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cause which I knew not, I searched with his eyes, &c. A wise king scatout : and I brake the jaws of the tereth the wicked, and bringeth the wicked, and plucked the spoil out of wheel over them, &c. Mercy and his teeth. Job xxix. 16, 17. Deut. truth preserve the king, and his throne xix. 18.

is upholden by mercy.-Prov. xx. 8. Neither will the Almighty pervert 26. 28. judgment.-Job xxxiv. 12.

To do justice and judgment is more Be wise now therefore, Oye kings; acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice. be instructed, ye judges of the earth: --Prov. xxi. 3. Isa. i. 17, 18. serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice It is the honour of kings to search with trembling.-Ps. ii. 10, 11. out a matter, &c. Take away the

The wicked walk on every side, wicked from before the king, and his when the vilest men (or the vilest of throne shall be established in righthe sons of men) are exalted.-Ps. teousness.- Prov. xxv. 2. 5. xii. 8.

As a roaring lion, &c. so is a wicked Man that is in honour, and under- ruler over the poor people : a prince standeth not, is like the beasts that that wanteth understanding, &c. perish.-Ps. xlix. 20.

Prov. xxviii. 15, 16. God standeth in the congregation When the righteous are in authoof the mighty; he judgeth among the rity, the people rejoice : but when gods. How long will ye judge un- the wicked beareth rule, the people justly, and accept the persons of the mourn, &c. The king by judgment wicked? Selah. Defend the poor establisheth the land: but he that and fatherless : do justice to the receiveth gifts overthroweth it, &c. afflicted and needy: deliver the poor If a ruler hearken to lies, all his serand needy : rid them out of the hand vants are wicked. The king that of the wicked.-Ps. Ixxxii. 1-4. faithfully judgeth the poor, his throne

David said, I will not know a shall be established for ever, &c. wicked person : whoso privily slan- Many seek the ruler's favour, but dereth his neighbour, him will I cut every man's judgment cometh from off: him that hath an high look and the Lord. -Prov. xxix. 2-4. 12. a proud heart, him will I not suffer : 14. 26. mine eyes shall be upon the faithful It is not for kings to drink wine : of the land, that they may dwell with nor for princes strong drink : lest me: he that walketh in a perfect they drink and forget the law, and way, he shall serve me, &c. I will pervert the judgment of any

of the early destroy all the wicked of the afflicted.-Prov. xxxi. 4, 5. land, &c.-Ps. ci. 4, &c.

I saw under the sun the place of Where no counsel is, the people judgment, that wickedness was there, fall : but in the multitude of coun- &c. God shall judge the righteous. sellors there is safety.-Prov. xi. 14. -Eccles. iii. 16, 17. xxiv. 6.

Better is a poor and a wise child, It is an abomination to kings to than an old and foolish king, who commit wickedness : for the throne will no more be admonished.--Eccles. is established by righteousness: righ- iv. 13. teous lips are the delight of kings, If thou seest the oppression of the and they love him that speaketh right. poor, and violent perverting of judg-Prov. xvi. 12, 13. xxix. 12. ment and justice, &c. he that is

It is not good to accept the person higher than the highest regardeth.of the wicked, to overthrow the righ- Eccles. v. 8. teous in judgment.—Prov. xviii. 5. Oppression maketh a wise man

A king that sitteth in the throne mad, and a gift destroyeth the heart. of judgment, scattereth away all evil -Eccles. vii. 7.

Woe to thee, Oland, when thy king no wrong, do no violence to the stranis a child, and thy princes eat in the ger, &c. neither shed innocent blood morning ; blessed art thou, O land, in this place, &c. Shalt thou reign, when thy king is the son of nobles, because thou closest thyself in cedar? and thy princes eat in due season, for Did not thy father eat, and drink, and strength, and not for drunkenness. do judgment and justice, and then it -Eccles. X. 16, 17.

was well with him ? he judged the Thy princes are rebellious, and cause of the poor and needy, then it companions of thieves: every one was well with him, &c. but thine eyes, loveth gifts, and followeth after re- and thine heart are not but for thy wards : they judge not the father- covetousness, and for to shed inpoless, neither doth the cause of the cent blood, and for oppression, and widow come unto them, &c. Ah! I for violence to do it.-Jer, xxii. 1-3. will ease me of mine adversaries, &c. 15–17. Ezek. xxii. 27. -Isa. i. 23, 24. Jer. v. 28.

O princes of Israel, remove violence I will give children to be their and spoil, and execute judgment and princes, and babes shall rule over justice : take away your exactions them : and the people shall be op- from the people, saith the Lord God. pressed every one by another. What - Ezek. xlv. 9. Zech. viii. 16. mean ye, that ye beat my people to King Nebuchadnezzar, for his great pieces, and grind the faces of the pride, was driven from men, to eat, poor ? &c.—Isa. iii. 4, 5. 15.

grass as oxen.-Dan, iv. 30–34. Woe unto them that decree unrigh- When the princes had procured a teous decrees, &c. to turn aside the wicked law, and Daniel was taken needy from judgmnent, &c. what will upon it, the king, Darius, was troubled, ye do in the day of visitation ? &c.— and would have delivered him.x. 1-3.

Dan. vi. In that day shall the Lord of hosts, I hate, I despise your feast days, &c. for a spirit of judgment to him &c. Let judgment run down as waters, that sitteth in judgment. Hear the &c.—Amos v. 21. 24. Zech. vii. 9. word of the Lord, ye scornful men, O heads of Jacob, and ye princes! that rule this people, &c. because ye Is it not for you to know judgment, have said, &c.—Isa. xxviii. 5, 6. 14, who hate the good, and love the evil? 15. 18.

&c. Hear this, ye princes, &c. that He that despiseth the gain of op- abhor judgment, &c. The heads pressions, who shaketh his hands thereof judge for reward.—Micah iii. from holding of bribes, &c. - he shall 1--3. 9. 11. vii. 3. dwell on high. Isa. xxxiii. 15, 16. The law is slacked, and judgment

Is not this the fast that I have doth never go forth: the wicked chosen ? to loose the bands of wicked- doth compass about the righteous, ness, to undo the heavy burdens, and therefore wrong judgment proceedeth. to let the oppressed go free, and -Hab. i. 4. that ye break every yoke?-Isa. lviii. Judge not according to the appear6-8. Zech. vii. 5, &c.

ance; but judge righteous judginent, Judgment is turned away backward, John vii. 24. and justice standeth afar off: for Refrain yourselves from these men, truth is fallen in the street, and equity and let them alone: for if this councannot enter.--Isa. lix. 14.

sel, or this work be of men, it will Hear the word of the Lord, O king come to nought: but if it be of God, of Judah, &c. Thus saith the Lord, ye cannot overthrow it.-Acts v. Execute ye judgment, and righteous- 38, 39. ness, and deliver the spoiled out of Yeought to be quiet, and do nothing the hand of the oppressor: and do rashly, &c. the law is open, let them


implead one another.--Acts xix. 36. surely die. And the people said, &c. 38–40.

As the Lord liveth, there shall not Paul said, For sittest thou to judge one hair of his head fall, &c. So the me after the law; and commandest people rescued Jonathan, that he died me to be smitten, contrary to law ?- not.1 Sam. xiv. 43–45. Acts xxiii. 3.

Hezekiah, the Lord was with him, It is not the manner of the Romans &c. and he rebelled against the king to deliver any man to die, before that of Assyria.--2 Kings xviii. 7. he which is accused have the accusers Mordecai bowed not to Haman, face to face, and have license to ans, notwithstanding the king's commandswer for himself, &c. It seemeth to ment.—Esth. iii. 1-3. v. 9. me unreasonabļe to send a prisoner, When king Nebuchadnezzar had and withal not to signify the crimes commanded the worshipping of an laid against him.-Acts xxv. 16. 27. image, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed

Rulers are not a terror to good nego, refused to obey; and said, Be works, but to the evil, &c. for he is it known unto thee, o king, that we the minister of God to thee for good, will not serve thy gods, nor worship &c. a revenger, to execute wrath upon the golden image, &c.-Dan. iii. 15-18. him that doeth evil, &c. They are When Darius had established the God's ministers, attending continually decree, that none should ask any peupon this very thing.-Rom. xiii.3, 4.6. tition of any God or man for thirty

Governors, &c. for the punishment days; Daniel went into his house, of evildoers, and for the praise of after his wonted manner, and prayed them that do well.—1 Pet. ii. 14, three times a day.—Dan. vi. 7-10..

The great whore, with whom the When the apostles were forbidden kings of the earth have committed to preach in the name of Christ, they fornication. The ten horns shall hate answered, &c. Whether it be right the whore, and shall make her deso- in the sight of God, to hearken unto late, and naked, and shall eat her you more than unto God, judge ye.-flesh, and burn her with fire ; for Acts iv. 18—20. God hath put in their hearts to fulfil When the council charged them his will.- Rev. xvii, 1, 2. 16, 17. : with preaching contrary to their com

mands, &c. Peter, &c. said, We ought. Sect. iv.

The Duties of Subjects to to obey God rather than man.-Acts: Magistrates, with respect both to v. 27–29. their Persons and Decrees.

Moses was hidden three months of First. What they may not do: when, afraid of the king's commandment,

his parents, &c, and they were not and wherein they may not obey them.

&c. He feared not the wrath of the Israel sinned, &c. in walking in the king.--Heb. xi. 23. 27. statutes of the heathen, &c. and of the kings of Israel, which they had SECONDLY, What they ought to do, made, &c.—2 Kings xvii. 7, 8. 19. or wherein they should acknowledge

Render to Cæsar the things which and obey them. are Cæsar's; and unto God, the things that are God's.—Matt. xxii. 21. I. Submit to, and obey them in all The king of Egypt commanded the

lawful things. midwives to kill the men children of Miriam and Aaron spake against the Hebrews. But they feared God, Moses, and God smote Miriam with and obeyed not the king : and God a leprosy.-Numb. xii. 1. 9-11. took it well of them.-Exod. i, 15–17. · The Lord destroyed Korah and his 20, 21.

company, for their rebellion against Saul said, Jonathan, thou shalt Moses, &c.-Numb. xvi. I, &c. .


Keep the king's commandment; David said to Saul, My Lord the and that in regard of the oath of king! and when Saul looked behind God. Eccles. viii. 2-4.

him, David stooped with his face to If the spirit of the ruler rise up the earth, and bowed himself, &c. against thee, leave not thy place; for He said, I will not put forth my hand yielding pacifieth great offences.- against the Lord's anointed.-i Sam. Eccles. X. 4.

xxiv. 6. 8. 10. xxvi. 9. 11. God threatened the Jews for revolt- Nathan the prophet, when he was ing from the king of Babylon, and come in before the king, bowed himbreaking their oath and covenant with self before the king with his face to him.-Ezek, xvii. 12-20.

the ground, and said, My lord, O Though there was no tribute due king! &c.--1 Kings i. 23, 24. from Christ, yet he said to Peter, Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art Lest we should offend them, go thou, wicked ? and to princes, Ye are un&c. give unto them for me and thee. godly?--Job xxxiv. 18. Matt. xvii. 24-27.

The king's wrath is as the roaring Render therefore unto Cæsar the of a lion, &c.—Prov. xix. 12. things which are Cæsar's.-Matt. The fear of a king is as the roaring Xxii. 21.

of a lion: whoso provoketh him to Let every soul be subject unto the anger sinneth against his own soul. higher powers, &c. Whosoever there. -Prov. xx. 2. xvi. 14, 15. fore resisteth the power, resisteth the Put not forth thyself in the preordinance of God; and they that re- sence of the king, &c.—Prov. xxv. sist, shall receive to themselves 6, 7. damnation, &c. Wilt thou then not Where the word of a king is, there be afraid of the power? Do that is power : and who may say unto which is good, &c. Ye must needs be him, What doest thou ? Eccles. subject; not only for wrath, but also viii. 4. for conscience sake : for, for this Curse not the king ; no not in thy cause pay you tribute, &c. Render thoughts.—Eccles. x. 20. therefore to all their dues ; tribute to Daniel said to Darius the king, O whom tribute is due, custom to whom king, live for ever!-Dan. vi. 21. custom, fear to whom fear, honour When the apostle had spoken to whom honour.-Rom. xiii. 1-7. . sharply to the high priest, and some

Put them in mind to be subject to who stood by had said, Revilest thou principalities and powers, to obey God's high priest? Then said Paul, magistrates, &c.Titus iii. 1. I wist not, brethren, that he was the

Submit yourselves to every ordi- high priest: for it is written, Thou nance of man, for the Lord's sake ; shalt not speak evil of the ruler of whether it be to the king, as supreme, thy people.-Acts xxiii. 2–5. or unto governors, as unto them that Paul said, I think myself happy, are sent by him, for the punishment king Agrippa, because I shall answer of evildoers, &c. For so is the will for myself this day before thee, &c. of God, that with well doing ye may Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, put to silence the ignorance of foolish Thou art beside thyself; much learnmen.—1 Pet. ii. 13–15.

ing doth make thee mad. But he

said, I am not mad, most noble FesII. To give them Honour and Respect; tus; but speak forth the words of

not contemn their Persons, or speak truth and soberness, &c.-Acts xxvi. evil of them.

143. 24, 25. xxiv. 10. Thou shalt not revile the gods (or Render therefore to all their dues; judges), nor curse the ruler of thy &c. fear to whom fear, honour to people.-Exod. xxii. 28.

whom honour Rom. xiii. 7.

Honour the king.--1 Pet. ii. 17. all the nations, &c. This greatly dis

But chiefly them that walk in the pleased God; and he said to Samuel, lust of uncleanness, and despise go- They have not rejected thee, but vernment, &c. and dominion, &c. they have rejected me, that I should They are not afraid to speak evil of not reign over them, &c. And they dignities : whereas angels, which are said, Nay, but we will have a king greater in power and might, bring over us. 1 Sam. viii, 1–7. 19, 20. not railing accusation against them Ye have this day rejected your God before the Lord.—2 Pet. ii. 10, 11, who himself saved you, &c. Ye have Jude 8, 9.

said, But set a king over us.—1 Sam.

X. 19.
III. To pray for them.

Samuel afterward tells them their Exhort therefore, that first of all wickedness was great in the sight of supplications, prayers, intercessions, the Lord in asking a king. Which sin and giving of thanks be made for all the people acknowledged, when God men ; for kings, and for all that are had sent thunder and rain in wheat in authority (or eminent place), that harvest.--1 Sam. xii. 16—19. we may lead a quiet and peaceable They have set up kings, but not by life, in all godliness and honesty: for tne : they have made princes, and I this is good and acceptable in the knew it not.-Hosea viii. 4. sight of God our Saviour.—1 Tim. And thy judges, of whom thou ii. 143.

saidst, Give me a king, and princes :

I IV. To endeavour to get good

gave thee a king in mine anger, and
took him

in my

wrath.-Hosea gistrates.

xiii. 10, 11. When Adonijah exalted himself, It is a severe misfortune to want saying, I will be king; and prepara- magistrates. Judges xxi. 25. tion was made for it; then Bathsheba the queen, and Nathan the prophet, made application to David, to set up

CHAP. XXIII. Solomon to be king ; and accordingly of AN OATH FOR TESTIMONY, conprevailed.- Kings i.

FIRMATION, AND ENDING OF CONV. To discover Treasons.


SIONS; AND EVIL OATHS. Mordecai discovered the design of two of the king's chamberlains against ABRAHAM said to the king of Sodom, him.-Esth. ii. 21-23.

I have lift up my hand unto the Lord; VI. To submit to lawful Magistrates, not take, &c. any thing that is thine ;

the inost high God, &c. that I will which God hath set over us ; even lest thou shouldest say, I have made though they be not such as they Abraham rich.-Gen. xiv. 22, 23. should be.

Abimelech, &c. spake unto AbraWhen Samuel was old, he made ham, saying, God is with thee in all his sons judges over Israel, &c. and that thou doest : now therefore swear his sons walked not in (or followed unto me here by God, that thou wilt not) his ways, but turned aside after not deal falsely with me, nor with my lucre, and took bribes, and perverted son, &c. And Abraham said, I will judgment. Then all the elders of swear, &c. They swore both of them. Israel gathered themselves together, -Gen. xxi. 22–24. 31. Josh. ii. and came to Samuel unto Ramah, and 12–14. said unto him, Behold, thou art old, Abraham said unto his servant, and thy sons walk not in thy ways : Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my now make us a king to judge us, like thigh, and I will make thee sweat by




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