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What is the capital city and how described? Where are the Jaloffs principally settled and what is said of them? What parts do the Mandingoes inhabit ? For what are they distinguished ? To what addicted ? What of their language? Where and what is St. Lois ?
The name Sierre Leone, denotes the chain of lions,' and was given to this country in reference to the multitude of lions ranging over the chains of mountains in this vicinity.
Sierra Leone is subject to the government of Great Britain, and is the most important British possessions in Africa, next to the Colony of the Cape. A settlement was commenced here by the English and a colony planted, chiefly of blacks, in 1791 ; for the purpose not only of opening a trade with the interior, but especially of providing an asylum for recaptured slaves, and thus promoting the abolition of slavery, and the civilization of the Africans. The soil is rich, being watered by the river Sierra Leone, which passes through it. Rice, sugar, coffee, cotton and other tropical productions grow abundantly, with very little labor.
The colony is in a flourishing condition and in number about 20,000, principally recaptured Africans. Multitudes of wretched beings have been rescued from the holds of slave ships, in a state of the deepest intellectual and moral degradation, and have been here restored to their native country and perhaps to their kindred and friends, and placed under the instruction and influence of faithful missionaries, who have taught them the principles of learning and virtue, and lead them on to beneficial and respectable occupations in society. The number of mis. sionaries is about 20. The schools are numerous and in a prosperous state. And a pleasing example is here afforded of the fact, that the endowments of intellect and genius do not exclusively belong to a white population, or that the blessings of civilization, social order and christianity, need not necessarily be confined to the people of any particular features or complexion. The capital is Freetown, at the mouth of the Sierra Leone. Pop. 5,000. Its principal exports are ivory, gold, palm oil, camwood, gum copal, rice, coffee and bees' wax.
QUESTIONS. What is denoted by the name Sierra Leone? What are the bourdaries and latitude of the country ? To what government subject? When and by whom and for what purpose was a colony planted here? What of the soil ? By what river watered ? What productions are abundant ? What are the population and condition of the colony ? What of the missionaries and schools ? Where is Freetown and what are its exports ? Which way is Liberia from Sierra Leone ?
St. Paul's washes it on the north-west. The climate is as healthy and favorable as can be found on this coast; and the soil is naturally fertile and capable of producing a rich supply of the necessaries and comforts of life. Provision is here made for the literary and religious instruc. tion of the colonists. Regular government and good order are main. tained. Several accessions have been made to their number. And, though they have been called to struggle with difficulties and disheart. ening incidents, as is usual in the infancy of a colony, their condition is prosperous, and their prospects pleasing to all the friends of free. dom and humanity. The poulation is about 3,000. Monrovia, at the mouth of the St. Paul's, is the chief town and has a flourishing com.
QUESTIONS. What are the boundaries and latitude of Liberia ? What river washes it? When and by whom was a colony planted here, and with what design ? What of the climate and soil ? What is the present population ? What are their condition and prospects ? What is the situation of Monrovia.
GUINEA. The coast of Guinea extends about 900 miles eastward from Libe. ria. It has been divided by Europeans, into the grain coast, (now chiefly included in Liberia) the Ivory coast, the Gold and the Slave coast, in reference to the leading articles of commerce in these sevea ral districts.
The Grain coast abounds in a coarse kind of pepper, and derives its name from this circumstance. Being destitute of gold or ivory, it has not been much frequented by Europeans.
The Ivory coast extending east of this, is abundant in ivory or elea phant's teeth, and it is stated that some tusks have been purchased, each weighing 200 pounds. Here are no good harbors. The trading is. carried on in boats at some distance from the shore. The back coun. try is fertile and its villages are numerous and populous, But the in habitants are ill tempered, thievish and contentious, and refuse to have Europeans reside among them. Some travellers have represented them as cannibals, devouring human flesh.
The Gold coast is more thronged with European settlers and traders than any other portion of Africa. The trade here in gold dust, is prin. cipally in the hands of the British, whose capital in this quarter is called Cape Coast Castle. The interior of this part of Guinea is named Ashantee. It is an extensive tersivry, with a dense population, intelligent and highly civilized for Africans. Their king is able to bring large armies into the field, and has a powerful and spreading empire. This people ex. hibit some elegant manufactures, particularly a species of leather like morocco and fine cotton cloths dyed brilliantly. But their character for civilization is sadly tarnished by the horrible custom of human sacri. fices, which prevails here and indeod in, all the kingdoms of Guinea. It appears to have arisen from the superstitious sentiment, that at the
decease of a king or any great personage, he ought to be accompanied into the invisible world by a numerous retinue in proportion to his rank and dignity. On such occasions it is not unusual to strike off the heads of a number of slaves or prisoners, that they may die with the de. ceased and be his attendants in the regions of the dead. Accordingly it is stated as a fact, that a late king of the Ashantees sacrificed 3,000 victims on the grave of his mother. The capital is Coomassie whose circumference is said to be four miles, with houses low and built of wood, but neat and splendid for an African town, and marked with a profusion of sculptured ornaments. Pop. 75,000.
The Slave coast extends eastward to the bay and river of Lagos di. viding it from Benin. This part of Guinea exhibits a fine country, rising gradually from the sea toward the interior, and covered with nu. merous villages and fields of the most luxuriant vegetation. It is more industriously and skilfully cultivated than almost any other portion of Africa, and the inhabitants, for agicultural diligence have been com. pared to the Chinese.
Back of this coast, about 150 miles north is the centre of the powerful and despotic kingdom of Dahomey. The beauty and richness of Nature's scenes are here affectingly contrasted with the wickedness and and woes of men. The soil is fertile in a high degree, but is shockingly polluted with human blood and crime. The sovereign is a finished despot, and the basis of his despotism is idolatry. Being re. garded as an idol or a superior being, he demands of his subjects, and receives, the most absolute and abject submission. His great men and most ferocious warriors, esteem it a privilege to prostrate themselves on their faces before him, and seek no higher honor than to live and die in his service. All the unmarried females in his kingdom are con. sidered as his property and at his disposal ; and having selected the most beautiful to be his own wives, he retails the rest at extravagant prices to his nobles. At the great national festival, he moistens the graves of his ancestors with the blood of human victims. And whenever he wishes to send a message to a deceased friend, he hands a letter to some slave,whose head is then taken off, that in death he may go and deliver it. The floor of his apartment is formed of human skulls, and his palaces and temples are decorated with the heads and bones of slaughtered enemies. His wives, in number about 1,000, are trained to arms and serve as his body guard.
Abomy is the capital of this horrid kingdom, about 150 miles from the sea, and is a large collection of clay huts. Pop. 25,000.
Benin is a country lying next east of the slave coast, and extending from the river Lagos to the river Formosa or Benin, which is supposed to be the western mouth or estuary of the Niger. This part of the coast is intersected by various estuaries, and thus divided into many al. luvial islands of great fertility. The kingdom of Benin extends some distance into the interior, and is a powerful kingdom under an abso. lute monarch, and defended by a large army. The people are thickly settled and are characterized by comparative gentleness and agricultu.
ral industry. The city of Benin is extensive and populous, with very narrow streets and low houses, but not destitute of neatness.
The country of Biafra extends east and south-east from Benin, but geographers have little definite knowledge concerning it.
QUESTIONS, What are the boundaries of Guinea ? On which side of the equator is it and how near ? How far east does the coast of Guinea extend ? How divided ? In what does the Grain coast abound ? In what does the Ivory coast? What is said of its harbours ? What of the back country ? Of the inhabitants? With what is the Gold coast thronged ? Who have the greatest share of the trade ? What is the capital of the British settlements here? What is the interior called ? How is the country of the Ashantees described ? What is said of the people ? Of the king ? Of the manufactures ? of their savage notions and customs ? What is their capital city and how described ? How far east does the Slave coast extend ? What kind of a country is this part of Guinea ? Is it well cultivated? What extraordinary kingdom is in the interior ? What of the soil and how polluted ? What of the king? How is he regarded by his subjects? What is said of his great men, &c.? What is done at the national festival? Where is : bomey the capital ? Which way from this is the country of Benin, and how far does it extend on the coast? What is said of this kingdom? What of the city of Benin ? Where is the country of Biafra and what is said of it? What are the principal gulfs and rivers on the coast of Guinea ? What island in the gulf of Biafra ?
LOWER GUINEA, OR THE COAST OF CONGO. This region comprehends an extent of coast of about 1,000 miles, and comprises Loango, Congo, Angola and Benguela. The principal European settlements belong to the Portuguese, who with other Euro. peans have visited this coast, in pursuit of slaves. And so extensively and vigorously has the inhuman traffic been carried on, that the country in some parts is, in a measure,drained of its inhabitants, and is less popu. lous than formerly.
Loango extends in length about 400 miles to the river Congo or Zaire, which separates it from Congo. The climate of the coun. try is pleasant and healthy, considering its nearness to the equator. The soil is remarkable for fertility, and the coast, though elevated, is overspread with a luxuriant vegetation, which is nourished chiefly by copious dews. Showers of rain are here very rare, and violent winds seldom occur. There is a great variety of fish in the lakes and rivers, and plenty of game in the extensive forests. The capital is Loango, situated in a diversified though a fertile region. Vast numbers of slaves have been brought from the interior to this market. The na. tive tribes often go to war with each other, that they may obtain pri. soners to sell to the slave dealers. The population of this city is es. timated at 15,000, and of the whole country of Loango at 600,000. The people generally are stupid and indolent, and uninclined duly to improve the rich gifts of nature.
Congo is a large and fertile country. On the north it is washed by the river Zaire, which is of considerable length, and according to the report of the Landers, has probably a communication with lake Tchad
in Soudan. On the east it is bounded by lofty mountains, from which the Giagas, a race of furious savages, often descend and commit great depredations in the surrounding country.
The vegetable productions are the manioc root, maize, sugar cane, tobacco, pepper, and sweet potatoe. The richness of the soil is suf ficient to produce two crops annually, with very little labour. A rude hoe is the principal agricultural instrument, and the use of it devolves chiefly on the women. Sheep, hogs, and fowls are numerous. Venom. ous animals and reptiles are here rarely found. Groves of cinnamon and palm trees, and forests of jasmine are not uncommon. The people make use of mats for clothing, and for covering to their houses. The account we have of the natives is, that they are singularly thoughtless and devoid of energy, and averse to useful employment, but addicted to idolatrous superstitions, and very fond, like Africans generally, of singing and dancing. The capital is St. Salvador, on a high mountain, 150 miles from the shore, and contains a stone cathedral, 10 churches, and a population of 20,000, many of whom are whites. This is the residence of the king. The climate is delightful. The streets are broad and regular and adorned with rows of palm trees, while the houses within and without, are neatly white-washed.
Angola is the district immediately south of Congo, and is considered a part of it. The country is mountainous and not adapted to cultiva. tion. Honey, wax and salt, are staple products. Large slabs of solid rock salt are here taken from the salt pits. There is a scarcity of fresh water. Multitudes of slaves, not less than 40,000 annually, are procured from Angola, and sold, chiefly to the French. The capital is Loando San Paulo, which is the principal Portuguese town in this part of Africa, and from which a full supply of slaves transported to Brazil.
Benguela extends south 10 Cape Negro. The climate is very un. healthy and dangerous to Europeans. The nations are barbarous in character and manners. They pursue the zebra and the antelope, and have to contend with the elephant and rhinoceros. Serpents are so numerous that many of the people are said to dress themselves with their skins.
QUESTIONS, How long is Lower Guinea, or the coast of Congo? What countries are comprised in it? What Europeans chiefly are settled here? For what purpose has this coast been resorted to ? What is the length of Loango? What river divides it from Congo ? What of the climate ? Of the soil? Of the dews, rain, &c. ? Of the fish and game? What and where is the capital ? How many people in the country of Loango, and of what character? How is Congo with Angola bounded ? What is said of the river Zaire ? What savages are in the
mountains east of Congo ? What vegetables are mentioned ? What of the soil ? Does the use of the hoe devolve chiefly on the women ? What animals are numerous ? What animals are rare here? How would you describe the natives? Where is St. Salvador the capital?
What is the description of it? Which way from Congo is the district of an gola? What is said of this country? Of its staple products? Of salt in particular? Of slaves? Of the capital, Loando San Paulo ? How far does Benguela extend? What of the climate? Of the natives? Of the animals and serpents ? What famous island in the Atlantic. west of Benguela ?