Billeder på siden


will do like service all over the countıy for the pupils and lif he attempts to find the answer (if it has ever been ansparents by having the beautiful Stars and Stripes float from wered), or, better, directs the interrogator to a way that every school house?

H. H. S. enables him to find the answer himself.. Minersville, Pa.

Bring unfamiliar objects, as the cocoa nut, cotton ball,

etc., into the class room for study, and explain their con. For the EDUCATIONAL News.

struction and uses made of them. If the teacher has no THE STUDY OF GEOGRAPHY.

friends in the South, he can procure some of these small The ability to bound every state and country in the curiosities with very little expense by consulting the “ex. known world, locate and give the population of its capital change column" of some paper and writing to a southern and a dozen other towns and cities, some of which one

advertiser. seldom hears of in after life, is no longer considered a sure

The newspaper gives many sketches and notes of great test that one is well versed in geograplıy.

Statistics are

value on this subject and a scrap book for the preservation very important in their place but to the average pupil it is of such-articles may be made of much interest as well as of far greater importance to know why the New England profit. Goldthwaite's Geographical Magazine occupies a towns abound in mills and factories, why so many new unique position in educational literature in this line, inciting towns have sprung up in Southern California within the enthusiasm in the kindred science, geology, as well as in last decade, than to be able to give the exact population of geography. each of these according to the last census. The skeleton It should enter largely into our perusal of topics of the of the subject is now made subordinate in importance to the day; any one who has closely watched the Hawaiian situaexact population of each of these according to the last cen- tion, the Matabele trouble, or even the progress of Coxey's

The skeleton of the subject is now made subordinate army has learned geographical facts that, by association in importance to the living tissue.

with events, will remain permanently in his store of knowlChildren will more readily learn the definitions of the fedge. natural divisions of land and water from nature than from

Geography cannot be mastered in the common school, the text book; if there is a creek or pond in the vicinity of the high school, the college, or the university; life is too the school house, a skilful teacher can familiarize them short to complete the study. And only the teacher who with the termo “island," "cape,” "bay,” etc., at noon adds to instruction in the foundation an interest in general while they think they are only playing. From the erosion reading and a zeal to add to knowledge of the science in of a small stream at the time of a freshet they may learn this reading, who inspires to independent thought and in. how canyons are formed.

vestigation, can expect to furnish to the world scholars in The teacher should see that no term used in the lesson geography.

Bessie L. PUTNAM. is passed without its meaning being understood by each pupil. If such terms as "caravansary," "vermicelli,”

DOES EDUCATION PAY? "jerked beef,” etc., occur, the lesson is not learned until their signification is known; when pupils are once impressed

An English workman and a college professor were with the fact that this is expected as part of the lesson, they walking together through the streets of a town where one will consult the cyclopaedia or dictionary, if accessible; if of the great universities of Great Britian is situated. They not, the teacher must supply the information. And here passed one of the buildings of a college. "What is that let me urge the importance of encouraging pupils to ask manufactory ?" said the workman, pointing to it under a questions; where this habit is not permitted they fall into a mistaken impression as to its character and

purposes. listless manner of studying and reciting every time, soon "That,” the professor replied, “is a manufactory of power." taking “what is in the book” for granted, with the conclu- Power! Is not that what all of us are trying to gain and sion that when that is learned their responsibility ends;— use? Does not the merchant want the faculty of perceiving this habit is fatal to progressiveness or original thought. possible markets and the power to make them actual marWhat if they do occasionally ask something that the kets? Would he not think it a labor-saving, money-makteacher cannot answer immediately? The greatest scien- ing investment that doubles his capacity ? True education tists this world has ever produced have said "I don't is the drawing-out and training and strengthening of the know' on more than one occasion. Is the teacher hum- capacities and faculties with which we are packed full. bling himself in making such a confession? No; that is not | The youth with a real education, i. e., with his capacities

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


so disciplined that he can make the best use of his facul. horizon is broadening. Her interests have been deepened ties, starts out in life with a greater capital than the chil- and freshened. She is a more useful member of society. dren of Jay Gould. He owns it. He owns himself. He She is an indispensable factor, the largest factor in the is his own capital, and need incur no liabilities.

intellectual life of the United States, in our literature, in Another secret of success lies in the application of power. reform and in all religious activities. Without her the "Providence,” Bonaparte confessed frankly with his Na Columbian Exposition and its congresses could not have poleonic cynicism, "is on the side of the heaviest battal-been. She is already the virtual mistress of this country. ions.” He lied; but in his falsehood lay a half-truth. The In the next century she will be actual master. The most other side of his epigram is the full truth that it is best for lucrative investment our millionaire philanthropists and the heavy battalions to be on the side of Providence. So intelligent parents can make is in providing the most libin education. There are signs that seem as if the center of eral patronage and support to every good school for girls gravity were providentially shifting from the boys to the and university for women. Next to religion, education is girls. If the frame of the mother be strong, runs the the best paying thing in the world.— The Interior. Hawaiian proverb, her sons will make laws for the people. In all countries civilization and society have advanced in

AN OLD THING UNDER A NEW NAME. proportion to the progress of

In America the

BY HENRY A. FORD, A, M., Detroit, Mich.
cause of man has been the cause of woman, and the more
man has done for woman the more he has been enabled to

In recent years we have heard a great deal of Appercepdo for himself. The better we educate our girls, the more tion. The term itself is an old one, though new in promwe shall reinforce the intellectual and moral forces of soinent use in education, and certainly new compared with ciety, and strengthen and broaden the bases of the state. what it describes. It goes back at least to Leibnitz, who

Eighty years ago, possibly even as late as forty years used it for that act of the mind by which it becomes conago, the average education bestowed upou women by most scious of its ideas as its own, perception with the added of the "young ladies' seminaries” was an education of consciousness that it is 'l' who perceive." In this sense it varnish and unreality. The girl came out of school with a appears also in the works of Sir William Hamilton. Later few "accomplishments' and a smattering of shallow knowl-than Leibnitz, by Kant and most of the English philosoedge. She could dance. She could sing. She could phers, apperception is appropriated for acts of voluntary maltreat the piano. She dabbled in painting. She could consciousness accompanied with self-consciousness, and so mispronounce French, and stumble through several short placed at the very base of psychology. Even in the usage sentences of the tongue of polished Paris. If she were ex- of Herbart the term is more than a halt-century old. He ceptionally fortunate, she picked up some knowledge of considers it "the coalescence of the remainder of a the noble literatures of Greece and Rome. But her edu- isolated idea with an older one, by a modification of one cation was not useful in the sense of being in touch with or the other,” and in a related sense as apprehension or and of service to the needs of practical life. It was her recognition. It is in these significations of Herbart that mother that gave her instruction in the things of practical the term is to be understood generally in pedagogic disusefulness in her sphere of life.

cussions. To-day what a change! The sister is barred out from The Herbartian psychology has been much discredited nothing that the brother may know. She has shown her by writers of our day. It has been called, often unjustly self worthy of a fair chance, and able to make her brother it must be said, "exploded psychology,” its presentations hustle. Her education is not merely elegant and orna. "glib Herbartian jargon,” and its methods "hideously fab. mented with accomplishments. It includes them still, but ulous performances.” It is not a little singular that while

' it adds more.

It comprises more or less thorough acquaint-his general system has thus been falling into disrepute, ance with art and music, and history, and literature, and there should be a revival or survival of his tenet of apperscience. But feminine education adds more practical ception. I suspect, however, that this is true rather among studies, such as sociology, and politics and philanthropy educators than among specialists in psychology. The and hints as to housekeeping. The results are that woman's great work of Professor Ladd, of Yale University, “Psyeducation is to-day as never before practical in its aim, chology, Descriptive and Explanatory," a book of the last practical in its character and practical in its outcome. It month, barely mentions apperception, and honors it with has helped to make woman a force in American life. Her no discussion.






The fact is, as a little inspection and reflection shows, right beginning, but we do say that bright, interesting and
this is a new term-rather an old term in new uses-for a inspiring opening exercises are a very great help. We
venerable and well-known thing. Very early in the dis- should try to have a certain freshness and novelty about
cernment of principles of pedagogy it must have been ob- these exercises; not “the same old soup," and the verses
served that anything well learned must be learned in its that, repeated day after day, have lost all their beauty and
relattons. I was giving this as a rule of prime importance attractiveness and are now but a meaningless jargon. It
in the teachers' institutes long before I heard of Herbar't is very easy to slip into a certain order of opening exer-
term for a treatment of the principle. And by whatever cises and hold to it, but it is a great mistake. We can
name it goes, the fact or principle must be deemed of prime easily teach a sufficient number of hymns and songs to ad-
importance in school and private practice. We know a mit of considerable variety, while in the matter of Bible
thing only as we place it in relations; we enlarge and en- verses, maxims, “memory gems," etc., we can be adding
rich our culture as we multiply relations, and establish new constantly to our stock, and thus preserve the interest.
ones for facts perhaps long held in memory. The child But in the time allotted to opening exercises the morn-
learning a word associates it with a sound or synthesis of ing talk should always have a place. This admits of end- .
sounds, then with written or printed characters, then or less variety but requires considerable thought and prepara-
earlier with the thing signified, may be through other tion. A story generally paves the way to the talk. Some- .
words addressed to ear or eye, but better if possible by times it is a Bible sketch, a bit of history, a little poem,
presentation of the thing itself or its visible representation, something from the field of science, or simply a story from
and so on.

some child's magazine. It is a good plan to make a collecHuman beings, as creatures of education, are differenced tion of topics and materials for morning talks. A large enlargely by their limitations in this respect. Wordsworth, velope in the cover of my school Bible contains my collecthe laureate, scholar and genius, unconsciously points a tion of last year. This, of course, I am useing this term, contrast with the ignorant peasant in the lines:

adding occasionally to the supply. Every story has a defi"A cowslip by the river's brim,

nite object or teaching. They deal with such objects as A yellow cowslip was to him;

honesty, courage, gratitude, unselfishness, thoughtfulness, And it was nothing more."

truthfulness, politeness, etc. In selecting topics we must The rude observer associates the familiar object with consider the special needs of the class of children we form, color, etc., perchance some simple uses in domestic have. economy; but the poet-how his thoughts and knowledge “Kindergarten stories and Morning Talks,” by Sara E. may range away from it! He says elsewhere:

Wiltse, published by Ginn & Co., Boston, is a book con"The humblest flower that grows to me can give

taining a number of excellent stories and a great many very

а Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears."

good suggestions along this line. Cowper was given for a poem so unpromising a thing as

In the higher classes ask the children to suggest the a sota; but by his wonderful power of multiplying relations topics, allow a day or two for thought and investigation. he attached one idea or fact after another to this common- and then discuss the subject. Make the morning talk one place article until he developed one of the finest pastoral in which the children will express themselves readily and poems in the language, that known from its origin as "The without restraint. It is possible for teachers and scholars Task.''

to get very near to each other at this hour. Increased Apperception, indeed, simply put, is but perception plus sympathy and co-operation are certain to be the outcome.

- Educational Journal. understanding. The teacher need not adopt the name, but the methods of instruction it implies must not be neglected.

IN THE COUNTRY SCHOOL. Well worked, they must issue in a body of education for each pupil which, whether small or large, is thoroughly

Not long since, I heard an interesting lecture by the connected, consistent, intelligible, and usable.

eminent professor of agriculture of the University of Illi

nois, in which the speaker gave numerous instances of the

surprising ignorance of pupils and teachers in the country
schools, concerning the most common things always at

hand to those whose home is in the country. He exhorted We do not say that the success of the day depends on a the teachers who heard him, to do more to make them




usual way.

selves familiar with such facts, and to lead their pupils to they not be interested in learning how to set out a tree, know more of the objects right about them.

how to graft one, how to trim one, how to plant flowers,

and how to care for them, how to raise vegetables, and My own experience has many a time led my thoughts in what use to make of them? the same direction. I have, more than or twice, Then, in another field, how much needs to be done, and tested the teachers at an institute, teachers who an institute, teachers who were ought to be done, especially for boys and girls in the coun

try! Highly valuable lessons can be given on the various brought up in the country and who taught in the country, occupations of man and the relation of these occupations and I have found 1 hat not more than one-fourth of them to each other; pupils can be taught the fundamental and knew the note of the bluebird or of the meadow-lark. They grand lessons that all are inter-dependent; that all useful

, were equally ignorant concerning many other things quite occupations contribute to our own personal good, and that as familiar and striking. For myself, I passed all my own equivalent for what he receives. We have the best of reaboybood days in the country; but I did not know, till Isons for knowing that a few simple lessons on business was more than thirty years old, that grapes grew only on dence, either for business or friendship? How many grad

transactions are sorely needed. And how about corresponwood of last year's growth, or that strawberries are prop-uates, even of high schools, cannot write a respectable letagated by runners. It would have been well for me, ifter, even if their lives depended on it ! my early teachers had taught me these things, and a mul- tutional and social life; the simplest facts about civil and

Besides all this, there remains the vital subject of instititude of others like them, even if we had spent less time political institutions; the rights, privileges, and duties of in locating Lake Tchad, or in mechanically learning some citizens; and the primal lessons of good manners and social of the rules of syntax, or in calculating annuities or the intercourse.

The theme is a very wide one; but what I want to urge ramifications of the arbitration of exchange.

on those especially who teach in the country schools is, What I mean is that the good teacher of a country school that they should recognize the vast work belonging to will not conceive his work as having to do with nothing them, outside of books and the few formal studies of the

common school. but books, and the acquiring of the "three R's” in the studies must not be neglected. But, suppose the reading

I grant, of course, that these formal And yet, it may turn out that the teacher was made to bear on some of the topics suggested: supwho wisely devotes a reasonable time to those other mat- pose the examples in arithmetic were drawn from some of

the practical affairs; suppose the lessons in language and ters, will find that his pupils will, as a consequence, make

composition were furnished from the same source; suppose better progress with books and in the mastering of the the child's interest in the school and its work

were prop: three R's.

erly aroused and fostered; might it not turn out that such Why should he not make his pupils familiar with the would help and not hinder the acquisition of the "three

work would give a new meaning and value to books, and common forms of plant life all about them? Why should R's ?"-E. C. H., in Public School Journal. they not be able to name the trees they see every day, and

TEACHERS' TRIUMPH IN BERN. to name and describe some of their most distinguishing characteristics? Why should they be suffered to remain Recently the Bernese public teachers petitioned for un ignorant of many of the most obvious peculiarities of ani- improved salary scale. By 2,512 against 1,100 votes a

new scale of salaries, materially improving the position of mals that appeal to their observation every day of their the Bernese teachers, has been accepted by the citizens of lives? Do they know the appearance and the note of the Bern. Considering that no small portion of the Swiss most common birds? Can they tell the peculiarities of the capital consists of officials in the employ of the State, who

look with an envious eye on the apparently short hours foot of a dog, a cat, a pig, a cow, a horse ? And so on, of

which teachers work, the victory is a notable one. The an almost endless number of things to which they would men teachers will henceforth receive 400 francs per annum gladly give attention, if they were only led to do so. more, and the women teachers will benefit at the rate of Some useful lessons, too, might easily be given respect. fect from the beginning of 1894, and the other half from

200 francs per annum. Half the rise in salary will take efing farming operations, and the care of farms and of stock. the beginning of 1896. Henceforth the men teachers in Of course, nothing very scientific or professional should be Bern will receive from 2,450 to 3,350 francs, and women attempted; but there is enough that is needed, and that is teachers 1,700 to 2,450 francs. In addition to this increase, easily reached, to furnish material for many interesting and the pensions have been raised from 500 to 800 francs. useful exercises. Of course, such work would devolve These pensions are claimable in the case of men after thirty considerable labor on the teacher, in the way of prepara- years' service, and in the case of women after twenty five tion, especially if he should be as ignorant as most of us years. The additional cost to the town finances is estiare. But this is one of the advantages; his own increase mated at from 30,000 to 40,000 francs per annum, but this in useful and interesting knowledge would well repay him will be somewhat reduced by the raising of the maximum for all his time and trouble. How much a school of coun- number of scholars per teacher from forty to forty-four, try boys and girls might be taught about the raising of and by increasing the number of hours each teacher works fruits and flowers and the simple garden vegetables ! Would I from twenty-six to thirty-two.





Four years ago when Joseph Pulitzer of the New

York World began to found scholarships in various PUBLISHED BY

colleges he said, THE EDUCATIONAL NEWS CO.,

"My special object is to help the poor. The rich Lock Box 1258. Philadelphia, Pa.

can help themselves. I believe in self-made men. But ALBERT N. RAUB,

it is not the aim of this plan to help people for ordiRATE OF SUBSCRIPTION.

nary money-making purposes. College education is (Postage prepaid by Publisher.)

not needed for that. There are higher purposes in Single Subscription, per year, in advance, Single Subscription, per half year,

$15 | life. And my hope is, not that these scholarships

will make better butchers, bakers, brokers and bank Entered at the Post-Office at Philadelphla, Pa., as Second-Class Matter.

cashiers, but that they will help to make teachers, office 1020 Chestnut Street, Room 2.

scholars, physicians, authors, journalists, judges, law.

yers and statesmen. They certainly ought to increase SEE THIS OFFER.

the number of those who, under our free institutions,

rise from the humblest to the highest positions. PREMIUM BOOKS

"I have not entered upon this scheme without careWe give below the names of twenty-six extra good stand- ful thought. It was the dream of my youth. It is ard books, any one of which will be sent free as a premium the conviction of experience. I shall be, happy, into each subscriber to the WEEKLY EDUCATIONAL NEWs who will send $1.50 in advance for the paper for one year and 10 deed, if it should, even in the smallest degree, relieve cents to pay postage on the book. 1. Robinson Crusoe.

poverty, aid the cause of education and lift into a 2. Arabian Nights Entertainments. 3. Swiss Family Robinson.

higher plane of citizenship and usefulness to the State 4. Don Quixote. 5. Vicar of Wakefield.

the children of the poor, who, in spite of talent, with6. Dickens Child's History of England. 7. Last Days of Pompeii.

out such education cannot compete for the nobler 8. Ivanhoe,

prizes of an intellectual career." 9. Tom Brown's School Daye at Rugby. 10. Grimm's Popular Talea.

Mr. Pulitzer has done a wonderful amount of good 11. Grimm's Household Stories. 12. Pickwick Papers.

by his benefactions for the education of deserving 13. Speeches of Webster,

young men and has proved himself a philanthropist 14. Life of Daniel Webster 15. Lifeof Washington.

of the highest type. Nor has his good work ended. 16. Life of Patrick Henry. 17. Jane Eyre,

The trustees of Columbia College have asked for 18. Lucile.

$2,000,000 as a building fund with which to crpct a 19, Anderson'a Fairy Tales. 20. Tom Brown at Oxford.

suitable new home for the college on the noble site 21. John Halifax, Gentleman. 22. Tennyson's Poe3,

recently secured on Riverside Heights, overlooking 23. Plain Thoughts on the Art of Living. 24. Æsop's Fables.

the Hudson, and Mr. Pulitzer has come to their aid 25. Swineford's Literature for Beginners. 26. Hints and Helps on English Grammar.

by giving his check for $100,000, which now increases These books are all bound in cloth and well printed. They the subscription to $550,000. will grace any one's library.

Mr. Pulitzer, it is said, decided upon the endowment EDUCATIONAL NEWS CO., Box 1258.


which this sum provides as a permanent memorial of the tenth anniversary of his assumption of the control

of The World. For $4.00, we will send the Forum and the weekly

The special purpose for which this sum is given, EDUCATIONAL Nows one year, the cash must accom

and for which it is accepted by the authorities of pany the order. For three dollars, we win cond the EDUCATIONAL NEW, Columbia College, is to provide for the poor boys of wlad j9nd

, weekly for one year, and Macaulay's History of England the public schools of New York City who win in 5 vole, clotb, worth alone $3.75.

open competition the collegiate scholarships hereto

« ForrigeFortsæt »