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warmest acknowledgments for the favour. Of all periodicals I receive, I peruse none with greater interest, and the eventful times we live in greatly increase that interest; for everything seems to indicate that the "coming of the Lord draweth nigh," and every Shibboleth surely must soon give way to the all-important question, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou mo?"
While in Europe you have the war, we, here in Africa, have the pestilence; and I am sure you will sympathise with our infant Church here, and with the Church Missionary Society at home, under the severe affliction wherewith it has pleased God, a third time, to visit us, in the death of our beloved Bishop. Yes, Bishop Bowenthan whom none seemed more suited both for the weighty post and the trying climate, our excellent and universally beloved and regretted Bishop Bowen-is no more; after hardly six days' illness, he fell a sacrifice to the scourge that has decimated our number (ie., all whites) twice over since February. It commenced just as the Bishop left us for the Yoruba country. While absent from us-and having the experience of two Bishops returning thence to us dead men-prayer was made for him without ceasing by the Church, and the warmest thanksgivings ascended for his safe return in April. He continued hearty and well till the 15th of May, when he ordained five priests and two deacons in St. George's (three Europeans and four natives). Intending to visit Europe in July, he commenced holding confirmations that week; and appointed those in my own district the most southern) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th of this month. But on the 22nd of May he appeared for the last time in public, doing the work of God. On that morning he still walked in from Fourah Bay to his town residence (the distance being little more than a mile), and then preached his last sermon from Col. iii. 1, 2. All whom I heard speak of it say he preached as if he felt it was the last. He never saw Foarah Bay again. That same evening he lay down in fever upon the dying couch of his late beloved wife, and did not rise from it till borne away, after six days, to his last resting place, where his body awaits the last trump; while early on the 28th of May his immortal spirit joined those of "just men made perfect" in heaven.
Instead of more detail, I will send you the African, which contains a brief account of his history and last days. Yet I cannot forbear to add, that he was eminently
catholic in spirit. From occasional conversations with him I know that he pondered the thought seriously in his heart, and for a long time, whether it might not be brought about in this mission for Churchmen and Dissenters to join and merge all into one; not only to fraternise, which we do readily, and to which there is no obstacle; but so entirely to coalesce, as jointly to contribute and to uphold a native ministry, and thus to set European missionaries and our missionary society free from continuing to do this purely pastoral work; for unless the Home or Colonial Legislature make an annual grant, there is no prospect of an endowment, as any lands that might be given for the maintenance of the Church are altogether valueless here.
But our native converts' habit of weekly paying their "coppers" in "classes" is so regular and so uniform, both among us and the several sections of Dissenters (jointly about equal in numbers with us, or perhaps more), that the aggregate contributions would not fall far short of 1,000l. per annum, which would suffice for nearly a score of native pastors; while the places of public worship could be kept up by monthly congregational collections, as we have been doing for some time. Neither doctrine nor ceremonies interpose any obstacle to such a fusion into one body, for all-with the exception of perhaps a score of Baptistshighly approve and mostly use our prayerbook and liturgy; yet there are obstacles which I cannot now specify, but which God, in His own time, can easily remove if it please Him.
Christian morality-though not unnaturally so in a transition state-is yet sadly lacking, while religious susceptibility is a prominent trait in the negro character. The Fast-day last week (on the 8th) was remarkably well observed; churches and meetings all crowded. Nearly a dozen whites died since our beloved Bishop, averaging at least one on alternate days. Among them are three Romish priests (their bishop, too, is sick), and the wives of the two editors of the African, Rev. Messrs. Jones and Trotter; the former was my sister-in-law. Upwards of thirty whites out of at most 100 have died of the plague, and many hundreds of blacks from smallpox. May all "fall out to the furtherance of the Gospel," and many a Lydia's heart be opened to attend to the things by which God speaks on earth!-Gratefully yours,
ALGIERS. “EVANGELICAL CHRISTENDOM”-EUROPEAN POPULATION--STATE OF PROTESTANTISY-PROVINCE
OF CONSTANTINA-THE CONSTANTINA CIRCLE. Constantina, Algeria, July 12, 1859. Papist (at least a so-called all his life), Reverend Sir,--Since the beginning of when on his death-bed, leaves to his surthe year 1858, I have regularly, and free of viving friends the order of being buried by charge, received Evangelical Christendom. a Protestant pastor, or, in case of absence, Any line written by a Christian man would by a policeman rather than by a priest always be received and read in this land of In Batna, a town south of Constantina, the desolation, with the eagerness of a Sahara latter lately happened twice in one fortnight. wanderer at the sight of a “Ghedir" or But it is not sympathy that Rome is much tank. But your valuable monthly publica- anxious for, just as faith is not the printion, breathing sentiments of peace and cipal ingredient of her Church's creed. concord, reproducing facts and transactions She is therefore content to open her reliof vital interest, and bringing to the recol-gious establishments for the refuse of the lection names of men well known for their fair sex of Europe and the garrison, to have genuine zeal and deep experience in the herein their mutual rendezvous, provided, Ředeemer's cause, refreshes the mind and however, the former listen to the masses. edifies the soul. Need I assure you that and the revenue of which be sufficient to my thankfulness on receiving this periodical provide for the sacerdotal vestments, the is as sincere, and my prayers for the pros- decorations of the altar, as also to defray, perity of the cause it advocates are as fer- in some measure, the expenditure of her vent, as those of my worthy fellow-labourers propaganda. Papist agents are, here too, in Syria, Jamaica, or Canada, who have zealous and often successful in their works already expressed my feelings?
of darkness. Buying Arab or German I sincerely welcomed your general re- illegitimate children, and even the parents quest to send to you occasionally a letter of of the latter nation, is the department in intelligence respecting Christ's kingdom; which they expend most of their time and
; and it would not be truthful if I said I have labours Their success, however, is but nothing to communicate, as I fear French ephemeral.
ephemeral. The Germans are soon lost Africa is, with many, a terra incognita. The sight of by their spiritual purchasers through duties of my calling, the peculiar and difficult their constant changing of locality and consphere of my labours, apart from domestic dition in life, and the native child, when trials, made me to this moment remain a old enough to escape, seeks for refuge to silent reader of Evangelical Christendom. the first Mussulman he can find, by whom he Even now I can only give a hasty and im- is claimed as his "nephew," and with the perfect account of the state of Protestantism assistance of the police, brought back into in this country. Refore surveying the the Mosque. The Romish Church has thus Protestant community of Constantina, with been propagating her errors, in the French which I am best acquainted, let me glance portion of North Africa, for the last thirty
years, without winning one individual of
the African races. One initiated in the Besides 2,470,000 of mixed African races worship of the Mosque will not be startled and Jews, there are throughout Algeria at this statement. The follower of the 170,000 Europeans, viz., French, Germans, Koran considers the ceremonies of the Spaniards, Italians, and Maltese. This Romish Church Idolatry, and the adoration nomenclature would lead one to suppose of saints Polytheism. The last words that Algeria was a Roman Catholic country, stated to have been uttered by Abd-eland the presence of so many Romish churches Khader before his capture, were : "Jy and priests corroborate this supposition. children, beware of the worship of a woman, Yet I think there is no exaggeration when and of becoming slaves of women." I affirm that in spite of that conglomeration THE STATE OF PROTESTANTISM. of nationalities which bear the stamp of Whilst heresy and superstition can, notRome, and in spite of the swarms of priests withstanding the most vehement efforts, and and monks who, like a devouring insect, the most sanguine expectations, and all the plague the land, Rome has, perhaps, less means priestly craftiness could devise, boast sympathy here than in the least Romish of no progress, the Gospel has not had its countries. It is not of rare occurrence that vistory. But how is a victory ever possible
THE EUROPEAN POPULATION IN ALGERIA.
THE PROVINCE OF CONSTANTIN
AFRICAN INTELLIGENCE. without a battle preceding it? or success one church, consistory, and two pastors, without effort ? or, in scriptural words, there is also, in the village Jelly Ibrahim, “How can they believe in Him of whom ten kilometres south of the town, a Prothey have not heard, or how shall thoy hear testant "orphelinage,” with some 120 to without a preacher?"
130 inmates of both sexes, and an income Since the attack on the Primitive Church of 50,000 francs. by the Saracens, the light of the Gospel has never reflected on the burning sands of comprises Bona, Batna, Bi kra, Tougia, Africa; and if this country cannot at this Ijedjelly, Guelma, Philippeville, and Setif, age, like the third century, afford the zeal besides several smaller localities. Of these of a Tertullian, the abilities of a Cyprian, Bona and Guelma are enjoying the presence and the eloquence of Lactantius, Christ is of pastors, faithfully discharging their pasthe same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever. toral functions. Philippeville, with an It is therefore much to be lamented that the important congregation and a large church, land which was once illumined with the has been, and is still, very unfortunate in Gospel light, famous for the great number of the choice of its pastor. Aïn-Arnot, to its proselytes, learned fathers, and noble which Bougia, Ijedjelly, Setif, Bonhira, and martyrs, should, when again accessible Missoord are annexed, has for its pastor to Christianity, at a moment when Moham. one whose absence is much desired, and medanism, the bitterest fiend of her would no doubt do more indirect good childrens spiritual and eternal interests, is than his presence! The elegant, sacred, expiring, and when the most sanguine hope little edifice of Aïn-Arnot—which is, of Mohammed's most ardent disciples is in fact, the finest Protestant church vanishing and disappearing, be left at the of Algeria-has no pulpit, not a chair to mercy of a bigoted priesthood and a morbid sit on, not to speak of an organ, and is indifferentism. Moreover, whilst no at- rarely opened, for want of an able and faithtempts are being made for the enlightening ful pastor ? Thanks to M. Albarello, an of the millions of the Mussulman races, the Italian gentleman, who, having with his effort for the maintenance of Christianity wife and children, parents and all, forsaken among the Protestants being so deficient the heresies of Papism, and embraced the that it can hardly keep them from apostatis- truth as it is in Jesus, and in consequence ing. This is a chapter which makes one of persecution settled in Missoord as hesitate to touch upon. It may incur in- colonist, finds time and delights in supply. dignation; it is very unpleasant to hear ing the spiritual wants of the Swiss one's faults told by his neighbour ; and if a colonists! Otherwise, the sound of the congregation or a nation be more sensitive Gospel might never have echoed through than an individual, it is also less forbearing. that immense parish. But shall we gain hoodwinking from seeing
THE CONSTANTINA CIRCLE, the frailties in the Church, because of comprising Aïn-Beida, Tebessa, Batna, and passing considerations ? Are we not, ere Biskra, fares even worse than the latter. we expose her diseased part, which is The number of Protestants in these localities spreading by degrees, and creeping into the is small indeed. This town, for instance, very heart, with the prophet to inquire : “ Is counts no more than 300 French Protestants, there no balm in Gilead ? is there no besides the Germans. But as the Governphysician there?" Our noticing it may, ment is generous enough to provide this perhaps, under God, be the means of sup- handful of Reformed Christians with a plying the defect of zeal and transforming church, and a liberal stipend for a pastor, the lukewarmness into a life-giving heat. why should the consistories or directories God grant it.
not be so liberal to send out a man capable Knowing the provinces of Algiers and and willing to meet the requirements of the Oran, from mere visiting, permit me just congregation to keep its children from to state that there are Evangelical churches visiting the schools of the nuns and “pères and pastors in Algiers, Douïra, and Blida, ignorantius," and from joining the Romish Oran and Mostaganem. The zeal of M. processions in public-and by his conversaDüirr, the German, and second pastor of tion and evangelically faithful preaching Algiers, and that of Pastor Pera, who takes restrain the parents from embracing Roso much interest in the conversion of the manism? But how can Christianity Spaniards, must be known to many friends prosper, when its minister is the first in of the kingdom of Christ, so that I need not robbing its Author of His glory, by denying enter into particulars. In Algiers, besides His being the Son of God and co-equal with
BRIEF NOTICES OF BOOKS.
the Father? How can any one expect any extension of the Redeemer's kingdom, when the would-be teachers of the Word of God think that the Book of Life is "too offensive to offer it to young people in this century of progress!!" Besides the church and the pastor, there is neither a school nor any institution of any kind to further Evangelical Christianity in Constantina. How truly has a Christian editor lately remarked: "While the tendency of a Romish colony is extension, that of a Protestant colony
among Romanists is absorption into the ranks of the latter."
I feel grieved to have to send to you so trifling an account of the North African Evangelical Church; were I, however, to detail it, the picture would have been more gloomy and disheartening. May the Lord have mercy on this land, hasten the coming of Jesus' kingdom here, and fill the whole earth with His glory!
I am, reverend and dear Sir, most truly yours in Christ, J. B. GINSBURG.
Brief Notices of Books.
The Life of Jabez Bunting, D.D., with Notices of
We shall not hesitate to say that the few sentences of which this "brief notice" will consist will be written with a partial hand. Dr. Bunting was no stranger to us, and we cannot write as we might have written if he had been. In the love we bore to his person, and the estimate we had formed of bis character, he occupied a place which we would not willingly accord except to those whom we deem worthy to be reckoned among the wisest and the best of men. With the earlier period of his life we were indeed unacquainted, but we were quite sure that the morning of a day of which the setting sun was so radiant, and shed around it, in such rich colours, the blended hues of Christian grace and manly wisdom and virtue, must have been "a morning without clouds." And such it was. From his very infancy, Piety marked him for her own. His biographer speaks of "the sweet religiousness of his childhood;" and at the age of fifteen, he had not only experienced the great regenerating change, but openly avowed his faith in a formal connexion with the Wesleyan Church. Five years later, he received a "call to the ministry," and from that time he rose rapidly in public estimation, and in the acquire ment of the high position and extensive influence to which he ultimately attained in his own body. This first volume of his life-the only one at present published-does not bring the narrative down to a later date than 1811, and, of course, therefore, leaves the greater, and no doubt the more important, portion to be written. But the biographer has done enough to show his perfect competency to the task which filial duty has imposed upon him. The principal incidents of the memoir have thus far been selected with judgment, while the style in which the work is written is at once classical and elegant; it is more, for there runs through it a vein of pleasant, racy observation, and of Attic wit, which enliven and lend to it a charm and attractiveness in which biographies are often found wanting. The notices of contemporaries give an addisional interest to the volume, and are sketched with obvious discrimination, and, in many cases, with masterly skill. We find no fault with its predominant Wesleyanism, for we
never value a man the less, but rather the more.
THE design of this volume is excellent and its
THE subject of which this little volume treats is one of deep interest at the present time, when in different parts of the world, and in different parts of our own country, these "times of refreshing are enjoyed. The author was called to preach at the opening of the Free Church Synod of Angas and Mearns, and what he delivered as a discourse on that occasion is here expanded into a book. The Synod attach their recommendation to it from a high appreciation of the fine sentiments which it contains, and of the elevated style in which those sentiments are embodied." It will, we trust, be read extensively, and its publication tend to the increasing spirituality and quickening of the Church of God.
THE EXERCISE OF BROTHERLY LOVE.
BY THE REV. JOHN ANGELL JAMES.
paper, has been occupying many of the evening hours of his long and useful life in reviewing the condition of our British Churches. He writes on the subject with a special view to his own denomination, yet wishes it to be understood that what he has written applies also, in his judgment, to other bodies of Christians ; " and therefore what I shall advance (he says) may be considered as my opinion of the condition of the Christian world at large." Perhaps few men have had better opportunities for observation, or have used them with more advantage ; while his great age, his large experience, and his expansive and generous candour would lead us to believe that his deliberately formed opinions on such a subject make a near approximation to the truth. In the pamphlet which he has just issued from the press, entitled THE SPIRITUAL STATE OF OUR CHURCHES, he treats of their excellences, their faults, and their defects; and many valuable counsels and admonitions, as well as a calm and judicious appreciation of facts, will be found under each of these divisions of the subject. This is not the place for an analysis of the work; but intending to give one short extract especially suited to our own pages, we could not but prefix our humble commendation of it, and the expression of our devout and fervent prayer that this, probably, last effort of the pen of our beloved and revered friend and coadjutor in the formation of the Evangelical Alliance, may be rendered a rich blessing to the British Churches.—Ed.]
“It need scarcely be remarked that it is God's design His Church should exhibit to a selfish, alienated, and envious world, characterised as Scripture as hateful and hating one another, the perfect contrast to this, in a holy loving brotherhood, the home of charity, the very dwelling-place of all the kindly feelings of our nature-a true Agapemone. It was His purpose that the hearts of His people should be so knit together, that wherever and whensoever, and among whomsoever a company of believers should be found, observing and admiring spectators should involuntarily bear this testimony, See how these Christians love one another !' The world never since the fall had seen such a sight as this; and it has been told it is now to be seen in the Church of Christ; but, alas ! how dimly and diminutively in our day. It ought ever to be seen, the unmistakable characteristic of every body of professors, as their identifying badge, their distinctive mark. How much there is in our religion to produce it! God is love. Christ is incarnate love. The law is love. The Gospel is love. Heaven is love. If Christ loved us with such intense wonderful love, how great ought to be our love to one another! How those ought to love one another, all of whom Christ loves with such marvellous affection! How intent was He to make us understand and feel this! • This is my commandment,' said He, that ye love one another.' He has singled out this from other precepts, and emphatically marked it as His special law. He has made it the mark of discipleship— Hereby shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye love one another.' In prospect of the cross this was upon His mind, and in His wondrous prayer He supplicated that His people might be one, i.e. one in affection, as He was in the Father and the Father in Him, that the world might know that the Father had sent Him. Oh, this ought to convince the mind and touch the heart of every Christian-brotherly love was designed to be the evidence of Christ's Divine mission. Yes, and if this grace shone out from the VOL. XIII.-SEPTEMBER.