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shipfull sacrament of Christs owne bodie an accident without subject; which terme, since I know not that Gods law approveth it in this matter, I dare not grant, but utterlie I denie to make this friers sentence, or any such other, my beleefe ; doe with me God what thou wilt.

And the archbishop said to me; Well, well, thou shalt say otherwise or that I leave thee.

But what saiest thou to this second point that is recorded against thee by worthie men of Shrewsburie, saying, that thou preachedst there, that images ought not to be worshipped in any wise?

And I said ; Sir, I preached never thus, nor through Gods grace I will not at any time consent to think nor to say thus, neither privilie nor apertly. For loe, the Lord witnesseth by Moses, that the things which hee made were right good, and so then they were, and yet they are and shall be good and worshipfull in their kind. And therefore, to the end that God made them to, they are all praisable and worshipfull; and speciallie man that was made after the image and likenesse of God, is full worshipfull in his kind ; yea, this holy image that is man, God worshippeth'. And herefore every man should worship other, in all the editions of Fox, which I have had an opportunity of consulting; “Frier Thomas againe.” The person intended is undoubtedly St. Thomas Aquinas; and the place cited may be found, Summa Theolog.: part 3, quest. 75, art. 5. I apprehend, therefore, that the alteration of "againe” into Aquine ” will be easily allowed of.

7 God worshippeth.] Thus in bishop Pecock's Treatise on the Rule of Faith, p. 35. “This holi lyver after his death is accepted into salvacioun, and to be reverencid and worschipid and folowid as for a savyd soule, and moche lovyd and worschipid of God.

The disputation between the archbishop and Thorpe upon this celebrated point, cannot be understood, without bearing in mind the ancient meaning of the word worship, of which we have traces still remaining in the marriage service, and in the word worshipful. It did by no means imply of itself so high a degree of reverence as we now usually apply to it. But, as Tyndal says, “worshipping and honouring, these two termes are both one."—Works, p. 269. The reader, who is desirous of further information upon the controversy respecting image worship at the commencement, and in the earlier years of the reformation, will find much to his purpose by consulting Lewis's Life of Pecock, p. 79—114; Lewis's History of Wickliffe, p. 345—350; Fox, p. 369. 433. 518. 605, 606 ; Tyndal's Works, p. 269. 275; Barnes's Works, p. 335. 355; Sir Thomas More's Works, p. 113. 124. 187. 203. See also the index of this work, and that of the Christian Institutes under Images, worship of

kind, and also for heavenly vertues that men use charitably. And also I say, wood, tin, gold, silver, or any other matter that images are made of, all these creatures are worshipfull in their kind, and to the end that God made them for. But the carving, casting, and painting of an imagery, made within mans hand, albeit that this doing be accept of men of highest state and dignitie, and ordained of them to bee a calendar to leaud men, that neither can, nor will be learned to know God in his word, neither by his creatures, nor by his wonderfull and divers workings; yet this imagerie ought not to be worshipped in forme, nor in the likenesse of mans craft. Neverthelesse, that very matter the painters paint with, since it is Gods creature, ought to be worshipped in the kind, and to the end that God made and ordained it to serve


Then the archbishop said to me, I grant well that nobody, ought to doe worship to any such images for themselves 8. But a crucifix ought to be worshipped for the passion of Christ that


8 Images for themselves.] This was well enough said by the archbishop; and if he and his party would have stopped here, there needed to have been no more controversy on this point, or it would have been merely some verbal disputation about the force and import of the word “worship,” or the like. The Lollards, Reformers, Protestants, all were willing enough to accede to the usage of images, as “calendars of lewd men,” or “lay-men's books." But what availed this, when all the time, it is unquestionable, that the practice in the church differed very widely from the teaching in the schools : and that, by the connivance or encouragement, and for the direct gain of the clergy themselves ? What else could be the meaning of the "engines that were in the images, whereby they could beckon, either with their heades or handes, or move their eyes, or manage some parte of their bodies, to the purpose that the freers and priests would use them?” (Works of William Thomas, p. 61.) Why do we hear so much of the miracles wrought at this shrine and at that? and of the blood of Hayles, or the blood of St. Januarius ? The “rood of grace, at Boxley, in Kent, was able to bow down and lift up itself, to shake and stir the hands and feet, to nod the head, roll the eyes, bend the brows, and finally to represent a lively, significant show of a well-contented or displeased mind.” (Lewis's Life of Pecock, p. 82.) Can we wonder then at the scandal occasioned by these things to reflecting minds, and at the zeal of Tindal, Bilney, and the like? Bernard Gilpin, we shall read below, in this collection, was much troubled, hearing the papists condemn idolatry in their discourses, and yet permitting to the people every where the adoration of images.” Again, he says : “I beheld for the space of three years at Paris, Antwerp, and Loraine, and in some other places, very gross idolatry. This thing did more and more estrange one from the popish religion: most of all because the learneder papists did in their disputations in the schools deny the adoration of images, yet allowed the intolerable use thereof in their churches.”

is painted therein, and so brought therethrough to mans mind : and thus the images of the blessed Trinitie, and of the Virgin Marie Christs mother, and other images of saints, ought to be worshipped. For loe, earthly kings and lords which used to send their letters ensealed with their armes, or with their privie signet to them that are with them, are worshipped of these men. For when these men receive their lords letters, in which they see and know the wils and biddings of the lords, in worship of their lords they doe off their caps to these letters'. Why not then, since in

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9 Doe off their caps to these letters.] This old custom must not be passed by without one or two notices, which will also afford further illustration to the archbishop's argument, “Saynt Austyn sayth, the mynde of Crystys passion puttethe awaye all temptacyons, and the power of all wycked spyrytes. And for this cause roodes and ymages ben set on hye in the chirche; for as soone as a man cometh into the chirche, he sholde see it, and have it in his mynde, and thynke on Crystys passion. Wherefore crosses and other ymages be full necessary and needefull, whatsomever these Lollers say : for and it had not be full profitable, holye faders wolde have destroyed them many yeres agone. For ryght as the people done worshyp to the kynges seale, not for love of the seale, but for reverence of the kyng that it cometh fro, so roodes and ymages be set for the kynges seale in heven, and other sayntes in the same wyse.

For ymages ben lewde peples bokes; and as Johan Belet sayth, ther ben many thousandes of peple that can not ymagyn in ther hertes how Cryst was done on the crosse, but as they se by ymagis in the chirches, and in other places.”Festival, fol. 51. b. In so much favour was this argument, that even Sir Thomas More and bishop Gardiner condescended to make use of it. “When a man at the receite of his princes letter putleth off his cappe and kisseth it, doth he this reverence to the paper, or to his prince? In good faith to saie the trouth these heretiques rather trifle than reason in this matter. For where thei saie that ymages be but lay mennes bokes, thei cannot yet saie nay but that thei be necessary, if thei were but so.” Works, p. 117. See Fox's Acts, p. 1219, 20. Letter of bishop Gardiner. By the time of the reign of Henry VIII. it should appear, that this courtesy was already contracted within narrower limits. In Coverdale's dedication of his translation of the Bible to that monarch, in which he inforces the king's supremacy with much zeal, he observes in the course of that argument, as ther is nothing above God, so is ther no man above the king in his realme; but that he only under God is the chief head of all the congregation and church of the same. And in token that this is true, ther hath been of old antiquitie, and is yet unto this day, a loving ceremonie used in your realme of England, that when your grace's subjects read your letter, or begin to talk or commune of your highnesse, they move their bonnets for a sign and token of reverence unto your grace, as to their most sovereign lord and head under God, which thing no man useth to do to ony bishop : whereby if our understandyng were not blynded, we might evidently perceave, that even very nature teacheth us the same that scrypture commaundeth us." If this custom still any where remains, perhaps it may


images made with mans hand, wee may read and know many divers things of God, and of his saints, shall we not worship their images?

And I said ; within my foresaid protestation I say, that these worldly usages of temporal lawes that yee speake now of, may be done in case without sinne. But this is no similitude to worship images, made by mans hand, since that Moses, David, Solomon, Baruch, and other saints in the bible forbid so plainely the worshipping of such images.

Then the archbishop said to mee; Leaud losell, in the old law before that Christ tooke mankind, was no likenesse of any person of the Trinitie, neither shewed to man, nor knowne of man: but now since Christe became man, it is lefull to have images to shew his manhood. Yea, though many men which are right great clerkes and other also, held it an error to paint the Trinitie, I say it is wel done to make and to paint the Trinity in images. For it is great mooving of devotion to men, to have and to behold the Trinitie and other images of saints, carved, cast, and painted. For beyond the sea, are the best painters that ever I

And sirs I tell you, this is their manner, and it is a good manner : when that an image maker shall carve, cast in mold, or paint any images, he shall goe to a priest, and shrive him as cleane, as if he should then die ; and take penance, and make

: some certaine vow of fasting or of praying or pilgrimages doing, praying the priest speciallie to pray for him, that he may have grace to make a faire and a devout image.

And I said; Sir, I doubt not if these painters that ye speak of, or any other painters understood truly the text of Moses, of David, of the Wise Man, of Baruch, and of other saints and doctors; these painters should be mooved to shrive them to God with full inward sorrow of heart, taking upon them to doe right sharpe penance for the sinfull and vaine craft of painting, carving, or casting they had used ; promising God faithfully, never to doe so after; knowledging openly before all men their reprooveable learning. And also sir, these priests that shrive (as you doe say)



be found among the formal and ceremonious Spaniards. “ If I should use the Count de Gondomar's action,” says Lord Bacon to the Marquis of Buckingham, “ I should first lay your last letter to my mouth, in token of thanks, and then to my heart in token of contentment, and then to my forehead in token of a perpetual remembrance.”—Bacon's Works, vol. ii. p. 570. Edit. 1753.



painters, and enjoyne them to doe penance, and pray for their speed, promising to them helpe of their prayers for to be curious in their sinfull crafts, sinne herein more grievouslie, than the painters. For these priests doe comfort and give them counsell to doe that thing, which of great paine, yea under the paine of Gods curse, they should utterly forbid them. For certes sir, if the wonderfull working of God, and the holy living and teaching of Christ, and of his apostles and prophets, were made knowne to the people by holy living and true, and busie teaching of priests; these things (sir) were sufficient bookes and kalenders to know God by, and his saints, without any images made with mans hand. But certes, the vitious living of priests and their covetousnesse, are chiefe cause of this error, and all other vitiousnesse that raigneth among the people.

Then the archbishop said unto me, I hold thee a vitious priest and accurst, and all them that are of thy sect; for all priests of holy church, and all images that move men to devotion, thou and such other goe about to destroy. Losell, were it a faire thing to

a come into the church and see therein none image ?

And I said ; Sir, they that come to the church for to pray devoutly to the Lord God, may in their inward wits bee the more fervent, that all their outward wits bee close from all outward seeing and hearing, and from all disturbance and lettings. And since Christ blessed them that saw him not bodily, and have beleeved faithfully in him, it sufficeth then to all men (through hearing and knowing of Gods word, and to doe thereafter) for to beleeve in God, though they never see images made with mans hand after any person of the Trinitie, or of any other saint.

And the archbishop said to mee, with a fervent spirit; I say to thee losell, that it is right well done to make and to have an image of the Trinitie. Yea, what saist thou ? is it not a stirring thing to behold such an image?

And I said ; Sir, yee said right now that in the old law or Christ tooke mankind, no likenesse of any person of the Trinitie was shewed to men: wherefore sir, yee said it was not then lefull to have images, but now ye say, since Christ is becomen man, it is lefull to make and to have an image of the Trinitie, and also of other saints. But sir, this thing would I learne of you : since the father of heaven, yea and every person of the Trinitie was

10 Bookes and kalenders.] See below, under Lord Cobham, n. (5) p. 367. or Index, art. Images, laymen's books.




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