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they were intituled to claim. He rupted by the victorious division, treated them altogether with mark- under Massena, The loss of the ed lenity, in order, doubtless, to Austrians on this occasion, besides prepare the way for a ready fuh, the flain, amounted to five thousand mission, on the part of those cities prisoners, among whom were four and districts, in the Imperial ter generals, thirty pieces of cannon, sitories, which, in the course of hosti- and four hundred waggons with all lities, he would Thortly be necefli- the baggage. tated to reduce to his obedience. This was a fatal day to the Im

After the reduction of these two perial arms. It closed, in a man: towns, a body of French was dif- ner, the hopes that had still remainpatched to take poffeffion of Trieste, ed of better fortune, under the aufthe only sea port belonging to pices of the archduke Charles, and the emperor, on the Adriatic. It raised the opinion entertained of fell into their hands on the twenty. Buonaparte to the highest lummit. third of March. Here, and in its What principally alarmed the court vicinity, they found an immense of Vienna was the proximity of booly.

the French army to the Hungarians, In the mean

time, general a people that had not forgotten the Guieux and Massena were advan- ftruggles of their forefathers, against cing, from the different quarters, to the usurpation of the house of the borders of Carinthia. The for- Austria, and the danger, left a fimimer attacked the Austrians intrench- lar spirit of resistance should be res ed at Pufero, a strong position at generated among them, especially the entrance of the narrow palles as they had such recent causes of of Caporalto, into which he drove discontent. them with considerable loss. The A specimen of the unconquerable, latter possessed himself of Tarvis, a and, in truth, it may be faid, infolent place on the opposite side of those spirit, infused by the republican passes; by which motion the Auf- principles current among the French, trians,“ driven from Pufero, were had been exhibited by their priinclosed between the two French foners in the hereditary states, dura divifions. A large body of Austrians ing the last summer. On the tenth marched from Clagenfurth, in Ca- of August, the day whereon the rinthia, to their relief, and affailed unhappy Lewis the fixteenth, was Massena at Tarvis, where a mort dethroned, a number of them, conobstinate battle was fought: but fined at Clagenfurth, the principal the Austrians were entirely de- town of the province of Carinthia, feated. Three of their generals celebrated this event, with marked were taken, and a celebrated re- exultation, in defiance, as it were, giment of Cuirassiers, almost de- of the Austrian government. The Atroyed. General Guieux, 'had, in formalities, that accompanied the obthe mean while, pushed the Austrians servance of this day, were all calin the defile, as far as Lachinsa, a culated to manifest their hatred of strongly fortified post, which he royal power, and their attachment carried, however, after a resolute to republicanism, and especially to defence. They endeavoured to that equality of rank which admake a retreat; but were inter- mitted of no distinction among mena


[27 but that which resulted from virtue The uninterrupted continuance and merit.

of the French commander's good The French prisoners, in the In- fortune grew daily more alarming. perial dominions, were alike every. That part of his army, which had where, in this respect, and seemed, penetrated into the Tyrol, had kept in truth, to court the notice of the equal pace with that under his own subjects of Austria, by the unre- inspection. Joribert, who commandstrained liberties they allumed upon edit, had, with his usual activity all occasions of this nature. Their and Success, made himself master of speeches, their songs, their devices, most of the strong posts in that all tended to shew in what contempt country; and, feconded by the mathey held all people that submitted ny expert officers under him, bad to the government of kings, and obtained fome signal advantages. how firmly they were determined He surrounded a large body of Imnever again to admit them into perialists, on the Lavisio, where France.

they had taken pofleffion of advanThis demeanor of the French, tageous ground, with an intention under the very eye of the Austrian to dispute the entrance of the inner government, and in the heart of the country. This body was chiefly empire, occafioned no small uneafi- composed of Tyrolean riflemen, faness to those who reflect with bow mous for their dexterity in that much facility such notions might be manner of fighting. The combat propagated among the multitude, was long and bloody, but terminated foured with the severity of their in the total overthrow of the Imperirulers, and oppressed with the ma- alids: two thouland were killed, and nifold burdens laid upon them, for four thousand made priloners. The the maintenance of a war, which remainder withdrew higher up the the majority of people disappro- river, towards Botzen. They halted ved in secret; though the dread of at Tramin, a fituation of ftrength, being punished, for a manifestation where they made a vigourous deof their sentiments, compelled them fence. But notwithstanding the to feign approbation.

bravery and conduct of general It was now become unseasonable Laudohn, their commander, they and dangerous to attempt the sup- were at length completely worsted, pression of these sentiments among their retreat to Botzen cuti., and all the great number of French dil- that could escape, forced to take repersed in the towns on the borders fuge in the neighbouring mountains. of the present theatre of war. The After securing Botzen, Joub:rt diapproach of Buonaparte, and his vic. rected his march to Claufen, wnere torious army, had filled them with the Austrians had allembled a great additional boldness; and strong fuf- force. Here a furious conflict enpicions were entertained, by the fued, and succeís long remained Imperial ministry, that in Hungary, doubtful, so strongly were the Imand in Auftria itself, they had adhe-perialists posted. "The centre of rents to their principles, numerous the French, headed by Joubert in enongh to form themselves into a person, succeeded at last, after reStrong party, were occurrences to peated efforts, in breaking the ene. favour their secret inclinations. my's line. This at once decided


the day. The Imperial troops were from all the impofts they were used
wholly routed, and fitteen hundred to pay to the emperor.
captured, belides the sain. They. This proclamation, as well as the
fled in disorder from Clausen to many others, iflued occasionally by
Brixen, closely pursued by the the French commander, made little
French, who took poflession of this impreffion upon those to whom they
important place, which the enemy were addretted. But they served
abandoned with precipitation. In as manifestos to the politic world,
these several actions, particularly of and, in the opinion of many, 'justi-
Tramin, general Dumas, at the head' fier the French in their endeavours
of the French cavalry, did signal to force their enemies to accede to
services. Here he first broke the

a peace, which, had thele been vic-
enemy, and took fix hundred pri- torious, they would have dictated
foners, which led the way to their to the French, es peremptorily, at
entire defeat.

leant, as these did to them.
The victories obtained by B110- The close of March was ap-
naparte's generals, or those wherein proaching. Since the tenth, the
hé presided in person, had now Austrians had not only been expe!-
brought him to the borders of Ca- led from their posts, in the territory
rinthia. Desirous of reconciling the of Venice, but had lost the most con-
inhabitants of this province to the fiderable of those upon their own
entrance of the French, and no less frontiers. The province of Carni-
in order to avail himself of the op- ola was nearly in the polieflion of
portunity to direct an addrels, the French, who had entered Ca.
through them, to all the people rinthia, and encamped on the south-
of Germany, he issued a procla- ern fide of the Drave, at fomo
mation, wherein he disclaimed distance from Clagenfurth, the capi-
all purposes of conquest over the tal of this province. General Mal-
empire. The fole aim of the French fena's divifion puthed forward, on
government, he said, was to termi- the twenty-ninth, towards that city.
nate this calamitous war; but the The main body of the Auftrians
Imperial court had refused to attend was drawn


before it, to receive to the proposals of peace offered to him ; but, after a flight resistance, it, Corrupted by the gold of Eng- and the loss of some hundreds, killed land, the emperor's ministers be- and taken, it retired with all speed, trayed both him and his subjects, and the archduke abandoned that and rendered them the tools of that place, which, being his head-quarpower. He was conscious, he said, ters, the loss of it cast a damp on that the war was contrary to the the whole Imperial army. The fense of both his German and Hun- French now crossed the Drave, and garian subjects. He, therefore, in- advanced beyond it to Freisach, vited them to enter into terms of a poft of importance. While their amity. He required no contribu- central division was thus gaining tions: all he alked of them was, ground, the left, under Joubert, was that they would furnith provisions making no less progress in the Tyto his ariny, for which they should rol. He had been reinforced by a þe indemnified, by being discharged body of cavalry, cominanded by ge




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neral Zajouzeck, one of those Polish fon. The encounter was obstinate; officers who had taken up arms with but the defiles were carried by the Kosciusko, for the deliverance of French, who pursued the Austrians their country; and, fooner than with so much celerity, that thelė submit either to the Russians or the were compelled to halt, and form Austrians, had preferred a voluntary into a line of battle, for their deexile, and entered into the service of fence. The fight was renewed, the French republic. The Imperi- with increased fury. The archduke alists had polted themselves in the had brought'up eight battalions of defiles, leading to Inspruck, the ca- those granadiers who had served pital of the Tyrol. Here they were under him at Kehl, and on whom attacked by Joubert, on the twenty- he justly relied for their valour and eighth of March. As they consisted expertness. Maslena encountered of veterans, detached from the them with his own granadiers, who Rhine, purposely for the defence were also deemed the flower of his of this province, it was hoped they army. They formed the centre, on would have been able to guard its both sides, and charged each other accelles : but the charge of the with equal bravery: but the flanks French, seconded by their artillery, of the Imperial granadiers, being was so impetuous, that the palles suddenly allailed, by all the troops were forced, and the imperial troops that Maliena could detach for routed, with the loss of fix hundred that purpose, and which came prisoners, exclusive of those who through narrow and unguarded fell in the action, together with the paths, in the heat of action, they whole of their baggage. The divi- were thrown into disorder, and fion of the right, under Bernadotte, forced to abandon their ground, was equally faccessful. · It con- notwithstanding the formidable arpleted the reduction of the pro- tillery that proiected it. About fix vince of Carniola, by the capture of hundred of them were taken prisonLaubach, its capital, on the first of ers, besides a great number of fain. April. This opened the way, on Night coming on, they availed that fide, tu an entrance into the themseves of it to halten their reprovince of Stiria, contiguous to treat, leaving the French masters of Austria itself. In these different the defile, and of all the country as expeditions, the French acquired far as Neumark, of which they took an immense booty, in clothing, poffeffion the next morning, and arms, and military stores of all de- where they found large quantities of scriptions, and in magazines, filled stores and provisions. with all forts of provisions.

The archduke, having collected On the same day, Maffena's divi- his retreating troops, made a stand fion, which, after taking possession at Hundsmark, in the vicinity of of Clagenfurth, had penetrated into the river Murh, but, the French the country beyond the Drave, coming up with them, on the third, marched in force lo attack a large they were routed, after a short conbody of Imperialists, pofted in the fict; and their rear guard, confifidefiles, leading to Neumark, and ing of four veteran regiments, from commanded by the archduke in per- the army on the Rhine, loft near

a thousand quit

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a thousand men, killed and taken. had been rested, had proved as un-
The loss of the French, in both fortunate as his predecessors in com-
these engagements, was compara- mand. The only resource left to
tively small, on a consideration of the house of Austria, was, in all
the advantages they obtained. The appearance, to 'acquiesce in the
Austrians were now so discouraged, terms of pacification offered by
by their constant defeats, notwith- France.
standing their courage, and conduct, The consternation at Vienna was
that they seemed to have come to extreme: but the Austria nobility,
a determination to remain wholly warmly attached to the Imperial
on the defensive, and to venture no family, with which it participated
encounters, but for the purpose of in all the dignities of the German
protecting a retreat. Their present empire, expressed a zealous deter-
position was such, indeed, as left mination to share the fortune of its
them little hope of contending, fuc- sovereign, and to defend his capi-
cessfully, with the French. These tal to the last extremity. The re-
had, in consequence of the late ac- mains of that body of young gentle-
tion, occupied the strongest places men, who had served as volunteers,
in Carinthia. General Spork, an in Italy, under Alvinzi, were again
Austrian officer of note, was on his completed; and, by admitting the
march along the valley, on the youth of all decent classes, were
touthern banks of the Murh, at the augmented to eight thousand. The
head of a considerable reinforce- Hungarian nobles, and their vas-
ment, for the defeated army: but sals, were called upon to arm, and
the French posted themselves on his repair to Vienna: and all able-
passage, in such force, that he found bodied men, in the hereditary states,
it impracticable to advance beyond were ordered to form themselves
Murau, a town upon the river into companies in their respective
Murh, where Iris own situation be- districts, Out of all these a formid-
came dangerous.

able mass of stout and resolute men
It was now evident, that all ex- was to be raised. This, added to
pectations of an effectual oppofi- the regulars, assembling from all
tion to the French were unfounded. quarters, would, it was not doubted,
The fifth army that had been levied constitute a force, which, though it
by. Austria, to encounter them, was might not intimidate the victorious
no longer in being. In the short enemy, ftill might prove the means
lapse of a month, twenty thouland of inducing him to relax from the
men had been made prisoners, and severity of the terms he would other-
the remainder had either fallen in wise insist upon.
battle, or taken refuge in a broken But these orders, and prepara-
and shattered condition, among the tions, did not quiet the alarms of
mountains and fasteneiles of the the generality: Numbers of the
country. The recruits that were opulent, and even of the higher
raising could not fupply the place sanks, hastened to withdraw them-
of veterans who had not themselves felves, and their effects, in appre-
been able to resist the French. The hension of a fiege. The emperor,
archduke, on whom such confidence himself, fignified his intention to

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