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and very special friend. There is an old Latin maxim recovered by the author of the Curiosities of Literature, “Be cautious of the man of one book," for," whoever has long been intimate with one great author will always be found to be a formidable antagonist.” Demosthenes was a man of one book, that book was Thucydides, which he read and re-read-copied and recopied, till he obtained a similar closeness and force of thought and diction. Chathain was a man of one book, and that favorite was the Sermons of Barrow. A distinguished minister of the American church, who repeatedly read “Edwards on the Will," testifies, “that he is more indebted to that work, than to all other human productions.” The Analogy of Butler, adopted as the favorite, read with numerous and careful repetitions, has been the making of more than one minister. It is 66 a work, carefully and closely packed up out of twenty years' hard thinking.” It is absolutely perfect in its kind, resistless in argument, unimprovable in language, altogether unchangeable, indestructible, more solid throughout than the masonry of the pyramids. The reading of such books in the right way, will certainly conduce to very cogent and conclusive thinking and very effective preaching

In connection with this range and style of reading, there should be the practice of writing, after the same noble and perfected models. The style and power of writing necessary in the effective preacher can be attained only by the practice of writing; in every effort raising high the standard and pressing up to the most arduous point of excellence. Writing as well as reading, especially in the forming period, should be slow, condensed, elaborate. Some of the first sermons of a young man, may with advantage, receive the thought and labor of weeks, and even of months, instead of days.

There is another practice, wbich may not be omitted, in the training of the truly able and effective preacher, namely, the practice of extemporaneous speaking. That the ability to preach without writing in full, is a valuable one in the minister, is generally admitted. Still we do not believe, that it would, on the whole, be an advantage to bave all preaching done without writing. The most effective orạtors in the world have been in the habit of writing some portions of their appeals. It is a fact that many of the most cogent and eloquent discourses, the most intense, pointed, overwhelming paragraphs that have gone forth from human lips, were carefully and fully written. Demosthenes and Cicero were both very elaborate writers of their spoken matter. The masterly and almost astounding peroration of Brougham's plea in behalf of Queen Caroline, it is said, on the authority of an eloquent English gentleman, was written fifteen several times. It is true, that a sermon, as well as any other sort of address, may be written, and at the same time be warm, simple, direct, attractive and effective to the highest degree. By no means, then, would we have the preacher abandon the pen. If he does so entirely, we do not believe that he can continue to be for a long time, and in the best sense, an effective preacher. But whilst he cultivates the power of writing, he should also cultivate the power of extemporaneous address. Facility and force in this species of address, can be attained only by practice; and the practice should commence early, and be assiduously continued. The mind should be very resolutely made up both to the effort and to the exposure. A little hardihood may be assumed to advantage : “ Come what will, I will make the attempt, will persist, will speak and preach extemporaneously. If I fail in some of my efforts, it will not be the worst thing that ever happened.” By thus doing the thing resolutely and courageously, the preacher of disciplined powers, will come to utter truth extemporaneously with propriety and effect. He will attain to more influence ihan he would otherwise bave.

The manner also is to be cultivated, the voice, attitude, action, expression. There is great power in these. Whitefield may be adduced as an illustration of the wonderful power of manner. He studied manner till he became a perfect master of it. In most cases, if not all, assiduous cultivation and practice are necessary to secure a significant and forcible manner. Yet most seem to think, that the power of address, if it comes at all, must come without labor-come spontaneously. If God intended

should be orators, he caused them to be born orators; a perverse and willul error, persisted in against nearly all the gathered light and remonstrance of past and present examples. All the finished and potent speakers of ancient time became such by an attention to the manner, a toil in practice, which ended only with life ; and still we will have it, that we can perform successfully all the high functions of the orator on the most thrilling and momentous themes, with the untutored voice, and the clumsy joints, and the unpractised limbs of nature, corrupted and made worse by that second nature, early babit. It is by



this heedless, lazy throwing of this whole great concern, on the drifting tide of chance, that we come so far short in the use of one of the mightiest means of influence and of good of wbich God has made us capable. It is indispensable that there be in the candidate for the ministry, a zealous study of this thing, an incessant drilling and exposure, if he would arrest attention to, and make effective on the heart, the matter he prepares.

But valuable as these outward accomplishments are, the internal are far more so. Especially must the heart be cultivated ; - and let the teacher there be the purifying, enkindling, elevating Spirit of God. Out of a great, warm, illumined heart comes the best eloquence, the most arresting and subduing, the world ever hears.

Prayer, as a means to the attainment in question, should be very prominent. It gives clearness to the understanding and strength and pureness to emotion; it quickens thought, and vivifies the gathered and otherwise dead material. Sometimes, it lifts the soul to the transfiguring mount, where the enlightened vision reaches to the grand interests and the glorified objects of unseen worlds. Let the preacher be eminently a man of prayer, and grace will be poured into his lips, and he will have the eloquence of the truth and the love and the spirit of God.




By Samuel Adams, M. D. Prof. of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology, Illinois College,


The phenomena of animal magnetism have been regarded with wonder and awe, or with ridicule and disgust, according to the temper of mind, which has been brought to their examination. One has seen in thein an important discovery in animal physiology—the dawn of a new science, which challenges the highest admiration of mankind, and whose practical application promises greatly to alleviate, if not entirely to subdue all the diseases incident to humanity. Another has contented himself with classing these phenomena with those of witchcraft and the superstitions of the dark ages, and has regarded them only as fit subjects for satire, and as unworthy a moment's sober investigation. This pretended science has been alternately attacked and defended with uncompromising ridicule and blind enthusiasm. But there is one aspect in which sober philosophy may view the subject without being dazzled with the false splendors, which a bewildered imagination may have thrown around it, and without becoming a mark for the weapons of ridicule and satire.

The sentiment of a Roman poet is applicable to this subject. “ Homo sum, et nihil humanum a me alienum puto." The wildest vagaries of the imagination, the most childish follies of ignorance and superstition, are not too triling to become the subjects of pbilosophical inquiry. They may not, in our fallen state, be banished from the precincts of sympathizing humanity.

If we cast a backward glance over the history of past ages, we are struck with the frequent appearance of phenomena not very unlike those of animal magnetism,--and which, whether pretended or real, have had an important bearing upon the opinions and practices of mankind. If we explore the murky dens of superstition and trace the path of the whirlwind of fanaticism, we may find a match for each and all of the alleged wonders, which have been brought to light by Mesmer and his numerous disciples.

It is the legitimate office of philosophy to compare these phenomena with each other, to observe their resemblances and differences, to trace them to their true causes, and to inquire how far they may be regarded as springing from a common origin. This we shall attempt, so far as it can be accomplished within the compass of an Article of moderate length.

It requires no very extended comparison of the phenomena in question to enable us to see that they possess much in common. They all exhibit a family resemblance, and lead us to suspect a kindred origin.

In attempting to trace these phenomena to their sources, we are compelled to regard them as originating primarily in the human constitution. The germs of all must have an existence here. Circumstances, it is true, have developed them. But the fact that the weed has from time to time, sprung up and flourished with the wildest luxuriance, demonstrates both the existence


of its seeds and the adaptedness of the soil to its production. But when we turn our attention to the human constitution, to discover there the unexplored region, in which it has its growth, the mind involuntarily rests upon the mysterious connection of body and soul—the sympathetic link which unites matter and mind. In other words, psycho-physiology alone can furnish a key to the mysteries of witchcraft, Mesmerism and kindred subjects.

By psycho-physiology we understand that department of the philosophy of the mind, which belongs to the province of physiology, as distinguished from any metaphysical classification or description of the mental powers. Under this head we shall examine briefly the reciprocal relations of the body and the mind. We shall particularly notice the influence of some of the mental states upon the functions of the body; and shall endeavor to derive from the examination a light, which will enable us to explain the mysteries of animal magnetism and kindred phenomena, which may properly be said to remain, after making the necessary deductions for the deceptions of imposture and the exaggerations of ignorance and credulity.

The execution of our plan will lead us into a brief examination of the physiology of the nervous system. The general truths of this department of science are too well established to require any detailed development in this place. Neither will it be necessary to present the grounds of many of the positions, which we shall assume as already established by the science of physiology. We may take it for granted, that the brain is, par excellence, the material instrument of the mind, and that it performs an important office in each of the functions of sensation and voluntary motion.

That our readers may be prepared to appreciate the extensive influence, which the mind exerts over the body, it is proper to state, that the brain, the appropriate organ of the mind, has a direct anatomical and physiological connection with every part of the body. We can hardly bring the point of a needle in contact with any part of the body, without interfering with some nervous twig. . This twig, like that of a tree, may be traced to its connection with a larger twig or branch, and this latter to one still larger, and so on till we arrive at the brain. If on the other hand we start at the brain, we may find our way to any part of the body by traversing a cerebral nerve, or the spinal marrow and some one of the spinal nerves.

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