« ForrigeFortsæt »
pulse is very frequent but feeble, and at last not to be felt; lometimes a mild delirium occurs, and at others the patient keeps his senses perfect. No other febrile symptoms can be observed. The rudiments of buboes appear on the body after death.
At the first instant of attack, and while the strength was yet entire, vomiting was excited and continued till the anx, iety was removed or much relieved. Immediately after, wards cordials, and next fudorifics were given repeatedly. But after extreme debility had come on, the most powerful cordials were given before emetics, and after sufficient vomita ing the same diaphoretic plan was pursued, not neglecting ftimulants and corroborants.
Among the more uncommon symptoms, tinnitus aurium, vertigo, bleeding at the nose in the beginning of the discase, worms, spasms and convulsions may be enumerated.
The diet was accommodated to circumstances. Meat and drink, whether crude or liable to fermentation were evident. ly hurtful. Broth, well fermented bread, acidulated drink seemed very proper, aud even highly advantageous in proa moting the cure.
Bleeding and cathartics were manifestly hurtful. The great preservative consisted in avoiding all intercourse with the infected.
The detrusion of the suspected and infected into preservative houses, as they were called, and hospitals, was too much dreaded and detested as to produce the greateft confufion, whence this regulation feemed to contribute little to the extinction of the plague.
The best mode of prefervation, with respect to nonnaturals, seemed to confift in cold and dry air, food eafy of digeftion, well fermented drink, rather weak and of refreshing nature; moderate sleep; conftant motion, very gentle evacuants, if at all necessary, and avoiding all violent passions.
Those who could not avoid frequent intercourse with the infected, and were even obliged to touch them, besides the general precautions, made use of fumigations and odours, Itrengthening and diaphoretic medicines, and particular dresses and instruments.
The fumigations ordered by the College of Health, werç. as follow. 1. That for fumigating infected houses.
B Fol. Juniperi
Rad. lign. guaiaci
2. A milder
2. A milder form for fumigating suspected houses and more
Calami aromat. Ib jii
Sulphur. 3 iv
The author next subjoins eight cases, and among the rest his own, which we should willingly insert, if we had room. The viscidity of the meat in several of these cases is remark, able, but the rapidity with which the miasma produced its effects, while the author was feeling the pulse of a patient from whom it would seem he received the infection, is altogether as extraordinary.
Then follow thirty-fix observations which we Thall tranflate.
1. The phases of the moon seem to have no considerable influence on the plague.
2, There was a plentiful crop of fruits at Jaffe and Mofcow, and of grapes at the former place.
3. Those who had large wounds or ulcers, even in a ftate of suppuration, were not exempt from the infection. In the military hospital at Jasse the first carbuncles were observed in the wounds. As the disease advances the wounds dry up; suppuration stops, but returns again afterwards if the patient survives.
4. Pregnant women when infected are easily delivered and seem to be better immediately afterwards, but they die in a short time of an uterine hæmorrhage.
5. In gonorrhæa the running ceases after infection, but re curs upon convalescence.
6. Infected infants often become comatose and convulf, ed, syptoms seldom occurring in adults.
7. In relapses the symptoms are milder,
8. The contagion seems to be propagated from persons only in the acme of the disease. No infection was ever observed to proceed from those in the period of infection, or those who have been early saved by a falutary crisis after the disease is fully formed,
9. After a long period of infection the disease was always more dangerous and difficult of cure than after a sudden féi
10. At the height the sense of touch is extremely obtuse, even when there is no delirium.
11. The most usual way of infection was by contact ; though it was certainly sometimes received by inspiration.
12. In the two acute types the symptoms suffer an exacerbation at the time of the eruption of buboes and carbuncles.
13. Some who bore evident marks of infection, such as the rudiments of buboes and broad livid exanthemata, the forerunners of dry carbuncles, and were apprized of their danger, shewed incredible indolence and indifference about approaching death.
14. Immediately before the attack of the very acute fpecies, the apetite is often preternaturally keen.
15. Some have affirmed that they were sensible of an inexpreffibly nauseous smell at the instant they were seized with the plague in its very acute state.
16. Convalescents from the plague recover their strength and former health much more easily and speedily than after malignant fevers.
17. In some, who have carbuncles, ulcers resembling chancres, appeared at the same time on the glans penis, but they never became gangrenous.
18. After the resolution, many pimples sometimes ap. peared in various parts of the body.
19. When buboes were opened too early, an immoderate flow of fanies in some cases enfuing, brought on emaciation and hastened death. In others the edges of the wounds and the adjacent parts, became so hard that suppuration could with difficulty be brought on by the best emollients.
20. Fomentations of vinegar were used with the greatest advantage for the resolution of buboes and carbuncles, but if this end could not be attained, the business of suppuration proceeded much more slowly, when they were too long continued.
21. Hæmorrhages from the nose were in several instances salutary at the very beginning of the plague, but at a more advanced period they were generally followed by death.
22. Large carbuncles in the neck produce a great swelling in the adjacent parts, and in a short time the patient is suffocated.
23. Buboes sometimes rise in the middle of the leg.
24. Carbuncles appearing upon parotids forwarded the supuration, which otherwise is obtained with great difficulty. Their fixing upon other buboes was sometimes a good, but oftner a bad fign,
25. It is a fatal fign, if carbuncles spread farther, after the eschar is separated and pour forth fanies instead of pus.
26. At Moscow it was remarked as a fingular phænomenon that all the prisoners who were infected had parotids.
27. At the origin of the plague exhanthemata and buboes are niore frequent, at its height carbuncles, and at its decline buboes almost alone appear.
28. Buboes . sometime after they have been cured, rise again in the same place.
29. When the eschars of carbuncles remained neglected after the recovery of the patient, the adjacent parts fwelled very much, and sometimes buboes rofe again.
30. When buboes have already risen, and humid carbuncles fupervene in places not dangerous, it is in general a good fign.
31. Sometimes two or three buboes were observed in the fame groin.
32. I have never seen carbuncles on the hairy scalp, the eyes, the inside of the mouth, the penis, the palms of the hands, and the foles of the feet.
33. In the period of infection the external skin becomes so un&tuous on account of the superabundant unguem, that water poured upon it collects into drops ; many patients newly infeded have their face as shining as if it had been anointed with oil.
34. Mercurial medicines used both externally and internally in various forms and doses, produced not the smallest good effect.
35. They, who early in the acute type vomited either spontaneously, or otherwise, without much difficulty, much bilious viscid faburra, always had the disease in a milder way. On the contrary, late or difficult vomiting, or the failure of emetics in producing their effect, foreboded a fatal termination.
36. This paragraph is long, and relates to a contagious disease among dogs.
(To be concluded in our next.)
MISCELLANEOUS Art. 18. Obfervations on Dr. M'Farlan's Inquiries concern
ing the Poor. By T. Tod, Merchant, Treasurer to the Orphan
Hospital. Published for the Benefit of the Orphans. Edinburgh. - James Donaldson. 1783. No Price. 10 write observations on the poor, and poor-laws in profe and
verfe is rather fingular; but the author appears by his publiCation to be a very extraordinary personage. Thomas Tod miere chant,' we understand is a tanner in Edinburgh. Had he ltuck to his currying knife, or written, if he must write, for the pastime of his particular friends, he would not have been fo confpieuoufly ridiculous; his conceit would have been confined to the small circle of his acquaintance, they alone would have undergone the penance of reading his obfervations.
Dr. M*Farlan's inquiries concerning the poor we have noticed in a former review*, with that approbation we thought they undoubt. edly deserved. Observing, in England especially, that the number of paupers, and the poor-rates are continually increafing, while the streets are crouded with mendicants of every description, the sensible author naturally concluded that the laws now subtifting were insufficient for the purposes for which they were enacted, that they were the bane of industry, and tended ultimately to the encouragement of vice. Knowing that the morals of a state, as well as its political prosperity depend in a great measure on the industry of its inhabitants, he offered a plan whose object was to give no encouragement to idleness, to prevent begging, and to support the real objects of public bounty equally well, and at much less expence than formerly. Surely fuch benevolent and patriotic intentious merited the approbation and thanks of the cominunity. Had the plan been erroneous, virulence should not have entered into the confutation. Above all, to have the whole mangled and distorted by fuch an adversary is truly mortifying. An adversary who appears evidently incapable of comprehending the plan as a whole, but who impotently nibbles at the parts, after having, either through ignorance or design, inifrepresented them; who deals largely in personal abuse, who is often at variance with himself, and constantly so with grammar and common sense. Thomas Tod informs us that he has no great abili• ties' for writing on fubjects of latitude. Why then Thomas, write on this ? Doft not thou know that this is a subject of great latitude, and that a proper code of poor laws has hitherto been the opprobrium legislationis ; which, being interpreted for thy use, means that the legittature has failed in every attempt of the kind. And yet thou must be meddling-once more stick to thy currying knife. Art. 19. The Beauties of Great Britain; or, a new Companion
to Ogilby's Book of Roads. Containing a general Description of such Lakes, Mountains, ruins, Antiquities, and Noblemen's Seats