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and better, than in vessels or basins. And amongst them we have a water, which we call water of paradise, being, by that we do to it, made very sovereign for health and prolongation of life.
"We have also great and spacious houses, where we imitate and demonstrate meteors; as snow, hail, rain, some artificial rains of bodies and not of water, thunders, lightnings: also generations of bodies in air; as frogs, flies, and diverse others.
"We have also certain chambers, which we call chambers of health, where we qualify the air as we think good and proper for the cure of divers diseases, and preservation of health.
"We have also fair and large baths, of several mixtures, for the cure of diseases, and the restoring of man's body from arefaction: and others, for the confirming of it in strength of sinews, vital parts, and the very juice and substance of the body.
"We have also large and various orchards and gardens, wherein we do not so much respect beauty, as variety of ground and soil, proper for divers trees and herbs: and some very spacious, where trees and berries are set, whereof we make divers kinds of drinks, besides the vineyards. In these we practise likewise all conclusions of grafting and inoculating, as well of wild trees as fruit trees, which produceth many effects. And we make by art, in the same orchards and gardens, trees and flowers to come earlier or later than their seasons; and to come up and bear more speedily than by their natural course they do. We make them also by art greater much than their nature; and their fruit greater, and sweeter, and of differing taste, smell, colour, and figure, from their nature. And many of them we so order, as they become of medicinal
"We have also means to make divers plants rise by mixtures of earths without seeds; and likewise to make divers new plants, differing from the vulgar; and to make one tree or plant turn into
"We have also parks and enclosures of all sorts of beasts and birds, which we use not only for view or rareness, but likewise for dissections and trials; that thereby we may take light what may be wrought upon the body of man. Wherein we find many strange effects; as continuing life in them, though divers parts, which you account vital, be perished, and taken forth; resuscitating of some that seem dead in appearance; and the like. We try also all poisons and other medicines upon them, as well of chirurgery as physic. By art likewise, we make them greater or taller than their kind is; and contrariwise dwarf them, and stay their growth: we make them more fruitful and bearing than their kind is; and contrariwise barren, and not generative. Also we make them
differ in colour, shape, activity, many ways. We find means to make commixtures and copulations of different kinds, which have produced many new kinds, and them not barren, as the general opinion is. We make a number of kinds of serpents, worms, flies, fishes, of putrefaction; whereof some are advanced in effect to be perfect creatures, like beasts, or birds; and have sexes and do propagate. Neither do we this by chance, but we know beforehand, of what matter and commixture, what kind of those creatures will arise.
"We have also particular pools, where we make trials upon fishes, as we have said before of beasts and birds.
"We have also places for breed and generation of those kinds of worms, and flies, which are of special use: such as are with you your silk-worms and bees.
"I will not hold you long with recounting of our brew-houses, bake-houses, and kitchens, where are made divers drinks, breads, and meats, rare, and of special effects. Wines we have of grapes; and drinks of other juice, of fruits, of grains, and of roots: and of mixtures with honey, sugar, mana, and fruits dried and decocted. Also of the tears or woundings of trees, and of the pulp of canes. And these drinks are of several ages, some to the age or last of forty years. We have drinks also brewed with several herbs, and roots, and spices; yea, with several fleshes, and white meats; whereof some of the drinks are such as they are in effect meat and drink both: so that divers, especially in age, do desire to live with them, with little or no meat, or bread. And above all, we strive to have drinks of extreme thin parts, to insinuate into the body, and yet without all biting, sharpness, or fretting; insomuch as some of them, put upon the back of your hand, will, with a little stay, pass through to the palm, and yet taste mild to the mouth. We have also waters which we ripen in that fashion as they become nourishing; so that they are indeed excellent drink; and many will use no other. Breads we have of several grains, roots, and kernels: yea, and some of flesh and fish, dried ; with divers kinds of leavenings and seasonings: so that some do extremely move appetites; some do nourish so, as divers do live on them, without any other meat; who live very long. So for meats, we have some of them so beaten, and made tender, and mortified, yet without all corrupting, as a weak heat of the stomach will turn them into good chylus, as well as a strong heat would meat otherwise prepared. We have some meats also, and breads and drinks, which taken by men enable them to fast long after: and some other, that used to make the very flesh of mens' bodies sensibly more hard and tough, and their strength far greater than otherwise it would be.
"We have dispensatories, or shops of medi
cines; wherein you may easily think, if we have | also glasses and means, to see small and minute
such variety of plants and living creatures more than you have in Europe, (for we know what you have,) the simples, drugs, and ingredients of medicines, must likewise be in so much the greater variety. We have them likewise of divers ages, and long fermentations. And for their preparations, we have not only all manner of exquisite distillations and separations, and especially by gentle heats and percolations through divers strainers, yea, and substances; but also exact forms of composition, whereby they incorporate almost as they were natural simples.
"We have also divers mechanical arts, which you have not; and stuffs made by them; as papers, linen, silks, tissues: dainty works of feathers of wonderful lustre; excellent dyes, and many others; and shops likewise as well for such as are not brought into vulgar use among us, as for those that are. For you must know, that of the things before recited, many of them are grown into use throughout the kingdom; but yet, if they did flow from our invention, we have of them also for patterns and principals.
bodies perfectly and distinctly; as the shapes and colours of small flies and worms, grains and flaws in gems, which cannot otherwise be seen; observations in urine and blood, not otherwise to be seen. We make artificial rainbows, halos, and circles about light. We represent also all manner of reflections, refractions, and multiplications of visual beams of objects.
"We have also precious stones of all kinds, many of them of great beauty, to you unknown; crystals likewise; and glasses of divers kinds; and amongst them some of metals vitrificated, and other materials, besides those of which you make glass. Also a number of fossils, and imperfect minerals, which you have not. Likewise loadstones of prodigious virtue; and other rare stones, both natural and artificial.
"We have also sound-houses, where we practise and demonstrate all sounds, and their generation. We have harmonies which you have not of quarter-sounds, and lesser slides of sounds. Divers instruments of music likewise to you unknown, some sweeter than any you have; to"We have also furnaces of great diversities, gether with bells and rings that are dainty and and that keep great diversities of heats; fierce sweet. We represent small sounds as great and and quick; strong and constant; soft and mild; deep; likewise great sounds extenuate and sharp; blown, quiet, dry, moist; and the like. But we make divers tremblings and warblings of above all, we have heats in imitation of the sun's sounds, which in their original are entire. We and heavenly bodies' heats, that pass divers ine- represent and imitate all articulate sounds and qualities, and, as it were, orbs, progresses and re- letters, and the voice and notes of beasts and turns, whereby, we produce admirable effects. birds. We have certain helps, which set to the Besides, we have heats of dungs, and of bellies ear do further the hearing greatly. We have and maws of living creatures, and of their bloods also divers strange and artificial echoes, reflectand bodies; and of hays and herbs laid up moist; ing the voice many times, and as it were tossing it: of lime unquenched; and such like. Instruments and some that give back the voice louder than it also which generate heat only by motion. And came; some shriller, and some deeper; yea, farther, places for strong insolations; and again, some rendering the voice differing in the letters places under the earth, which by nature or art, or articulate sound from that they receive. We yield heat. These divers heats we use, as the have also means to convey sounds in trunks and nature of the operation which we intend requir- pipes, in strange lines and distances. eth. "We have also perfume-houses; wherewith we join also practices of taste. We multiply smells, which may seem strange. We imitate smells, making all smells to breathe out of other mixtures than those that give them. We make divers imitations of taste likewise, so that they will deceive any man's taste. And in this house we contain also a comfiture-house; where we make all sweetmeats, dry and moist, and divers pleasant wines, milks, broths, and salads, in far greater variety than you have.
"We have also perspective houses, where we make demonstrations of lights and radiations; and of all colours; and out of things uncoloured and transparent, we can represent unto you all several colours; not in rainbows as it is in gems and prisms, but of themselves single. We represent also all multiplications of light, which we carry to great distance; and make so sharp, as to discern small points and lines; also all colorations of light all delusions and deceits of the sight, in figures, magnitudes, motions, colours; all demonstrations of shadows. We find also divers means yet unknown to you, of producing of light originally from divers bodies. We procure means of seeing objects afar off; as in the heaven and remote places; and represent things near as far off; and things afar off as near; making feigned distances. We have also helps for the sight, far above spectacles and glasses in use. We have
"We have also engine-houses, where are prepared engines and instruments for all sorts of motions. There we imitate and practise to make swifter motions than any you have, either out of your muskets, or any engine that you have; and to make them, and multiply them more easily, and with small force, by wheels and other means: and to make them stronger, and more violent than yours are; exceeding your greatest cannons and
basilisks. We represent also ordnance and in- | about how to draw out of them things of use and struments of war, and engines of all kinds: and practice for man's life and knowledge, as well for likewise new mixtures and compositions of gun-works as for plain demonstration of causes, means, powder, wildfires burning in water, and unquench- natural divinations, and the easy and clear discoable. Also fireworks of all variety both for plea- very of the virtues and parts of bodies. sure and use. We imitate also flight of birds; we call dowry-men or benefactors. we have some degrees of flying in the air; we have ships and boats for going under water, and brooking of seas; also swimming-girdles and supporters. We have divers curious clocks, and other like motions of return, and some perpetual motions. We imitate also motions of living creatures by images of men, beasts, birds, fishes, and serpents; we have also a great number of other various motions, strange for equality, fineness, and subtilty.
"We have also a mathematical house, where are represented all instruments, as well of geometry as astronomy, exquisitely made.
"Then after divers meetings and consults of our whole number, to consider of the former labours and collections, we have three that take care, out of them, to direct new experiments, of a higher light, more penetrating into nature than the former. These we call lamps.
"We have three others that do execute the experiments so directed, and report them. These we call inoculators.
"Lastly, we have three that raise the former discoveries by experiments into greater observations, axioms, and aphorisms. These we call interpreters of nature.
"We have also, as you must think, novices and apprentices, that the succession of the former employed men do not fail: besides a great number of servants, and attendants, men and women. And this we do also: we have consultation, which of the inventions and experiences which we have discovered shall be published, and which not: and take all an oath of secrecy, for the concealing of those which we think fit to keep a secret: though some of those we do reveal sometimes to the state, and some not.
"We have also houses of deceits of the senses; where we represent all manner of feats of juggling, false apparitions, impostures, and illusions; and their fallacies. And surely you will easily believe that we that have so many things truly natural, which induce admiration, could in a world of particulars deceive the senses if we would disguise those things, and labour to make them seem more miraculous. But we do hate all impostures and lies: insomuch as we have severally forbidden it to all our fellows, under pain of ignominy and fines, that they do not show any natural work or thing, adorned or swelling; but only pure as it is, and without all affectation of strangeness. "These are, my son, the riches of Solomon's more rare and excellent inventions: in the other House.
"For the several employments and offices of our fellows; we have twelve that sail into foreign countries, under the names of other nations, for our own we conceal, who bring us the books, and obstructs, and patterns of experiments of all other parts. These we call merchants of light.
"We have three that collect the experiments which are in all books. These we call depredators.
"We have three that collect the experiments of all mechanical arts; and also of liberal sciences; and also of practices which are not brought into arts. These we call mystery-men.
"We have three that try new experiments, such as themselves think good. These we call pioneers or miners.
"We have three that draw the experiments of the former four into titles, and tablets, to give the better light for the drawing of observations and axioms out of them. These we call compilers.
"We have three that bend themselves, looking into the experiments of their fellows, and cast
"For our ordinances and rites: we have two very long and fair galleries: in one of these we place patterns and samples of all manner of the
we place the statues of all principal inventors. There we have the statue of your Columbus, that discovered the West Indies: also the inventor of ships: your monk that was the inventor of ordnance, and of gunpowder: the inventor of music: the inventor of letters: the inventor of printing: the inventor of observations of astronomy: the inventor of works in metal: the inventor of glass: the inventor of silk of the worm: the inventor of wine: the inventor of corn and bread: the inventor of sugars: and all these by more certain tradition than you have. Then have we divers inventors of our own excellent works; which since you have not seen, it were too long to make descriptions of them; and besides, in the right understanding of these descriptions you might easily err. For upon every invention of value, we erect a statue to the inventor, and give him a liberal and honourable reward. These statues are some of brass; some of marble and touch-stone; some of cedar, and other special woods gilt and adorned: some of iron; some of silver; some of gold.
"We have certain hymns and services, which we say daily, of laud and thanks to God for his marvellous works: and forms of prayers, implor
ing his aid and blessing for the illumination of our | which I have made. I give thee leave to publish labours; and the turning of them into good and it for the good of other nations; for we here are holy uses.
"Lastly, we have circuits or visits of divers principal cities of the kingdom; where as it cometh to pass, we do publish new profitable inventions as we think good. And we do also declare natural divinations of diseases, plagues, swarms of hurtful creatures, scarcity, tempests, earthquakes, great inundations, comets, temperature of the year, and divers other things; and we give counsel thereupon what the people shall do for the prevention and remedy of them."
And when he had said this he stood up; and I, as I had been taught, kneeled down; and he laid his right hand upon my head, and said; "God bless thee, my son, and God bless this relation
in God's bosom a land unknown." And so he left me; having assigned a value of about two thousand ducats, for a bounty to me and my fellows. For they give great largesses where they come upon all occasions.
[THE REST WAS NOT PERFECTED.]
Referring to page 255.
There have been various editions of the New Atlantis. In 1631, it was translated into French, of which there is a
copy in the British Museum; where there is also the New Atlantis continued A. D. 1660, by R. H. Esq. wherein is set forth a platform of monarchical government: and also in occupations des academies, &c. par M. R.
French, A. D. 1702, avec des reflexions sur l'institution et les
THE WISDOM OF THE ANCIENTS.
The first edition of this work was published in Latin in the year 1609. It is entitled
CVNDI, JACOBI REGIS
AD INCLYTAM ACADEMIAM
EXCUDEBAT ROBERTUS BAR
KERUS SERENISSIMÆ REGIE
In February 27, 1610, Lord Bacon wrote "To MR. MATTHEW, upon sending his book De Sapientia Veterum.'
"I do very heartily thank you for yourLetter of the 24th of August from Salamanca; and in recompence thereof I send you a little work of mine that hath begun to pass the world. They tell me my Latin is turned into silver, and become current: had you been here, you should have been my inquisitor before it came forth: but, I think, the greatest inquisitor in Spain will allow it. But one thing you must pardon me, if I make no haste to believe, that the world should be grown to such an ecstasy as to reject truth in philosophy, because the author dissenteth in religion; no more than they do by Aristotle or Averroes. My great work goeth forward; and after my manner, I alter ever when I add. So that nothing is finished till all be finished. This I have written in the midst of a term and parliament; thinking no time so possessed, but that I should talk of these matters with so good and dear a friend. And so with my wonted wishes I leave you to God's goodness." "From Gray's Inn, Feb. 27, 1610."
And in his letter to Father Fulgentio, giving some account of his will not only be enlarged in number, but still more in substance. piece De Sapientia Veterum.'"
writings, he says, "My Essays Along with them goes the little
Bacon's sentiments with respect to these fables may be found in the "Advancement of Learning," and in the "De Augmentis," under the head of Poetry.
In the "Advancement of Learning," he says, "There remaineth yet another use of poesy parabolical, opposite to that which we last mentioned: for that tendeth to demonstrate and illustrate that which is taught or delivered, and this other to retire and obscure it: that is, when the secrets and mysteries of religion, policy, or philosophy, are involved in fables or parables. Of this in divine