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EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE. extension of His kingdom.* In the depths forty years. May Ho richly bless those of the forests of Smaland, in a country whom He has raised up around her to conbarren and poor, His Word has been richly tinue her work! When the Lord comes, dispensed for years gone by. He had may He find that barren desert blossoming greatly endowed the person who began it like the rosc. and so faithfully carried it on for more than

SARDINIA.

A RELIGIOUS LITERATURE FOR ITALY. To the Editor of Evangelical Christendom. that description of works which might

Sir,—Subjoined is a circular which I prove an assistance to the missionaries in have printed in the hope of interesting the operating upon the more cultivated classes, Christian public in behalf of a society and even in some measure make up for the founded last winter at Nice for the publica- smallness of their number, so few have been tion of religious works in Italian, and which published that we may almost say the class I beg that you will insert in your journal. does not exist. The great interest awakened at present by “With a view to remedying this evil and everything concerning Italy leads me to preparing the means of operating upon the hope that you will be so kind as to receive millions of souls to whom access appeared subscriptions at your office.- I remain, Sir, about to be gained, a society was estabvery faithfully yours,

lished at Nice during the past winter F. FITZROY HAMILTON. for the publication of standard religious

works in the Italian language. A small “Of all the fields of labour in which sum of money having been collected, the Christian missionaries are engaged, Italy is committee, conscious of the superiority of undoubtedly at present the most important, original compositions over translations, both on account of the promise of success offered a prize for the best work on the which the circumstances of that country necessity for, and means of effecting a religious hold out, and of the immense influence its reformation in Italy.t evangelisation would exercise upon the “This competition is to remain open till moral condition of the world at large. And the 1st March next, and we have every yet of all civilised countries, where it is reason to believe that it will lead to the possible to preach the Gospel, Italy is that publication of a work which will prove a which possesses the smallest number of valuable acquisition to the Italian language. missions, and where the work of the mis- But one book is not enough. sionary is beset with the greatest number of “ The call for standard works, the want obstacles.

of which has been rendered so painfully mani. “Christian friends! Many of these obsta- fest by the experience of the last ten years cles can only be raised by God's blessing in Sardinia, has, we rejoice to acknowledge, and by time, but there is one, and one of been nobly responded to by those friends of the greatest, which it is to a great extent the cause who have so liberally aided the in your power to remove-we mean the Tract Society of Turin. That want, now that total want of an Italian Religious Literature. the whole peninsula appears about to be

“ There are, we believe, few modern thrown open, becomes doubly pressing. languages that do not possess an abundant May we not hope that the Christian public store of Christian works to which the minis- will again come forward and assist us to ter of the Gospel may recur for his own contribute in some measure to the moral preparation, and which he will find a regeneration of a country which for cenvaluable ally in the discharge of his work; turies has groaned under the iron yoke of but in Italian there are none. . . . A large superstition and tyranny? number of books have, indeed, been pub- “ Christian friends, our work is not one lished, but they are chiefly intended for of those missionary enterprises that only conuneducated persons and children, and as to cern the country where they are carried on.

Should any one read this and ask, “Who was Mrs. Petersen ?” we refer them to Evangelical Chris. tendom, May, 1853.

† Vide Record, April 27; Archives du Christianisme, May 10; Buona Novella, April 15; Erangelical Christendon, June.

EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE. "The evangelisation of Italy has a claim | will, as we said above, be felt to the upon Christians of all nations, for, apart remotest corners of the earth, and produce from the deep interest every disciple of the an influence which it surpasses human inSaviour must take in the glorious work of telligence to foresee. proclaiming the good news of salvation to "Christian friends, assist us; we rely twenty-one millions of human beings who upon your support. are living without God in the world, the “F. FITZROY HAMILTON, Hon. Sec. evangelisation of Italy, being a direct “July, 1859." attack upon the great stronghold of error,

SOUTII ARMENIA.

NORTII ARMENIA.

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TURKISH EMPIRE,
MISSIONARY LABOUR S.

nians and the Protestants of Aintab, which Rev. Mr. Morgan, of Antioch, writes:- appear to bear happily and importantly

“ The Armenian priest of the village upon missionary work here. The effect of next to Bitias, though very bold and de- this is an unusually awakened state of the fiant among his own people, dares not public mind, and never since the Gospel attack one of the Protestants who can began first to be preached has there been open the Book' and give him an answer; such anxious inquiry among the Armenian still he thought he might easily triumph population, or so much research after over the poor shepherd, Gabriel, and, taking truth-reading and examining the Scriphim on the subject of abstaining from meat, tures, conversation and discussion, having said, Does not the apostle Paul say—It become quite common, and one marked is good neither to eat flesh or drink wine?' result has been a large addition to our Now Gabriel, who knew nothing of scope Sabbath audience. As a whole, the state or context, yet knew that the priest of the of things is very hopefully progressing." village eat more meat than the shepherd of the mountain, replied, "Do you mean to Rev. Mr. Barnum, writes from Broosa : say that you eat less meat in the course of " The work has received a new and rethe year than I do?' 'No,' said the priest, markable impulse. The members of the * but I have proper times for eating and not Church are more active than ever, and in eating.' Well,' said Gabriel, show me the book-store and market they find a largo the authority for that in the Bible, and number of eager listeners; and in all parts I will do so too.' This the priest could of our mission continued reports are made not do, and has not sought a second con- of increased congregations, great spirit of troversy with the shepherd.

prayer, and great attention to the subject “ The Armenians of Yoghoon Olook are of true religion. Never before has the exceedingly devoted to Church services. prospect of reaching the Turks appeared They met Gabriel one day, upbraided him so encouraging as it does at the present for being a Protestant, and told him that time. his religion was good for nothing, suying, “Lately, at Constantinople, the Grand • You only go to meeting once or twice Vizier himself came to our book-store to purduring the week and two or three times on chase a Bible (though our bookseller did not the Sabbath; whereas we go to church recognise him at the time), but, unfortu. every morning and evening, and say long nately, not a copy of the Turkish Scriptures prayers: you compare your reli- could be found. gion with ours ?' Gabriel answered, “ You The same writer gives the following often see the clouds coming up from the account from Demir-Desh :sca in great masses, covering the fields and “ Five or six of the members of this mountains and overshadowing the plains as Church are Greeks, living across the far as you can see, and yet there is no rain. Broosa plain about eight miles distant, at But again a small black cloud comes up, the village of Demir-Desh. Pastor Solepan und it pours down the rain till the whole visits them occasionally, and three or four earth is watered. Now that is the differ- times a year they are able to come here to ence between your religion and ours.'' church at tlic administration of the Lord's

Rev. Dr. Schncider, of Aintab, writes:- Supper. From all that I have seen of them

" There have been some very interesting I have been very much interested in them, public discussions between the old Arme. both from the unaffected simplicity of their

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EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE, Christian character and from their history. the customary salutations, I inquired how It is a very striking fact that while these many families there were in the village, Greeks, as a race, have been so inaccessible their religion, and whether they had any to direct missionary labour, these brethren schools; they answered that they had no were awakened by an Armenian cobbler, schools, and that in religion they were who, having learned something of the truth Christians, and inquired, What are you?' in Broosa, went to Demir-Desh, and as he 'I also am a Christian,' I replied, ' for I sat in the street mending old shoes, ex- believe in Christ and trust in Him alone pounded and discussed the truth which he for salvation.' Taking this for my text, I had learned, and convinced several Greek began to preach to them on the necessity of families of the unsoundness of their system, true faith in Christ. As I preached, my though he himself afterwards returned to audience rapidly increased, curious to see the Armenian Church.

the stranger who had so suddenly appeared "The village is inhabited only by Grecks, among them. and when these brethren declared them- Presently, one, interrupting me, inselves Protestants, they were assailed by the quired, “Do you believe in the Pope I most determined persecution. In the mid- replied, 'I believe the Pope to be a man dle of winter, and at the dead of night, and the head of the Papal Church. “But they were assailed by a mob and driven in don't you trust in him?' 'No; for, seeing their night clothes out into the pelting that he is a man like ourselves, he must, storm. Though scattered in the darkness, like ourselves, die. How, then, can he aid and ignorant of each other's fate, by a us in the salvation of our souls?' "But common impulse they turned their steps you ought to trust in him, for he stands in toward Broosa, where they arrived at the place of Christ.' 'Let us examine that daybreak the next morning. One of the point. Whom do you call the first Pope?" Protestants who went from here the next * The Apostle Peter.' * Very well ; but day, accompanied by a Turkish cavass, in Peter said that there was salvation in none order to learn the true state of affairs, was but Christ; he declares that "there is none met by the mob this side of the village, other name given under heaven among men pulled from his horse, violently beaten, and whereby we must be saved." Now, if thrown into the mud, and his cavass was Peter, whom you call the first Pope, debribed to carry back the report that his sires that I trust for salvation in Christ injuries resulted from falling from his horse. alone, and you say, I must trust in the They were compelled to remain here for seve- Pope, whose word must I accept-yours or ral days before they could receive sufficient the Apostle Peter's ? Whose declaration guaranty of protection from the Pacha to has the greater authority—Peter's or the allow them to return to their homes. For Pope's?' a long time they were greatly annoyed by Upon this, several persons who were their enemies, but at last they have out- standing near me, exchanged ominous lived all persecution and are permitted to glances and whispered among themselves, worship God according to the simplicity of This man is a heretic; we must not hear His Word."

him. And immediately a large portion of

my audience withdrew. I begged them The Rev. J.L. Lyons, of Tripoli, writes:- not to be displeased, and informed them

“ The Maronites are the most ignorant that I had a small musical instrument with and bigoted of all the so-called Christian me which I thought would entertain them, Churches in Syria. Like the Roman and taking out a small accordion which I Catholics, they believe in the Pope, make frequently take with me when travelling, supplications to the Virgin Mary and the and use for the purpose of calling people saints, hang up pictures and crucifixes on together when I wish to preach to them. their church walls, and cling with great After playing a few tunes, which had the tenacity to all the long catalogue of Popish effect of greatly increasing my audience, I rites and superstitions.

resumed my discourse, when one in the " While travelling on Mount Lebanon, I crowd asked, 'What do you think of the entered a large Maronite village called Virgin Mary? I think she was a good,

' ! Tamaûrin. In the village I observed a pious woman, and went to heaven.' But grcat group of persons assembled under a don't you pray to her?' 'No; I pray to large walnut tree; and, approaching the God only. When Peter was sinking in the group, I was courteously received. Having sea, he cried, saying, “Lord, save me." seated myself among them, and exchanged Now, if tho Pope did not pray to the

SYRIA.

EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE.

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Virgin, why should I?' But we should singing one or two hymns, and playing on go to the Virgin Mary to intercede for us.' the accordion, brought them back again, Yet Jesus Christ says, “Come unto me.” and I was enabled to preach the Gospel to He does not say, Go to my mother or some them for nearly an hour. And who shall one else. Now, if Christ says, I must go say that some of these poor villagers may to him, and you say, I must go to the not be brought from darkness to light by Virgin Mary, whom should I hecd-you or the truth then heard.” Christ?

Turkish Missions Aid Society, “Upon this, some of my hearers shook 7, Adam-street, Strand (W.C.) their heads, and began to move off, but

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THE HATTI SHERIFF. [A writer in the New York Independent, being admitted in court against a Moslem ; who is evidently conversant with the sub- while it is well known that such testimony ject, sends to that journal some important is openly rejected as heretofore. I might strictures on the comparative inefficacy of mention instances of the murder of Christhe late decree of the Sultan in favour of tians by Turks, in which proof was clear liberty, both civil and religious, from and abundant; but for want of two Moslems which we lay the following before our to testify that they saw the deed committed, readers.--Eds.)

the whole evidence was set aside, and the

plaintiff dismissed with contempt by the We are aware that the structure of Court! Nor are such cases by any means Oriental society, and the clumsy machinery of rare occurrence.

Christians are of government, forbid the possibility of stantly abused, fleeced, imprisoned, beaten, sudden changes or of rapid improvements of and compelled to pay taxes of which the any sort; and we have never cherished the Porte has no cognisance, by pachas and chimerical idea that a revolution in Turkish their accomplices; and the helpless Chrisjurisprudence (pardon the abuse of the tians can only pocket their injuries and word) would be accomplished within two toil on to lay in a fresh store for Turkish or three years after the promulgation of the plunder. And since the right of interHatti Sheriff; but after the lapse of more ference was virtually signed away in the than three years, we may reasonably de- Treaty, consular agents who are not in league mand that there be some palpable signs of with Turks (as it must be confessed quite a beginning, and some indications at least of too many are) can only write long despatches the promised reform in Turkey, before the to their Governments, and then folding their present generation shall have passed away. hands, sit down to the mortifying assur

Doubtless many imagine that the con- ance from head-quarters that they must get dition of Christian subjects is improved on as quietly and peaceably as possible with throughout the empire since the creation of these 'Turkish officials, for nothing else can this new instrument; but it is a mistaken now be done. Formerly, the English Amnotion. The “ Geauour" is a “ Geauourbassador at the Porte could, on the strength still. Indeed, Christians tell us that before of consular complaints against pachas, prothe war Turks called us “Geauour;" but cure their removal, at least from their posts, now, not satisfied with that, they add if not from office; which, though it failed Kafir Geauour;" and such has been the to reform, was a constant check on their result in many parts of these dark domi- villainous course of corruption; while now nions, while in some others the fruits of these Turkish officials, secure in their nest, the late war may have been in a measure can accomplish wholesale robberies, and favourable to the cause of freedom and even murders, without let or hindrance; justice. But I doubt if the " Magna and ecclesiastics, by playing into the hands

Charta” can be said, with any degree of of corrupt Turks, betraying and sacrificing truth or propriety, to have begun to accom- their helpless flocks to their own cupidity, plish the great change for which it was share with their confederates the unrightdesigned and framed by the Allied Powers. eous plunder. This is no exaggeration. We After having been in a dozen Pachaliks of speak what we do know, and testify that Asiatic Turkey since the signing of the 'we have seen; and if any are inclined to Treaty of Paris and the promulgation of question our testimony, wo invite them to the latli Sheriff, I have yet to learn of come and sce for themselves. the first instance of a Christian's testimony A poor Christian, for instance, enters

AFRICAN INTELLIGENCE. the employ of a trader as business agent, one who has never lived in Turkey as an and after serving him three or four years, eye-witness to the wrongs and outrages he demands a settlement and the residue of known only to those who live in the midst of his stipulated salary. The employer, find them. And to this I may add the testimony ing it more convenient to receive than to of a very intelligent and observing English pay out money, without a settlement, brings gentleman, who, having been several years a charge of embezzlement against the em- connected with the Embassy at the Porte, ployé of twice the amount actually due to with the best possible opportunity to bethe latter, and by corruption gets the come acquainted with Turkish jurispruTurkish Court to sanction his claim, and dence, and the condition of things through throw the poor man into prison, without out the empire, and fancied that he had the shadow of justice or investigation; I actually succeeded, too, after a few years' while a Vizieral order from the Porte is residence in the country, not only admits entirely disregarded, and the true claimant that he knew almost nothing about Turkey must linger in a Turkish prison, or pay before, but now despairs of making his over to his employer the amount actually Government, or even the Embassy, acdue to himself. This is a case of at least quainted with it, by writing. He regards two years' lingering, and is now apparently it as a practical impossibility, and the as far from adjustment as ever. A repre- Turkish Government a hopeless subject for sentative of a Christian community, who, reform. by order of the Sultan, is entitled to a seat While Russia is freeing her serfs, outin the Turkish Mejlis, is rudely expelled stripping our own boasted land of freedom, because he refuses to put his name and seal and vying with the civilised and religious to a paper which he knows to be false; nations of the earth in improvements and and he may reckon himself exceedingly deeds of righteousness, Turkey, after hoistlucky if he does not have to reflect in exile, ing her proud banner with the dazzling as he has already in prison, on the mis- inscription Tatti Sheriff" under the cresfortune of being an honest man.

cent, is fast sinking under the weight of her Many cases might be cited, more ag. own imbccility, her lies, and her treachery. gravated, and myriads as annoying and un- I am neither a prophet nor the son of a just to the poor, who have no means of prophet, but I read history and the signs redress, and can only submit and endure. of the times in vain, if the Hatti HeuWhatever the condition of things may be mayoun is destined to accomplish the end at the capital, it cannot be denied that for which the Allied Powers brought it throughout the empire corruption is more into being, at the expense of such vast rife since “the Magna Chartahas been treasure and blood, and by which so many promulgated; and by change in tactics, the bright hopes have been awakened in the wily Turks often employ it to shield them Christian world; inless, indeed, it be while dividing the spoils of a feeble and executed at the point of Christian bayonets decaying Government. Indeed, what else and the cannon's mouth. Let no one can be hoped for? A Government founded flatter himself that his prayers have been on a lie will be fortified and upheld by lies answered, and he has only to sit dowu, and intrigue, and villainy and oppression, witness the results of a great achievement, so long as it exists.

The thing itself is an and enjoy the peaceful fruits of a glorious abuse. Nor is it possible, by isolated facts victory. The hard fighting is yet to come; or language at all, to represent the true the victory is yet to be achieved. state of affairs in Turkey to the mind of

ELIF.

African Intelligence.

VALUE OF

SIERRA LEONE. EVANGELICAL CHRISTENDON -DEATH OF THE BISHOP-CHRISTIAN UNION. To the Editor of Evangelical Christendom. | the Christian kindness of some unknown

Sierra Leone, June 16, 1859. friend or friends, been in receipt of the Dear Sir, - Together with several of my Evangelical Christendom for sereral years ; brethren in this mission, I have, through | and I can no longer forbear expressing my

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