Billeder på siden




Follet, or practising the graces and cour ing fancies of his young mind, and owns that tesies of maturer life. Will there not be " l'erreur a son mérite ; " he now reads hisyears enough, from thirteen to seventy, for tory till he doubts everything, and sighs for ornamenting or disfiguring the person at the the time when he felt comfortably convinced fiat of French milliners—for checking laugh- that Romulus was suckled by a wolf, and ter and forcing smiles, for reducing all Richard the Third a monster of' iniquity—his varieties of intellect, all gradations of feeling mind is now full of perplexities and cares for to one uniform tint? Is there not already a the future. Oh! for the days when the sufficient sameness in the aspect and tone of present was scene sufficiently wide to polished life? Oh, leave children as they satisfy him!

Q. are, to relieve by their “wild freshness" our elegant insipidity; leave their “hair loosely

THE VALUE OF LIGHT flowing, robes as free,” to refresh the eyes that love simplicity; and leave their eagerness, their warmth, their unreflecting sin

FULL DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS. cerity, their unschooled expressions of joy or regret, to amuse and delight us, when we in the full development of plants, has so often

THE IMPORTANCE OF LIGHT, as an agent a little tired by the politeness, the been insisted on, and is now so fully apprecaution, the wisdom, and the coldness of the ciated by all who have the slightest claim to grown-up world.

a knowledge of the science of gardening-in Children may teach us one blessed, one so far as it applies to and elucidates its pracenviable art, the heart of being easily happy. tical details--that it might seem almost suKind nature has given to them that useful perfluous to say anything more on the subpower of accommodation to circumstances, ject. But our acquaintance with garden which compensates for so many external dis- practice, in the aggregate, forces upon us the advantages; and it is only by injudicious conviction, that though the higher principles management that it is lost." Give him but a of the art are acknowledged and practised moderate portion of food and kindness, and in numberless establishments, there still linthe peasant's child is happier far than the gers among us something more than a spice duke's. Free from artificial wants, unsated of the practice prevalent in what may be justly by indulgence, all nature ministers to his termed the dark age of horticulture. That pleasures ; he can carve out felicity from a the period to which we refer does not essenbit of hazel twig, or fish for it successfully in tially belong to antiquity, but that the praca puddle.” I love to hear the boisterous joy tices which characterise it are still healthful of a troop of ragged urchins whose cheap and vigorous, and not merely stumbled upon playthings are nothing more than mud, snow, like fossils embedded in an ancient geological sticks, or oyster-shells; or to watch the formation, many of our readers know well quiet enjoyment of a half-clothed, half- enough. washed fellow of four or five years old, who We have no intention of penning a dry sits with a large rusty knife and a lump of dissertation on the influence of light; but bread and bacon at his father's door, and believirg that to teach by example is far su. might move the envy of a London alderman. perior to dogmatising, as a means of eluci

He must have been singularly unfortunate dating any given subject, we shall, in illustrain childhood, or singularly the reverse in tion of our position, give some particulars after-life, who does not look back upon its that but two or three years since fell under scenes, its sports and pleasures, with fond our notice. In one of the southern counties regret; who does not wish for e'en its of England, a lady—who was an enthusiastic sorrows back again.” The wisest and hap- lover of' horticulture--possessed an establish: piest of us may occasionally detect this ment where every branch of the art and feeling in our bosoms. There is something mystery ” of gardening was pursued : we do unreasonably dear to the man in the recol- not say successfully, for thereby hangs a lection of the follies, the whims, the petty tale," —and all enthusiasts commit errors, and cares, and exaggerated delights of his child- often gross ones, too. But we should always hood. Perhaps he is engaged in schemes of respect, rather than ridicule the mistakes of soaring ambition, but fancies sometimes that an enthusiast ; for they will often be found there was once a greater charm in Aying a to resemble, in intrinsic valne, the ore of a kite-perhaps, after many a hard lesson, he precious metal. While the real gold remains has acquired a power of discernment and mixed with baser matter, it can influence spirit of caution which defies deception, but little the well-being of mankind; but when he now and then wishes for the boyish con- extracted, refined, and rendered subservient fidence which venerated every old beggar, to the wants of society, it extends its benefits and wept at every tale of woe. He is now

a thousand ways. So an enthusiast strikes deep read in philosophy and science, yet he out new theories, it may be, of little value in looks back with regret on the wild and pleas- themselves, but from which, every-day, plodding, matter of fact practice can extract much jection as to such an explanation being even that is precious. But to return.

remotely probable. In the establishment we speak of, there We must now beg the reader (after the were, for the accommodation of the hetero- manner of the play-bills) to imagine the lapse geneous mass of plants congregated, a host of a year. We are again in the grounds, and of structures-stoves, wet and dry, orchid- strolling through the houses. The propriehouses, greenhouses, pits, frames, and a whole tress has quitted the scene of her labors; legion of nondescript articles : not forgetting and the accumulated treasures are about to glass walls. As might be expected, there be dispersed by the wand of the auctioneer. was no arrangement in placing the buildings: There is a large assembly of buyers; for here they jostled each other, whichever way you are many rare plants. Representatives of the turned. Conservatory and potting-shed stood Floras of almost every region of the globe are side by side; and if you set out with the congregated in the space of a few roods. intention of visiting the orchid-house, you Many of the finer plants are destined to stood & pretty good chance of stumbling occupy some newly-built plant-houses but into the stoke-hole. A guide, verbal or a few miles distant. These are of the best otherwise, was absolutely necessary for a construction, and a due regard to an unintersuccessful perambulation. But as intricacy rupted transmission of light is provided for : is held as an essential in garden arrangement, and, within, the plants are well cared for, and perhaps this might be considered a beauty. ample space is permitted each specimen for The exterior gave one a correct idea of what the display of its true character. was to be expected within. Every available Another season has passed, and again we nook in every house was laid under contribu- visit our old acquaintances. How would tion as a receptacle for plants. Shelves their former mistress rejoice at the change above you, shelves below you—on the left apparent in them! Scarcely do we recognise hand, on the right hand, plants were crowded them in their improved appearance. It is -nay, crammed together; and, to crown the the season for many of them to be in bloom, whole, vines from borders without darkened and so they are: not as they will be in a seathe roof, and, in the forcing season, others in son or two hence, certainly, but yet very pots usurped the few rays that would other beautiful. Amongst them is one that we wise have struggled through the front lights. especially remember as having been lamented And under such circumstances as these, over by its owner on our first acquaintance plants were expected to thrive, too—and with it, as never having afforded a solitary develop their real beauties; and so many of blossom. It is a fine plant of Inga pulcherthem did.

rima, covered with bunches of its scarlet filaThe conditions were congenial to numerous ments, a very mass of beauty. species, but the majority were sorry things lovely object

, " what a powerful lesson dost

"Truly," we exclaimed, apostrophising the few flowers

, in place of sturdy growths and thou teach on the influence of light !" brilliant blossoms, met the eye in all direc

[From the Gardeners' Journal.] tions. Most of the plants were one-sided ; and mildew, and scale, and bug, were apparent in

WHAT I LOVE. the axils of nearly every leaf, and among the few heads of flowers that were produced. We had the honor of being accompanied through

I love to see the forest maid the houses and grounds by the proprietress

Go in the pleasant day, herself, who, we must in justice to other

And jump to break an idle bough

To drive the flies away. parties concerned observe, was “her own gardener.” Often she stopped before some

Her face is brown with open air, fine species, and lamented that they did not

And like the lily blooming ; prove more satisfactory under the treatment.

But beauty, whether brown or fair, Every cause but the right one was assigned

Is always found with women, as a reason for her failure. “Water was not She stooped to tie her pattens up, given as she directed ;" “ the soil was not And showed a cleanly stocking; properly mixed;" “ the loam was not of the

The flowers made curtsies all the way, best quality;"" her directions were not fol- Against her ancles knocking. lowed out in her absence," and so forth; She stoop'd to get the fox-glove bells while the true cause was apparent enough. That grew among the bushes, We ventured to suggest that a deficiency of And, careless, set her basket down, light had something to do with the matter ; And tied them up with rushes. that too many plants were attempted to be Her face was ever in a smile, grown in such a limited space; but our cice- and brown and softly blooming ;rone had an opinion of her own on those I often meet the scorn of man, points, and we were met with a decided ob

But welcome lives with women !





0, spare my flower, my gentle flower,

The slender creature of a day! Let it bloom out its little hour,

And pass away! Too soon its fleeting charms must lie

Decayed, unnoticed, overthrown; O, hasten not its destiny,

Too like thine own!

The breeze will roam this way to-morrow,

And sigh to find its playmate gone :
The bee will come its sweets to borrow,

And meet with none.
O spare ! and let it still outspread

Its beauties to the passing eye,
And look up from its lowly bed

Upon the sky! O, spare my flower! Thou know'st not what

Thy undiscerning hands would tear! A thousand charms, thou notest not,

Lie treasured there. Not Solomon in all his state,

Was clad like Nature's simplest child; Nor could the world combined create

One floweret wild.

Habt influences in some degree the amount of sleep that is required. It should be said, however, that it is never well to withhold

any of the revenue that is justly due to the drowsy god.

A man may accustom himself to take so little sleep, . as

to be greatly the loser thereby in his waking moments. It may

be commonly observed, that those persons who spend less time in sleep than is usually found needful by others of the same age and strength, and occupation, consume a much 'larger portion of their days than others do, in a kind of dreamy vacancy, a virtual inactivity of mind and body." The hours er. pended in sleep are not the only hours that might be justifiably deducted from the sum total of the life, as liaving been lost to it; numbers of moments are daily spent in an absolute inaction of mind and body; and sleep cannot be robbed of its dues, without adding largely, and in greater proportion than the time habitually stolen from the sleep, to that which is wasted in such waking reveries.

In order that the mind may have the power of undergoing trying and exhausting labor, that it may continue in the full possession of its capabilities, that it may continue to be undulled and unblunted by such wear and such usean amount of sleep must be allowed which is proportionate to the severity of such work, to the engrossing and expending nature of the mind's employment. The nights may be robbed of the hours of sleep; and the time so stolen may be devoted to toil of mind or of body; but the endurance by the system of the undue waste and imperfectly restored balance of the vital force, even if somewhat protracted by the strength of the constitution, or if prolonged somewhat by the energy of a determined will, or by the spur of a great necessity, or by the desired goal of a great ambition or daring hope, must be shortlived.

The system cannot be robbed of its sleep, says Dr. Robertson, without a corresponding disturbance and derangement of the functions; the power and the equilibrium of the vital forces will become so far affected as to involve disordered action; and thus indirectly by forming part of the common organism, and directly by the diminished tension of the vital forces which supply the sensorium itself, the mind will become unable to continue its exertions. Many an ardent and hopeful aspirant for collegiate distinctions, many an anxious laborer for professional emirence, has thrown away his hopes in thus vainly struggling to cheat the system of this great requirement.

Spare, then, this humble monument

of an Almighty's power and skill; And let it at His shrine present

Its homage still. He made it who makes nought in vain,

He watches it who watches thee;
And He can best its date ordain,

Who bade it be.
O, spare my flower,-for it is frail;

A timid, weak, imploring thing;
And let it still upon the gale,

Its moral fling.
That moral thy reward shall be :

Catch the suggestion and apply:“Go, like me," it cries, “like me,

Soon, soon TO DIE.'


Crown of the Year, how bright thou shinest !
How little, in thy pride, divinest
Inevitable fall ! albeit
We who stand round about thee see it.
Shine on; shine bravely. There are near
Other bright children of the Year,
Almost as high, and much like thee
In features and in festive glee:
Some happy to call forth the mower,
And hear his sharpened scythe sweep o'er
Rank after rank: then others wait
Before the grange's open gate,
And watch the nodding wain, or watch
The fretted domes beneath the thatch,
Till young and old at once take wing,
And promise to return in Spring.
Yet I am sorry, I must own,
Crown of the Year! when thou art gone.


THE NEW MODE OF BREEDING FISH, their streams, began to collect the spawn and

apply the milt themselves. These they deCONNECTED WITH THE AGRICULTURE of posited in boxes or baskets full of holes, and this country, and equally interesting to the placed them in situations of safety in running rural improver, are the wonderful discoveries streams. A French paper says, “ Applying lately brought to bear on the artificial pro

this operation, the year afterwards, to a great duction of dish in our rivers. The whole sub- number of fish, they obtained several thousand ject seems to open out a new source of profit trout; and, in a year or two more, the numto the speculator, of interest to the natura-bers had literally increased to millions." list, and to tend to the increase of the nation's

The French government considering the food. The capture of salmon-brought now

matter of much importance, these two fisherto perfection so great that our rivers are

men were taken into its pay, and made to nearly stripped of that king of fishes-ceases apply the principle to the streams of the disto be either skilful or surprising before the tricts we have mentioned. The same paper schemes in operation for continuing the race.

remarks, They have done so with the Not only has the new principle been tested most singular success; rivers and lakes, in by the stocking of the French rivers and which there were no fish, now literally teem streams of the Vosges, the Moselle, the with them.". Upper and Lower Rhine, but the spawn has

The plan is to be further encouraged. A been successfully transported to New Zealand. commission of savans is appointed to superin

A recent number of the Journal of the tend the process. Salmon, perch, tench, and Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland even lobsters are to be domesticatedso far attributes the discovery of the plan to Mr. at least as being bred and reared, out of the John Shaw, of Drumlanrig, so far back as

reach of their numerous enemies. 1833, and further proved by the Rev. D. Perhaps no animal will multiply so fast as S. Williamson, ten years afterwards. But fish. The tench produces 38,000 eggs, the the scientific world seems to have been still mackerel 546,000, the cod fish 1,357,000. earlier at work; for, in 1764, Professor Jacobi, The herring produces also vast numbers, and of Berlin, discovered that the roe of fish was if only 2,000 of any one of these came to fecundated after ejection by the female. More- perfection, there would be, in the second year, over, that the roe and milt extracted even 12,000,000, in the third 2,000,000,000. To from dead fishes possessed the vital power, protect only, therefore, is to ensure the proand that even when dead two or three days, duction of millions of fishes ; but how any this power is not lost. The Professor also fish now happens to escape their enemies, mentions how fish may be thus introduced natural and artificial, seems even more woninto new districts, and even carried to other derful than their powers of production. countries.

The breeders of fish artificially in this During the course of last summer, a small country are, Mr. Gurney, of Carshalton, and pamphlet, on the artificial production of fish Mr. Young, of Lochshin; but what should was published by Reeve and Co., which called hinder the plan being tried by the landed particular attention to the French adoption proprietors near the sides of all the rivers in of the discoveries of the German professor this and the sister kingdom ? and why not and the Scottish gardener, in filling the try to introduce the salmon into rivers where French streams and rivers with millions of it has not yet been found ? fish of the most valuable kind.

Mr. Shaw appears to have been the first to Last year, fecundated trout spawn was show that the parr and the smoult are only conveyed to New Zealand. Gravel was stages of the salmon; and to prove that by placed in large iron boxes, with a supply of the construction of side ponds, with a small river water, in order to effect the necessary stream running over them, with sufficient changes; for in water totally stagnant the fish water to keep them covered (but not too cannot be raised. Owing to the warmth of deep) so as to favor the development of the the tropical atmosphere in the journey, the spawn with as much rapidity as possible, the young were produced before the ordinary desired end can be accomplished. The small time. The usual period varies from 70 to fish will thus be preserved from their larger 100 days, according to temperature; but in enemies until they have an opportunity of this case they appeared in about 42 days. shifting better for themselves; and vast supThe effect of a stream was obtained by con- plies will be afforded to the sea, to return stant dropping from a tank above the iron again, either to the same spot, or most cerbox; the water in which was, we believe, tainly to the same river, in another year. purified by the valisneria.

The grisle, or young salmon of from 24 to The originators of the French practice, as 3lbs. weight, has been sent to market, the we stated in our Second Volume, were two spawn from which they have come having fishermen of the names of Gehin and Remy, only been deposited in the preceding Octoof La Bresse; who, finding the fish fail in ber or November, three months of this to be allowed for hatching—and often a longer viously observed by an early writer, before rain it period. A grisle weighing 6 lbs. in the month may often be seen skimming round the edge of a of February, after spawning, has, in its lake or river, and not unfrequently dipping the tips return from the sea in September, weighed of its wings, or under part of its body, into the 13 lbs.; and, it is said that a salmon fry of water as it passes over its surface. April will in June weigh 4 lbs., and in August boration, that ancient authors had observed the

Dr. Forster cites Aratus and Virgil in corro6 lbs, Taking the rapid growth, the immense hirundo urbica, as being rather smaller than the

same fact. He describes the Martin or Martlett, powers of reproduction, and the effect swallow, and as easily distinguishable from it by which the artificial production seems to have the bright white color of all the under parts of the upon the fish, we hardly know a subject of body. This species usually makes its first appeargreater national importance than the en- ance early in May, though sometimes sooner; and couragement of this practice.

leaves us towards the latter end of October. It We would strongly urge the thorough in- builds under the eaves of houses, in crags of rocks vestigation of the subject, and the construc- and precipices near the sea, has oftentimes three tion of breeding-ponds near the heads of our like that of the swallow, with mud and straw, lined

broods in the year, and constructs its curious nest principal rivers, properly secured. The ex

with feathers on the inside. periment has interest in itself enough to repay the trouble; and, if Jacobi be right, almost largest of the genus, being seven inches in length,

He says that the swift, hirundo apus, is the every purchaser of a male and female salmon and nearly eighteen in breadth, when its wings are has the power of putting the process into extended, and that it is of a sooty black color with operation.

a whitish spot on its breast. It arrives towards

the middle of May, and departs about the middle NOTES ON THE SWALLOW.

of August. It builds in holes of rocks, in ruined towers, and under the tiling of houses, and has only one brood in the

year. THE SUBJOINED PARTICULARS of the He observes of the Bank or Sand Martin, Swallow are from various sources, and will hirundo riparia, that it is the smallest of the be perused with interest. We need hardly genus, is of a dusky brown color above, and whitish remark that these birds do not winter “under beneath; and that it builds its nest in holes, which water;". but depart to foreign climes, like it bores in banks of sand, and is said to have only other birds of passage.

one brood in the year. The swallow makes its first appearance in Great

No subject has more engaged the attention of Britain early in spring; remains with us during naturalists in all ages, than the brumal retreat of summer, and disappears in autumn. The four the swallow; neither is there any subject on which species which inhabit this island, are also found tertained. Some have supposed that they retire

more various and contrary opinions have been enduring summer in almost every other region in Europe and Asia, where their manners and habits at the approach of winter to the inmost recesses are nearly the same as in this country. In the of rocks and mountains, and that they there remain more southern parts of the continent, they appear

in a torpid state until spring. Others have consomewhat earlier than in England. The distin- jectured that these birds immerse themselves in guishing marks of the swallow tribe are-a small the water at the approach of winter, and that they bill; a wide mouth; a head rather large in

remain at the bottom in a state of torpidity, until

proportion to the bulk of the body, and somewhat flattish; they are again called forth by the influence of the a neck scarcely visible; a short, broad, and cloven vernal sun.* Dr. Forster admits that there are tongue ; a tail mostly forked ; short legs; very long found

in such situations, clustered together in great

several instances on record of their having been wings; a rapid and continued flight. The House, orChimney Swallow, hirundo rustica, numbers, and that, on being brought before the is the most common, as well as the best known fire, they have revived and flown away. But he Its length is about six inches

, its breadth from tip thinks that few of the accounts were well authento tip of the wings, when extended, about twelve ticated; and that the celebrated John Hunter and inches; the upper parts of its body and wings are

Mr. Pearson clearly prove, from various experiblack; the under parts whitish ash-color; the ments, that these birds cannot continue long under head black; the forehead and chin marked with a

water without being drowned. The doctor does red spot ; the tail very much forked. It generally found under water ; but he attributes their having

not deny that swallows have occasionally been arrives earlier than the rest of its genus, and mostly before the middle of April. It builds its been found in such situations to mere accident. nest in chimnies, at the distance of about a foot As it is well known that, towards the latter end of from the top, or under the roofs of barns and out autumn, swallows frequently roost by the sides of houses, has commonly two broods in the year, and lakes and rivers ; he therefore supposes that a usually disappears in the latter end of September, number of these birds had retired to roost on the or beginning of October. Like all birds of the banks of some shallow and muddy river at low tide ; swallow tribe, it is perpetually on the wing; and it that they had been induced by the cold to creep lives upon insects, which it catches flying. It has among the reeds or rushes which might grow in been calculated from the velocity of this bird on the the shallow parts of the river; and that, while in wing, and its flight in the air for fourteen or fifteen that situation, driven into a state of torpidity by hours together, in search of food, that it flies from two to three hundred miles in that time. As pre- * Gilbert White insists upon this !- Ed. K. J.

« ForrigeFortsæt »