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(among others) to nominate the bishops, and to provide for the ecclesiastical support."

In the additional acts of the Constitution, we learn that (Art. 10), "to the Provincial Assemblies belong the power to legislate in regard to their civil, judicial, and ecclesiastical affairs."

In the fullest sense of the term, the Church is dependent on the State. It can do nothing without the civil authority. They mutually support each other, and it is to their interest thus to do. So far as we can judge, the Emperor and his Court seem to have a perfect understanding with the bishop and his clergy, and they mutually contribute to each other's strength.

The bishops cannot confer orders without the special grant of the Emperor. Neither bishops nor priests can absent themselves from their parishes without a special permit from the Government.

The union of Church and State is undoubtedly the cause of many abuses. There is no pressure on the priest either to be a pure man or an active Christian. He is provided for, and he is ruled over by another power than public opinion and the free support of his flock. In fact, he cares not for these. He openly outrages the most sacred laws of society and of God, which are notorious facts, and of which he is not ashamed. All the fees for his services, as a minister of Jesus Christ, are graduated by public law, and he serves only when paid. We come now to speak of the ORDERS, NUMBER, AND SUPPORT OF THE CLERGY.

The empire of Brazil forms a single ecclesiastical province, administered by a metropolitan archbishop and eight bishops. Bahia is the see of the archbishopric, and Pará, Maranhao, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Marianna, Goyaz, and Cuiabá, of the assistant bishops. The eight dioceses are so divided as to make these cities centres. These dioceses, in some instances, lap over different provinces; and as each province is a distinct organic government, with its own peculiar civil and ecclesiastical laws, it is the source of trouble.

The number of clergy of all sorts in Brazil, fulfilling their functions, is put down by the Budget of the State at 1,607, but in all probability this is an over-estimate at least many priests are included who seldom, if ever, peform the duties of their office. The religious convents, &c., are not at the present day very numerous in Brazil, but the number is not stated in the Budget

of the State. These establishments are in the cities, but they are nearly deserted. They do nothing for the public weal. They cannot receive a new member of any sort without public authority. Except the Benedictines, they are all very poor.

The support of the clergy comes from two sources, but both are, in fact, from the State, since the State pays a fixed sum and graduates the price of all services, which the priests can claim and collect in the courts.

The Archbishop of Bahia receives 3,600 milreis; the eight bishops, 19,200 milreis.

The Metropolitan Court expenses at Bahia amount to 5,020 milreis; the Imperial Chapel, &c., to 80,876 milreis, which, with the expense of all the parish priests in Rio and suburbs, amount to 126,040 milreis per year.

The vicar of each parish receives 600 milreis, and his assistant 400 milreis per year.

The expenses of the clergy, on the part of the Government, foot up as follows:

Expenses of the Court, the Archbishop, and eight bishops, 126,040 milreis; mean expenses of 1,550 priests (deducting fiftyseven for Rio, included in the above), 775,000 milreis; total, 901,040 milreis.

A milreis being about fifty-five cents of the money of the United States, the total expense of the Romish Church to the Brazilian Government amounts to about 495,572 dols.

Small sums are sometimes granted for the repairs of churches, but of these we have no data.

Taking the prices of all the different services together, such as mass, baptism, burial, and marriage, the average is 1.50 dols. each; and we are told that most priests realise quite a large sum during the year for the different services rendered.

From the above it will be noticed that, so far as money is concerned, the priesthood is not very attractive, though we think they are well paid, if services be the criterion of judgment.


The disproportion between the clergy and the people, and the extent of empire, is a very great drawback, even if the clergy were as active and influential as the Protestant clergy in the United States.

In the absence of a home, a wife, and children, the tendency is for priests to live together, and accordingly they cluster in cities; the people in the interior, and all their primary instruction are therefore neg


lected. Many priests have parishes from sixty to even 200 miles in diameter. Thus in some provinces, larger than several of the North American States, as in Piauhy, there are only thirty priests, being one to every 5,000 inhabitants, who are widely


It often occurs that years pass wherein the parish priest does not see some of his parishioners. When he visits certain neighbourhoods, he is compelled to baptize children from four to six years of agesometimes parents and children at the same time. We have conversed with persons who remember well when they were baptized, and gave us as the reason of their deferring it, that no opportunity had occurred. We state these things, which Brazilian writers also state, simply to show that the people in the interior are in great need of the Gospel, and that there must be in such places great ignorance and great


In the province of Minas, one-third part of the children are illegitimate.

In the provinces of Pernambuco and Rio Grande de Norte (perhaps of Cará) the proportions of assassinations is one to 2,000 inhabitants; in all Brazil it is one to 10,000.

"In the interior," says a Brazilian author, "all the religion of the people consists in witnessing, at great intervals, some solemn religious rites such as mass, an image procession, or a festa-without any religions training, or the permanent influence of a good example."

And, we will add, what else have the people in Rio, the chief city of the empire? The official documents of the different provinces disclose the fact that the Roman Catholic religion does not possess, in Brazil, one-half its former energy-in other words, that it is gradually losing its hold, not by the influence of a better faith, but purely on account of the weakness and poverty in, and lack of sympathy for, the Brazilian Church.

"Rome," says a Brazilian author, "has felt more interest in North America."

As it is not the genius of Romanism to elevate, after it has its hold on the people, therefore nothing of late years has been done for Brazil. She is Roman Catholic all over, and that is enough. What is the use of educating and elevating, if the people have the true faith? In this line of conduct is observed the essence of Romanism in all lands.

The number of priests who die annually far

exceeds that of ordinations; and we might quote many facts to illustrate the destitution and utter negligence of the bishops in providing instruction and worship for the people. It is a notorious fact, acknowledged by all, that the Romish Church has not the same power now in Brazil as formerly; that out of the large cities the churches are going to decay, are without proper furniture, and are not being repaired. And it is safe to say that the people are in as bad, if not worse, condition than in heathen lands, as to evangelisation, because they hold to a sort of spurious Christianity, which cuts off all investigation, which blinds the heart and understanding, which engenders the greatest presumption, the greatest ignorance, the greatest prejudice, and the greatest indifference. No man understands this, unless he has attempted to reach such minds.

We think no one will violate truth in making the strongest, the most unqualified statements in regard to the debased state of religion in the Brazilian empire. The great mass of the people are in the deepest error, and they seem to rejoice in it. NO BIBLE-NO PULPIT INSTRUCTION-NO


The following things, for the most part, they have not. They have not the Bible or any religious literature. Even the higher classes in the cities have only the Catechism, the Sacred History, Prayers to the Virgin, Mass-books, &c.

They have no living ministry. Even in Rio, the people have the most miserable specimens of priests, to whom they pay no respect whatever, except when they stand at the altar; men given up to indolence, to ignorance, and who shame their profession by their broken vows of celibacy. In the interior, however, they have but seldom the presence of a priest.

The people have no instruction from the pulpit, or in any other way. To call the few addresses delivered per year on the festas of the Church (chiefly about the Virgin and the lives of so-called saints), instructive sermons, would be to insult common sense. Brazilians themselves acknowledge that more than two-thirds of the priests could not preach if so disposed-that they have not the instruction or ability. But out of the cities, the people have not the benefit of even these yearly addresses-in fact, they have no instruction of a religious kind, beyond the catechism.

The people of Brazil have no Sabbath. It is out of the question for religion to have


much power over the masses, where the Sabbath is not regarded. The only public worship which the people have on the Sabbath is mass, which occupies but a small portion of the day, while the balance is given to various amusements, or at least to occupations unsuited to the day. How is it possible, therefore, for such a people, who have nothing to elevate them, who lack all the great instrumentalities of religion, to be practical Christians? If, in the United States and England, with all the appliances of religion in full force-the Bible open-the press free and active-public and social worship-the Sabbath and its schools-family religion-a virtuous, intelligent, working laity, and an active, intelligent, pure, and respected ministry, the truth advances so slowly, how is it possible that this people should as yet have understood what be the first principles of the Gospel?



The capital of the empire and largest city in South America, is somewhat different, outwardly, from the rest of Brazil. A stranger would be apt to say: "I see here no evidence of decay; but on the contrary, all the churches seem to be flourishing, while some are being enlarged and beautified, and new ones built." It is true, it does thus appear; and we are told that all the demonstrations of the last year have been on a grander scale than formerly. It is true, also, that the churches are in a finer condition-many undergoing repairs or being enlarged. The different cemeteries near the city are being beautified, while all the festas of the different churches are very rich and very well attended. In fact, were we a Roman Catholic, we should feel very well contented with the aspect and prospect of the faith, if Rio were permitted to furnish the data. We have visited the different churches every day and at all hours, and taking the festas of the Church into account, or even the aggregate daily attendance at mass, by far more persons enter the sanctuary in Rio, than the Protestant churches of any city of equal size in the United States. It is true, two-thirds of these are negroes and mulattoes, but they are worshippers and human beings. And we would here state, that Brazilian Romanism teaches one great truth, which in the United States is often forgotten-that is, the democracy of religion; for here there are no privileged seats, but all meet on perfect equality-black and

white, rich and poor; those coming first being first served.

But in respect to the prosperity of the Church in Rio, there are special reasons for it; and they constitute no data whereby to judge of the whole Brazilian Church. We will specify some of these reasons:

1. Rio de Janeiro is the Court-the residence of the Emperor, and the highest manifestation of Brazilian civilisation, and thus the Churches enjoy these advantages.

2. In Rio are many rival Churches, a large number of priests, and great wealth in the community.

3. Several of the Churches are well off, having real estates, while one or two are liberally supported by the State, being the special Churches of the Emperor.

4. Each Church has one or two brotherhoods; a sort of Church "Odd Fellows," who administer the affairs of the Church, who are always on hand at festas and processions, and who, by mutual fees, support the poor, take care of the sick, and bury the dead. They are certainly praiseworthy societies, and are the safeguards of the faith. So far as we can learn, they correspond, in many respects, to the male membership of a Protestant Church, except that the organisation is more distinctive-has certain titles, badges of membership, and grades of office. In Rio there are fortyeight of these brotherhoods. They are usually composed of the working classes. They embody a vast amount of organised strength, superstition, zeal, and means. They are all strong supporters of "Nossa Senhora," in all her offices, human and divine.

In the province of Rio de Janeiro there are 109 parishes, having 218 priests; in the city of Rio there are nine parishes, and in the suburbs seven more-sixteen in all, giving twenty-eight priests-though the Imperial chapel and hospitals give about twenty more. In these sixteen parishes, in and around Rio, there are seventy-six chapels, some fifteen of which are churches of medium size, while the balance are only places where mass is celebrated at stated periods, but they are not churches in the proper acceptation of the term; and it is simply absurd to say, as some writers have said, that "there are over fifty churches in Rio de Janeiro."

As we have stated, there are about fifty active priests in Rio, though the whole number may be much larger, if we take into account all who have been ordained; but many of these are in business, and do


not perform, or but seldom, priestly func- | which there is sent forth yearly some eight tions. Of the different orders of monks, or ten young priests; but the culture there &c., in Rio, we could not learn anything obtained is very superficial, for it is not a definitely. There are four convents and theological, but a general school for all two nunneries, and the number of members studies. Among the marked men of Brazil in any one of them does not probably and she certainly can boast of some-we exceed fifty. They are not in a flourishing do not know a single ecclesiastic. condition.

Judging, then, from the outward appearance of things-from the signs of life-from the zeal and rivalry of the different brotherhoods-from the crowded festas, the church decorations, the church repairs, and the frequent image-processions got up "regardless of expense"-the Church in Rio is on the advance. This certainly cannot be disputed. The Emperor and lady seem to be as zealous and devout as the most humble in life, and of course will not permit things to decline. It is true, the higher classes (by these we mean the men of intelligence, of business, and of wealth) seem to have little to do with religion, except when compelled in the rites of marriage, of baptism, and of burial. They are seldom seen in the churches or at any of the festas; for the lower classes, the females, and especially negroes, are the true devotees of the Romish Brazilian Church.

In conversing with intelligent Brazilians, it is found that they hold but few of the distinctive doctrines of their Church. In fact, they know not what they do believe exactly, but they have a sort of idea that, as the Roman Catholic religion was the faith of their parents, is the faith of the people and the State, they ought to support it, especially as the renunciation of it would ruin all their social and worldly interests.

Rio is confessedly the most civilised and the best provided point, religiously, in all Brazil; and we now propose to speak of the culture, labours, and characters of


for a people will always correspond, religiously, to their teachers.

The priests of Rio, with few striking exceptions, are men of very ordinary culture. In the first place, the material is bad. The talented sons of a family never become priests. It has passed into a proverb in Brazil (so we have been told by natives), that when a father has a son fit for nothing else in the world, he consents to have a priest made out of him. At any rate, no one is so foolish as to assert that the Brazilian priests are learned men, or even intelligent; they are generally thought the contrary.

The theological schools of Brazil are not worth naming. In Rio there is one, from


The duties of the priest are very trivial in Brazil, chiefly the services of the mass, which require neither time, talent, nor effort. They seldom preach, or engage in any service requiring study or reflection. They never lecture to the people. They never write books. They are seldom teachers of the young. They are not permitted to visit private families; and with the exception of marrying, visiting the dying, and burying the dead, we do not know that they perform any other noble duties. How they manage to pass their time, remains a mystery. The ministerial office, as it is understood in the United States, besides embracing what we have mentioned above, includes preaching the Word, striving to induce men to become reconciled to God, and guiding the flock both by precept and example. But these functions are not at all fulfilled by the Brazilian priesthood, as will be seen when we contemplate their character.

It may be safely affirmed, that the characters of the priests are generally badespecially as professed ministers of Christ. This is the general opinion of Brazilians themselves. They are uniformly esteemed indolent. The idea of personal holiness, of moral purity, does not enter into their conception of a padre. To the eye, his person and garb are always repulsive; and, knowing his private life, his sanctimonious air must be regarded as the height of hypocrisy. Many of them keep their houses, and rear a numerous offspring. This unhappy fact, that many padres are licentious men (by which we mean, living contrary to their vows of chastity, and the laws of God and man), is so notorious, that they are not permitted to enter private houses-so notorious, that the arm of Government was once invoked to compel the priests to marry-so notorious, that no respect is shown them in the street by the people. We have conversed freely with all classes-the young and old, bigots and liberals-and we have yet to meet with a single individual who has attempted in the least to deny or defend the clergy against the charge of open, unblushing violation of their vows of celibacy.

One would suppose that if these things were really so, the people would desert the altars of such priests. But it is not so-it



is far otherwise. The doctrine is simply this: It makes no difference what is the character of the officiating priest; he is divinely ordained, and therefore we get the sacraments-all else is nothing.

We would here remark that we do not think the "confessional" is much resorted to in Rio-at least by the better classes. Now, where the clergy are illiterate where they perform only the necessary duties of their office, and where they are not respected on account of their bad morals,

is it strange that the people should resemble their spiritual guides and fathers? Certainly not; and they do resemble them. For the most part, whatever may be the causes, the people are ignorant and very superstitious, not at all inquisitive, but selfsatisfied and willing dupes to a religious system which, though it has had full sway for three hundred years, has neither enlightened nor elevated them.

(To be continued.)


The Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts is taking steps with a view to improve the openings in China and Japan. At a recent public meeting in London, presided over by the Bishop of London, resolutions were adopted to that effect. The revision of the Prayer-book is a subject which engages the steady attention of an increasing number of earnest and influential members of the Church of England, both lay and clerical. They held a Conference lately, at which General Alexander was called to the chair, and Lord Ebury took a leading part in the proceedings.

The Congregational body are taking measures to reorganise and extend their Home Missionary operations. They propose to form a society to promote this work exclusively in London, by aiding weak metropolitan Churches, and assisting to raise new ones in the poorer districts. Their existing society, in the meantime, is to pursue its labours more vigorously in the country districts, to which they are to be confined.

Some of the leading Nonconformists of London have engaged St. James's Hall for Sabbath evening services, to commence with the first Lord's-day in this month. Exeter The Bishop of London commenced the Hall continues to be occupied by the clergy Lord's-day evening services at St. Paul's of the Established Church. Secular buildCathedral for the working classes on No-ings are, as we rejoice to see, more than vember 28. The sacred edifice was crowded, and it is said that more than 10,000 per

sons had assembled round it before the doors were opened, by far the largest part of whom were, of course, unable to find admission.-This excellent prelate is also indefatigable in his labours in the crowded district of Bethnal-green, preaching in the different churches, evening after evening, to large and attentive congregations. Other bishops are also addicting themselves more than was the case with some of their predecessors to a laborious discharge of their onerous duties as "ministers of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God." May their godly zeal find an abundant recompense in the increasing power and prevalence of true religion!

Prayer Meetings for a revival of religion are now held, we believe, in many if not in most towns in Scotland. They embrace persons of all Christian denominations, and are said to be well attended. Similar meetings continue to be held every week in Exeter Hall, and in some other parts of London, and also in some provincial towns.

aforetime used for purposes of Divine worPaul preached not in the Synagogues only, ship and for the preaching of the Gospel. but "in the school of one Tyrannus," and on Mars hill.

A meeting has lately been held of leading persons in the Society of Friends likely to result in some important modifications of the interior discipline of that respectable body of Christians. The questions discussed related to the propriety of allowing marriages to be solemnised in their assemblies when one of the contracting parties only is a member of their body, or when neither party is a member, but both parties attended their religious meetings. The subject of plainness of speech, behaviour, and apparel, was also debated. No practical measures can be adopted except by the Yearly Meeting. With considerable difference of opinion there was, we are told, "a prevailing feeling of brotherly love, under which Friends were mercifully permitted to sepa


The Queen's Proclamation to her new subjects in India has been a topic much

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