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blood are concerned; and great as are the present differences between the Japanese in Japan and the Koreans in Korea, there is no reason why both Japanese and Koreans should not become essentially one people in Korea (p. 451).

A recent English writer, familiar with the work of Great Britain in India and less familiar with the work of Japan in Korea, has spoken with well-deserved commendation of the latter, but on the assumption that it was patterned after the British type and owed its success to its free borrowing from the example of the British government of India. But this assumption is warranted in only a rather limited degree. In one most important respect, the Japanese government in Korea has been from the first far wiser than has hitherto been the British government in India. I cannot better set forth what I have in mind than by making a somewhat extended quotation from the book to which one reference has already been made (see pp. 338, 339).

The second most important principle to set in control of the educational system of Korea is this. At first, and for a long time to come, it should be pretty strictly limited to fitting the Koreans themselves for a serviceable life, in Korea, and under the conditions, physical, social, and economic and political, of Korea. To educate after the fashion followed too much by Great Britain in India-thousands of Korean babus, who thus become unfitted for the pressing needs of their country at this present day, and inclined to idleness rather than any hard and disagreeable but useful work, would be a mistake which neither the government nor the missions can afford to make. It is a fact, however, that, up to the present time, too large a proportion of the Korean youth, whether educated abroad or in the missionary schools at home, have lapsed into this worthless class. When called upon to work -manfully, faithfully, persistently, doing with his might what his hand finds to do-the Korean, like the Indian babu, is likely to show that his modern education has the more unfitted, rather than the better fitted, him for the effectual service of his country. If this should be the result of modern education, it would scarcely be more to be commended, under existing conditions in Korea, than was the education of the old-time Confucian Schools.

How the Japanese government in Chosen has sought to avoid this mistake, and what success it has attained in actually avoiding it, have been sufficiently set forth for our purposes at the present time.

The English writer who has already been quoted closes his favorable review of the experiences of Japan in Korean affairs with the sympathetic, the almost cynical remark, that the Japanese government in Chosen must be satisfied to be disliked and even hated by the Koreans, if only it can be feared and respected; just as the British government is regarded by the natives in British India. But we hope for better things. We hope for a truly benevolent assimilation. And there are good reasons to expect the realization of this hope. For, indeed the cases of these two foreign governments, in the part which they are playing in race development are in very important particulars, quite unlike. Before very long, Chosen ought to become an integral part of Japan, as loyal and patriotic as any part. If this should come about before we succeed in benevolently assimilating— Porto Rico, for example-we might be compelled to the reluctant confession of Gladstone in a letter to Madam Novikoff: "The history of governments is one of the most immoral parts of human history. I have often to say much ill of my own countrymen or their own governors."

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By Francisco J. Yanes, Asst. Director, and Secretary of the Governing Board, of the Pan-American Union

The civilization of peoples cannot always be gauged by set standards. There are varying factors to be taken into consideration and discrepancies to be accounted for in measuring the degree of cultural and industrial progress of a nation. Conditions growing out of racial characteristics, historical necessities, geographical position, custom and habit, on the one hand, and on the other the basic principles upon which different societies have been built, must not be lost sight of in dealing with, or rather, in endeavoring to understand the factors that have led to the progress of a given nation, or aggregate of nations of the same or similar origin.

Latin-American civilization from an Anglo-Saxon point of view may be found wanting in many respects, but the life and happiness of nations, the ideals and hopes of their peoples, their legislation and institutions, are not to be found ready made, but have to be worked out to meet peculiar wants, and in accordance with the racial, mental, moral and material resources and necessities of each.

We must deal with Latin America as a whole if we wish to cast a rapid glance at its civilization. Some of the twenty free and independent states which in their aggregate make up Latin America have developed more than others, and a few marvelously so, but whether north or south of the Panama Canal, east or west, on the Atlantic or the Pacific, on the Caribbean or the Gulf of Mexico, the countries of Latin


America sprang from the same race the brave, hardy, adventurous, romantic and warlike Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, who fought their way through unknown territories, whether in quest of "El Dorado" or in warfare against whole nations of Indians, as in the case of Mexico and Peru, where the native Indians had a marvelous civilization of their own.

On the other hand, the men who founded these United States, the Pilgrims who first set foot on this new land of promise, and those who followed in the wake of the first settlers, came to this country already prepared, through years of training, to govern themselves. They came to the friendly shores of the New World in quest of freedom. They wanted a home in a new land not yet contaminated with the spirit of the Old World. They brought with them their creed, their habits of order and discipline, their love of freedom, their respect for the established principles of law. Hence from its inception Anglo-American civilization was built upon solid ground. Its subsequent developmentthe marvel of the last half of the nineteenth and this our twentieth century-is due to the solidity of their institutions, their steadfastness of purpose, their practical sense of life, and a territorial expanse where all the soils, all the wealth, all the climatic conditions of the cold, the temperate and the tropical zone can be found.

The discussion of Latin-American civilization is of vast importance, since it deals with the history and development of twenty republics lying beyond the Mexican border, and covering an aggregate area of about 9,000,000 square miles, with a total population of over 70,000,000, of which 48,000,000 speak the Spanish language, 20,000,000 Portuguese in Brazil, and 2,000,000 French in Haiti. This general division brings us at once to deal, under the same classification, with peoples and civilization springing from different sources-Spanish, Portuguese and French. Even among the Spanish-speaking countries there are conditions, depending on the province of origin of the first Spanish colonizers and settlers, who came mainly from Biscay, Andalusia, Castile, Aragon, and Extremadura, which further tend to establish other slight

differences, just as the various states of this country show differences due to the sources of their population.

For our purpose, a general survey of the twenty countries called Latin America is not amiss. Geographically, Latin America begins beyond the Rio Grande, with Mexico, at the southern boundary of which extends what is called Central America, consisting of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, the historic five Central American states; Panama, the gateway to the Pacific on the west and to the Caribbean and the Atlantic on the east; South America proper, embracing Venezuela on the Caribbean, Colombia on that sea and partly on the Pacific; Ecuador, Peru and Chile, bordering on the Pacific; Bolivia and Paraguay, inland states in the heart of South America; Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil on the Atlantic; and, lastly, Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, islands in the Caribbean Sea. So we see that Latin America extends from the north temperate zone to Cape Horn, near the Antarctic Ocean, which means that all climatic conditions are found in that enormous area over which the pole star, the Southern Cross, and the constellations brightening the South Pole keep nightly watch, from the cool regions of northern Mexico to the tropical heat of the torrid zone and again to the cold lands of Patagonia. This is indeed a world of wealth where all the products of the entire globe can be successfully cultivated, where all races of mankind can live and thrive, because the Mexican and Central American cordilleras, and further south the mighty Andean range, offer an unbroken chain of lofty peaks, wide valleys, and extensive tablelands, affording all climates and zones, all kinds of soils and minerals, the only limitations to the development of these lands being human endurance. The water supply is plentiful in most parts of Mexico and the Central American republics, and there is nothing in the world which can be compared to the hydrographic areas of northern and central South America, consisting of the Orinoco basin with its 400 affluents, offering a total navigable length of about 4000 miles; the mighty Amazon having three times the volume of the Mississippi and navigable for over 2000 miles, and the network

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