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declared in favour of nature, and crop was the word. -Elderly men discarded those immense bushes of cowhair which had so long been thought the necessary appendages of age and compotence, and adopted a substitute more resembling a natural head. The
and then caught the infection, and the nymphs and graces, the standards of beauty and elegance in remote ages, became the models from which the votaries of fashion as well as the painter and sculptor drew all their ideas of what was graceful or becoming. In observing on what is gained faculty, who had mostly laid aside by the sex in this revolution in taste, their orange or other professional the remark of the Bow-street officer colour, now farther assimilated their applies with considerable force. Let appearance to that of their fellowus imagine a group of females dress- citizens, and physicians are no more ed like our lady of the manor, every to be distinguished by their dress, lineament of their form obscured or except a few, who have in general distorted, and after the mathematical little else to distinguish them. This question of the heighth and breadth reformation in taste even reached the of each individual is considered, what clergy, who, averse as they may seem remains to give one a superiority to to the name of reform, many of them another but the charm of face? We cashiered their unfortunate peruquiers, will next suppose an equal number, and the amount of the powder tax not of nudes, but of the more modest and the price of cow's-tails fell quietly copyists of the antique. The face is together. The price of provisions coonly a part, the form first draws our operated; the war-office rescued attention, and she finds that as far as some thousand barrels of flour from personal attractions only are consi- the waste to which it was otherwise dered, we have more than double the destined; and in this point of view number of charming women. When alone, the disuse of powder may be the ladies had thus discarded their considered a beneficial change in the whalebone armour, to have retained customs of the country. With the the load of superfluous ornament ladies and some of the gentlemen, which fashion had piled upon their Brutus and Titus have had the ho heads would have shewn the same nour of giving a name to two differerror in taste, as the artist, who, ent modes of setting off the hair, artihaving executed a fine naked bust of ficial ringlets have succeeded, first Garrick, gave him a full-dressed head for those who wanted them, and next of hair and a bag. But Messrs. Pitt for those who did not; but, whatever and Co. prevented their committing vagaries they may have run into, I that solecism by a measure which believe the women understand too succeeded like many of their other well their own interest to attempt a measures. The powder tax first re- counter-revolution. stored to their natural colour, and curtailed of their dangling incumbrances behind, those heads which had oftenest shaken in doubt or disapprobation of the measures which rendered it necessary. The example of so many persons in all ranks of society, served as an apology to their own pride; for many who were indifferent to men and measures, would have scorned to confess that they could not afford their guinea. The younger branches of large families from economy dis- and size used to be trussed, which, if carded powder, and when, in a few it did not, like the bed of Procrustes, instances, a good head of hair, with reduce them all to one length, mouldall the advantages of the new style of ed all the fashionables to one shape, dress and a good person to co-operate must have been the cause of many with it, had been fairly set in compa- distortions and more disorders from rison with the best powdered speci- so unnatural a compression of the mens the artist could furnish, taste vital parts, than are to be apprehended
Whether the changes in female dress have been so unfavourable on the whole to health as some have imagined, I may be permitted to doubt. If the stiff swaddling with which children as soon as they were born used to be encased at Hamburg, was the cause of that city furnishing so many examples of early decrepitude in every possible variety of distortion, surely the whalebone case in which females of every age, shape,
from the exposure of them to the it has long been almost confined to cold. The story of the Indian is well the ranks; but a late order of the known, and though it has an indeii- commander-in-chief, which will have cate sound to say that our ladies are the effect of a sumptuary law, enbecoming all face, it may be very near joins the use of gaiters, and the disthe truth. The principal ill conse- use of lace to the several classes of quences to be apprehended are that a officers whom the use of boots and few delicate creatures who, would the attempts to rival their superiors.in inevitably have been screwed into a finery, often drove to dishonourable consumption, may now find their expedients to elude or pacify the creway to that melancholy goal by ano- ditors, which their extravagance in those with other expensive fineries, The changes that have taken place brought upon them. The order from among the men are on the whole the same quarter for cutting off those very much in favour of ease and pro- immense queus, which were highly priety. Instead of silk brocade and inconvenient at home and in action, buckram, frogs and gold lace, the could only be of use as a handle to squareness of skirt and immensity of the pursuer, and perhaps a derrien cuff, or the closely fitted jackets, guard to a run-away, may be consi which in their effects approached the dered as a tacit censure on the introstrait-waistcoat; both in the make duction of them, which, with the and materials of their garments furs, fringes, and furbelows of German which they have adopted, is an union origin, with which our cavalry is of f simplicity and attention to per- late so ridiculously bedizened, occa sonal convenience; and the differ- sioned an indignant veteran to reence between a man of first rate mark, that he did not see any thing elegance in an undress, and a gay a certain personage had acquired on disciple of George Fox is not often his foreign travels, convertible to the scarcely discernible. The enormous service of his country, that he might buckle, which instead of being adapt not have learnt in an apprenticeship ed to keep on the shoe, was obliged to an army tailor. to have a shoe made on purpose to fasten it, has been exploded for the
Among articles that do not come precisely under either of the heads
of the shoe-tye. The introduction of the Polish pantaloon and half-boot was about cotemporary with that of the shoe-tye, but though almost as universally adopted, they have not the same recommendations of ease and economy, and the general use of boots has perhaps militated more than any other change of fashion against the interest of the poor in general, by uniting with other causes to raise the price of leather, so that a labouring man must, to procure a pair of strong shoes, sacrifice a large proportion of his weekly earnings. The gaiter, lighter and more economical, has partially succeeded the half-boot; but the appearance of economy in dress being one of the externals of poverty, the gaiter, with all its recommendations, can only be expected to obtain a very inferior place among the fashionables, though among the classes above or below the fashion, its use is become very
old, but neat and comfortable fashion proposed in the commencement of this paper, but which have come into general use are the umbrella and pa rasol. The former is now made of such cheap materials that it is in the hands of every class above mendicity, and the latter has but one move lower to make, to be twirled on the Sunday by those who have twirled the mop during the rest of the week. Voltaire in his sneering way, says, the Pope has an army of soldiers who mount guard with umbrellas. Many people no doubt suppose it a poetical license; I did so myself, till I happened to see the guard relieved at Raizburg, one rainy morning when I really some of the men-machines of his Serene Highness of Mecklenburg Strelitz take the same defence against the weather.
and to reBut this is a digression ; turn to and conclude my cursory re marks, I shall endeavour, in few words, to describe the effects these revolutions in dress have produced on
general. As a military accoutrement, our manufactures. The great trial of
flannel and calamanco versus dimity mand occasions very little complaint. and muslin, seems in the court of If I have omitted to notice any refashion to be terminated by a com- markable and general change of the promise in which the staple com- kinds I alluded to, I can only hope modities of Britain, like her interests some one of your numerous correin a late convention, are only consi- spondents will give me the correcdered as of secondary importance. tion, I shall be very happy to receive Flannel, it is true, in spite of Dr. either for faults of omission or comDarwin, has regained among the men mission. even more, perhaps, than it has lost among the women, but calamanco with its stiff ungraceful fraternity of stuffs seems irrecoverably banished, except among a few old fashioned
For the Universal Magazine.
WE must not confound, as the
vulgar do, the poweful with the great man. Power often comes either from birth, or by different conjunctures of fortune, or rather, by the different external arrangements of providence; but we cannot become a great man except by the single inward qualities of the heart and mind, and by the important benefits which we may confer upon society.
people, and the lowest classes of the OBSERVATIONS on the DIFFERENCE community, and œconomy has joined BETWEEN a GREAT MAN and an with fashion to prevent a recal. To ILLUSTRIOUS MAN. what rank has the rage for muslin not extended both upwards and downwards? Silk, for a short period, was almost laid aside, and the looms of Manchester and Glasgow supplied its place, but its eclipse was of short duration for its uniting lightness with warmth must ever render it a favourite with the fair, and to the fashionable world it has this powerful recommendation, that while its price is in a certain degree a check upon its descent among the vulgar, among its varieties of texture and colour, and of These are the great men who merit uses to which it may be applied, fa- our esteem, our praises, and our inshion can ever find something costly, ward respect: for, external respect too whimsical to be, in the common is the privilege of the powerful man, phrase, every body's money, although of the man who is in an elevated siits price may not confine it entirely to tuation. Esteem is given to the perthe opulent. In the various fashions son: outward respect is given to the of dressing the hair without powder, place. the frizeur, by degrees, superseded the milliner, and the milliner, under the title of dressmaker, has exploded the old business of mantua-making, at least its name. An immense number of hands employed in the manuFfacture of buckles has been obliged to turn their industry into another channel. The manufacturers of Nottingham and Leicester have been sensibly affected by the introduction of pantaloons, but the former by its ingenious imitations of foreign patterns of lace, opened itself a trade, which, in the general stagnation of commerce, has given food and clothing to thousands who might otherwise have been pining in inactivity and want. Leicester, in the elastic stuffs produced in her stocking frames, enjoys a trade of such extent at home, that the privation of great part of her foreign de
I remain, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
Neither must we confound the great man who is distinguished by his great talents, his great virtues, and his great benefits, with the illustrious man who is, in truth, distinguished by his great talents and by his great benefits, but not by his great virtue. I shall now proceed to mark, more accurately, the differences which separate them.
SOLON: EPAMINONDAS: ALEX-
Each nation has its great men. We are naturally led to compare them with each other, and we cannot well discern which is the greatest but by comparing them with each other. It must be done therefore,
I. The greatness of their talents in surmounting great difficulties.
II. The greatness of the ambition
III. The greatness of the advantages or the benefits which they have procured, either to men, in general, or to their citizens in general.
of some, the greatness of the zeal of of others, the public interest, may, others, to procure the public good. sometimes, have an apparent great. ness by great successes, such as those of Alexander: the great difficulties which are surmounted excite our admiration, and demonstrate either great courage or great talents: hence the success of difficult undertakings may render a man very illustrious, very celebrated; but, without virtuous motives they never can make a grea! man.
Epaminondas appears to be the greatest man among the Grecian captains. It is true that Alexander has caused more noise by his conquests, but the difficulties which he surmounted were, all things considered, less great than those which Epaminondas surmounted. Now, it is the greatness of the difficulties which are surmounted, which proves the greatness of talents, of courage, and of
Besides, that which is decisive in the comparison of these two men is, that the enterprises of Alexander had nothing laudable in their motives, he acted only from ambition, for his self-interest, for his own aggrandisement, and for his own pleasure; a motive which has nothing really great in it: whereas Epaminondas, in all his principal undertakings was influenced by the pleasure which he found in procuring the welfare and advantage of his fellow-citizens, a motive truly virtuous and consequently laudable. Hence, Epaminondas procured greater advantages to his country than Alexander did to his; and thus, Epaminondas is a great man, and Alexander is only a conqueror, a warrior, a celebrated captain, á king of great reputation among kings. In a word, he is at most, only an illustrious man, and more illustrious by his success than by benefits conferred by him, upon his country.
It is permitted to have, as a motive for our actions, our own personal interest, when there is nothing unjust in our designs. It is even allowable that our pleasures may operate as motives when they are innocent and conformable to propriety. To act solely from a desire to augment our own interest, our fortune, or our pleasure, is the ordinary course of ordinary men: but that which is only perwitted, contains nothing distinguished, nothing virtuous, and consequently merits no praise.
Those enterprises which are neither Jaudable nor virtuous because they have not, for their motive, the interest
Such is the rule which reason dictates. Now, what increase of happiness resulted from the conquests of Alexander, either to the Macedonians, to the Grecian republics, or to human
He who surmounts great difficulties merits our admiration, but he does not always merit our esteem or our praises. We admire an excellent rope-dancer; we regard, with astonishment, those superstitious Indians mortifications of the flesh, and who who practise abstinence and other seem to surpass the energies of nature: they perform things which are extremely difficult, and we admire the difficulty: but this admiration is not joined to a great esteem for their person; whereas, we pay admiration, hose who, like Epaminondas, effect great esteem, and kindness towards enterprises which are both difficult and advantageous to their country.
I think no Grecian can be compared to Epaminondas, except Solon, who surmounted great difficulties by his great talents and by his great per severance, and who, from motives perfectly virtuous, rendered great services to his country in making it approve of wise and salutary laws.
SCIPIO: CESAR: SYLLA. Among the Romans, Scipio, the conqueror of Hannibal, appears to us to surpass the great men of his nation. Cesar executed nothing so difficult as Scipio: he never had a Hannibai to conquer.
Casar augmented the power of Rome; but Scipio augmented it also, and saved the Romans from the slavery of the Carthaginians: he se cured the internal liberty of the Ro man republic, and augmented it power with all that of the republic
of Carthage, which balanced that of attempt. Cataline formed a similar Rome. scheme; but he failed. Who will dare to conclude, from the success of Cassar, that he is a great man; while the other, merely from his failure, is only an infamous traitor?
With regard to the motives of Casar: he laboured only for his own elevation and to increase his own power. Scipio, on the contrary, in his enterprises, sought rather the honour and delight of rendering great services to his country, by preserving all her liberties at home, and by increasing, considerably, her power without, than to augment his own importance.
It must not be supposed that Cæsar rendered himself master of the republic, merely from the fear that Pompey would have done it if he had not; for if he felt, as a principal motive, the welfare of his country, and its real augmentation, would he not, when he entered Rome victorious over the tyranny of Pompey, would he not, I say, have restored to his fellow-citizens the liberty of suffrages in the choice of magistrates
Cæsar working for himself, in the conquests in Gaul, rendered great services to the Romans; but, as soon as he availed himself of the forces and of the authority which the Romans had confided in him, to overthrow their government, and to render himself, in despite of the sanctity of oaths and of religion, the tyrant of the republic, I no longer consider the services which he has performed, I consider only the treason he has been guilty of. He appears to me in no other light than the ordinary one of an ambitious man,-a cheat celebrated and of ministers of state? Would for his great talents, who has been he not have reinstated the republic able to conceal his pernicious inten- in the sovereign authority? Would tions and his unjust ambition under he not, in conjunction with Cato, the appearance of effective services. and other well-meaning individuals, It is so certain, that, all things con- have improved the plans of scrutiny. sidered, he deserved blame rather in elections, especially for the printhan praise, that, if he had been cipal offices? Would he not have lakilled at Pharsalia, where he caused boured, with them, thus to close for So many Romans to perish, and if ever, to future political knaves, the Pompey, being conqueror, had re- road to corruption in that respect, stored to the senate its ancient au- which he had, himself, employed in thority, and to the people the liberty attaining public situations? of suffrages, as Sylla had done, it is certain that Cicero, Hortensius, Cato, he could have acquired the noblest and the other good citizens, would, and most desirable reputation which without any hesitation, have placed, a good man could wish. Cæsar, vanquished and punished, in the same light as Cataline; with this difference, however, that if Cæsar had rendered greater services tothe republic than Cataline, he had, also, caused it more misfortunes: so that his name what consisted the true greatness of would have descended down to pos- man; his soul had not sufficient eleterity loaded with the same infamy vation to feel, like Cato, that the as the celebrated name of Cataline, essential quality of a great man is to who, on his side, was not without strive for the honour of increasing, great talents, but failed of success in at our own hazard, the welfare of cur Lis infamous undertaking. country. He thought otherwise, and followed the path of men of ordinary ambition, who, instead of sacrificing to true greatness, which is inmutable and immortal, sacrifice only to great
That was the only way by which
It was the
only way by which he could obtain that title of a great man to which he aspired: but he had not a mind of sufficient sagacity nor of sufficient integrity to feel and acknowledge in
The intention of Cæsar was to render himself master of the government, and, consequently, to overthrow the republic: he succeeded in the base
Who does not see that they are, in fact, both of them infamous traitors, who sacrificed, unjustly, and without any scruple, the greatest interests of the state to their own individual interests; and that consequently, they are, fundamentally, both of them worthy of hatred and of public execration?