of that country, crines firm basis throughout that part of the escaped undetected or unpunished. peninsula which is South of the Kist- The establishment of the civil and nah, which river affords a strong and criminal courts was subsequently, on defined barrier for the protection of the same enlightened principle, renour frontier.
dered by Lord William Beniinck geFrom the relaxed nature of the neral throughout the territories under government which had prevailed in a Fort St. George; and their effects considerable part of the territories have been visible in the improveceded to the Company, while those ment they have produced in the chaterritories were subject to the native racter and circumstances of our native Princes, their subjection to our au- subjects.* thority became a task of no ordinary difficulty.
The feudal tenure had * This is no exaggerated descripgenerally existed in its worst shape; tion. The effect here stated has and as the power of the ostensiblé been visible in the internal tranquillis sovereigns was in general little more ty which has now for several years exthan nominal, the country swarmed isted in this part of the Company's with-predatory chieftains, who with possessions. At former periods, not their followers bid defiance to lawful very distant, a war in India, or any authority, and by acts of contined untoward public occurence, was the warfare and rapine had reduced to signal for universal commotion; and pacarly a desert state, lands that had the territories of some of the native been destined by nature to be the seat powers not unfrequently suffered more of population and abundance. In from the rebellion of their own sub. that disturbed state of society, the jects than from the attack of foreign “It will be readily supposed, that the Indian governments; and, after a in the course of this rapid progression lengthened correspondence, it was in the limits of our eastern empire, placed on a footing which correspondchanges of a material nature have ed with the extent of our possessions taken place in the constitution of the at that period. The establishment civil and military branches of the afterwards varied according to the public service. Both branches have exigencies of war, and the circumbeen accorilingly greatly enlarged and stances of the times. In 1988, the improved; but as it is to the latter whole number of officers in the serthat it will be proper that our atten- vice of the Company (exclusive of tion should be at present particularly those of his Majesty's service) amountdrawn, the following brief view has ed to about one thousand three bunbeen taken of its progress.
dred. In 1795, the number was some“At the early period of our com- wbat diminished. In 1796, the army mercial establishments in India, our of India was modelled according to a military force was confined to the new and an improved system ; and the number of men, not exceeding a few regulations passed at that period iphundred, chiefly Europeans, who troduced a very beneficial reform in were required for the security of our its constitution. The army had, for a trading factories. On the coast of length of time, laboured under conCoromandel, the French gave the first siderablc 'grievances, which were example of training Sepoys after the brought particularly to notice in European mode of discipline, and it diferent memorials which were adwas not until the war which com- dressed to the Court of Directors.menced in 1716, that troops of this According to the former constitution description were employed on that of the Company's army, the officers coast, in the British service. The could not rise beyond the rank of number of our troops was encreased, colonel; the vatire battalions were as the sphere of our operations became commanded by officers of the rank of enlarged; but in that early state of captain ; and the number of officers our military history, the fate of a bat. attached to both the European and tle, or of a campaign, not unfrequent- native corps in the Company's serly depended on the exertions of a vice was very disproportioned to the party that would scarely now be ein- nature of their duty. One of the ploved on the most ordinary detail of consequences arising from this cirduty. The memorable victory of cumstance was, that the officers of the Plassev was obtained with a force not Company's army were subjected to exceeding 900 Europeans, and about great supercession by the officers of 2200 native troops.
his Majesty's service. It had also After the peace of 1763, the regu- been the practice, that officers, when lation of the military establishment required by sickness, or other causes, in India engaged the particular atten. to return to their native country, tion of the Court of Directors, and of were considered as removed from the
service, and received no pay during enemies. The reverse is now the their absence from India. Tbese case; and though opportunities for grievances were stated in some of the renewal of disturbance have not ihe memorials in language of ability been wanting, the mass of our indian and moderation; and they were unsubjects bas evinced the inost perfect questionably such as called for realtacliwent to the government that dress. Accordingly, after a full conprotects them. Of this fact some late sideration of the subject in this coun forcible examples could be attorded. try, the improved regulations of 1750 History cannot, perhaps, produce a were adopted, being founded on a more striking instance of the advan- principle of acknowledged liberality. tages of a mild, combined with a The restriction, with regard to the firm and consistent mode of govern- promotion of the Company's otficers ment, than may be found in the pre- to the rank of general officers, was sent state of British India when con- removed, and a certain number of trasted with the former condition of those oflicers, were made eligible for that country.
the general staff. The number of
officers attached to the European and “ It was observed in one of the native corps in the service of the ablest of the memorials which have Company was generally increased, been alluded to, that “The military and ine command of the corps was profession has, in all ages, and among given to officers of the rank of colonel, all nations, been considered the road with the usual share of oft-reckonings. to honourable distinction. The reOfficers were permitted to return to venues of no state have been sufficient England on furlough for three years, to admit of its bestowing adequate on full pay; and after twenty-two pecuniary compensation on those wbo years service in India, the option of had sacrificed the invaluable season of retiring on the pay of their rank was youth to the toils and hardships of the allowed. Hitherto half baita had held, and devoted to their country's not been generally granted as a fixed glory and safety the time employed allowance at Madras and Bombay; by others in the acquisition of a probut by the new regulations, it was ex- vision to support a decent dignity in tended to the officers of those Presi- the wane of life. Honours, therefore, dencies in peace, with the allowance and distinctions, have always been of full batta in war. Additional re- the effectual substitute—the unbought gulations were subsequently framed, defence of nations.' tending to the further improvement of the circumstances of the army ;
• It will have been seen, from the particularly in the point of facili- above general view of the regulations tating the retirement of the junior of established for the lodian army, that ficers in case of ill health.
it was the object of those regulations " The regulations of 1796 occa- to place it on a footing both honoursioned a very extensive promotion in able and lucrative ; and it is believed the army of India, which has been that no army in any service has ever further increased by the great aug- enjoyed that advantage in a more emimentation which has since taken place
nent degree." in the strength of the military establishment. According to the latest information, the number of officers According to the rules in the on the Madras establishment has been Company's service, the officers are stated, it is believed correctly, to be promoted by seniority, without purNear 1300; being about equal to the chase. The officers in the Indian whole number of officers at all the army have, therefore, had the entire Indian Presidencies, previously to the benefit of the late extensive proregulations of 1796.*
LINES TO Miss E. A. M. G-
ATBetsy's birth imperial Jove
To council call'd the pow'rs above;
Resolv'd that all should lend their aid And, blest with him whom I adore,
With various charms to deck the maid. Could roam thro' foreign nations; For, what are friends to lovors true?
To Pallas, first, the task assignd, Or dangers ihe severest?
With Wisdon's pow'r to form her mind ; My heart will break to bid adieu
Then Venus breath'd each winning grace In parting with my dearest!
of female beauty o'er her face
A face by which all hearts are won, I dare not follow where he goes,
Too lovely to be gazed upon : Yet cannot live behind him:
The charming shape, the heav'nly smile, May Heaven protect him from his foes, At once to please and to beguile.
And guide my steps to find him! The God of Luve his art supplies, For I can live in tvil and care,
And shoots his lightning from her eyes. And dangers the severest;
The Sister Graces next prepare But, like the wailings of despair,
Their choicest gifts to deck the fair ;
Beauty, Politeness, Wit, and Ease,
Diana next her breast inspires,
When humblest mortals, with the los. And there she breathes her chastest fires,
liest lays, Such heav'nly beauty to secure,
Express their joy by singing Jesu's praise, And keep her virgin lusire pure.
The highest angels feel a fresh delight, Thus formid, accomplish'd at her birth, And wjih celestial notes their joys unite ; The lovely maid descends on earth.
But when the noblest tune and loftiest How bless'! the happy youib will prove
strain On whom she shall bestow her love :
Attemp: some subject, fuolish or prophane, Aud whene'er Cupid shall resign
Or aim to elevate poor mortal elves His fav'rite maid ar Hymen's shrine, Above their Maker, or above themselves, Foru'd to ador each state of life,
Heav'nı sees no smile-hears no responding The admir'd belle or virtuous wile :
voiceWell skill'd in ev'ry pleasing art
Nor will one cliristian's heart, on earth, reT' attract the eye and keep the heart.
joice; O may the env'ed, happy youth
But all the harsh blaspheming bands of Excel in virtue, lore, aud truth :
Hell May he to whom she gives her hand, Will join their jovial fellow's jarring yell, And joins her hear: in Hyinen's band, And with wild shouts, and screams, rem Make it his first, his chiefest care,
echoing round, To please h'enchanting, lovely fair ; Fill all the hollows of the vast profound! T'anticipate cach wish, each thought
No mind of man ought exercise its powi's Of her who's formd without one fault;
O'er borrow'd beauty, wit, or worth, like Each other good would I resign,
our's Could I but call Eliza mine.
No human voice exert its rapturing arts J. W.
To chaunt such charms, such virtues, of Hansard-Place, Blackfriars-Road.
With idolizing sounds, and impious songs, Lovi LETTERS to my Wife. By Ascribing what alone to God belongs. JAMES WOODHOUSE.
Ought man's immortal energies extol LETTER XIII.
Frail beauty's frame, which soon must fade Continued from p. 312.)
The poet's pen, and chaunter's tongue, IT makes no music echo thro' the grove, No favning zephyrs thro’ the forest rove; A fool's attainments, or a tyrant's fame?
proclaim They pant noto'er the stream, or stirry pool, With wavering wings their burning breath No periol, shap'd in prose, with flattering to cool
style, Nor can the sight perceive their pinions pass. A being, once possessed of better things,
Should laud a being both derir'd and rile; O’er eddying grain, or shake the shivering Become a rebel gainst the King of Kings!
gras: No lofty trees or woodlands, tvave or nod- Much less the measur'd melody of rhyme No humbler shrubs bend, trembling o'er the Applaud a creature staind with every
But heart, mind, soul, and strength, all But on each water, forest, plain, and hill,
turn their force All's tasteless, silent, scentless, flat, and
To celebrate love's ever living source still!
From whence all pow'rs and faculties arise No scrānnel notes from tubes, or tinkling That strive on earth, or triumph in the wires,
skies! Can match the concerts of the sylvan choirs,
Tho' !, in faithful, fond, but virtuous Nor, with the tuneful tones of added strings, Enchant the soul as when my Hannalı My Hannah's worth, and loveliness resings!
hearse Should monstrous Rubinelli, giant child !
Tho' for thy sake from all the sex I'd flee, Squeak, shake and trill; unnatural rhythms 1 deem no adoration due to thee; wild,
But raise my raptur'd soul to sing that While warbling Mara thrills misjudging
Whose plastic power so form'd thy peei. By swelling airs profane, or wanton songs, less frame, The smplest psalmodists, that chaunt and who made such merit with such beauty chime
shine, Their anthems, hymns, or psalms, are And bless that Providence that made thee more sublime :
mine! But should my Hannah's voice the chorus join,
END OF LETTER XIII. The blessed harmony becomes diviac!
[To be continued]