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ing in the products and fruits of Southern Europe, as wheat, barley, rice, vines, olives, almonds, figs, pomegranates and oranges.

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That portion of Barbary, lying between the mountains and the great. desert, is comparatively dry, sandy and barren; but it is very fruitful in dates, and thence has been called Biledulgerid or the country of dates.' The climate of these states is spring-like, temperate and delight. ful; but leprosy is here a common disease, and the dreadful ravages of the plague have, at times, been experienced. Innumerable locusts often spread desolation over the harvests. Scorpions and other poisonous reptiles, greatly infest the country. The deserts abound in ostriches, and the thick forests in lions, panthers, hyaenas, jackalls, wild boars and antelopes. Camels and sheep are the most useful domestic animals.

The most numerous classes of people here are Moors, Bedouin Arabs and Berbers, chiefly Mahometans. The Jews also are found in great numbers. They take the lead in trade and merchandize; but are treated as brutes by the Moors, who resemble the Turks in character, and are an idle, vicious, cruel and piratical race. The Arabs live a roving, pastoral, plundering life, on the skirts of the desert. The Berbers are descendants of the ancient natives. They speak a language of their own; reside in the mountainous regions, and subsist by hus. bandry.

Agriculture, in the Barbary States, is rudely conducted. Manufactures do not flourish. The commerce is not extensive, but carried on with more enterprize than is common in Mahometan countries. Their caravans bring slaves, gold and gums, from Central Africa, where they are purchased with goods obtained from Europe. The piracy of the Barbary powers has, of late years, declined and become less for. midable. The governments prevailing in these countries are perfectly despotic. They have long been more or less dependent on the Turkish power.

QUESTIONS.

How is Barbary bounded? Into what states divided? By what range of mountains intersected? What is the name of Atlantic Ocean derived from? How would you describe the north part of Barbary, between the Atlas mountains and the Mediterranean? What are its products? What is said of the country south of the mountains toward the desert? What of the climate of Barbary? The diseases? What of the locusts, scorpions, &c. ? What wild animals and birds are mentioned? What domestic animals? What most numerous classes of people? What is said of the Jews? Of the Moors? Of the Arabs? Of the Berbers? Of agriculture? Manufactures? Commerce? What is said of the piracy of these powers? Of the prevailing kinds of government ?

EMPIRE OF MOROCCO.

Extent 300,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 6,000,000.-20 per sq. m.

The empire of Morocco comprises the former kingdom of Morocco, with Fez and Tafilet. The most fertile and populous portion of it is

the extensive plain, lying between the Atlas mountains and the Atlan. tic Ocean. The country on the opposite side of the mountain gradually lessens in fertility and verdure, till it becomes a sandy desert.

The government of Morocco is a complete example of despotism. The will or caprice of the emperor is law; and his power over the lives and property of his subjects, is absolute. He endeavors to instil into their minds this doctrine, that those who die by his hand, or in the execution of his orders, ascend immediately to a paradise of distinguished rewards. The oppressive acts of the government are calculated to discourage enterprize, and to prevent the success of agriculture, manufactures, commerce, and every branch of useful industry. Morocco leather is the chief manufacture.

Mogadore is the principal port for the commerce with Europe. The inland trade is to Tombuctoo, and Soudan, across the desert. The city of Morocco is considered the capital. It was anciently a great and populous city, nearly equal to London, but it has become in a great measure depopulated, and surrounded with magnificent ruins, the monuments of its former grandeur. Pop. 50,000. Fez is one of the most splendid cities in Barbary. Under the Saracens, it was renowned for learning, and venerated for its Mahometan zeal, and is said to have contained 700 temples and mosques. Pop. 100,000.

QUESTIONS.

Of what extent and population is the empire of Morocco? How bounded? What does it comp ? Which is the most fertile part of it? How is the government described? What of agriculture, commerce, and manufactures? What is the principal manufacture? What is said of Mogadore? Of Morocco? Of Fez?

ALGIERS.

Extent 90,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 2,500,000.-28 per sq. m.

Algiers was the ancient Numidia, and constituted a part of Mauritania. It is a fertile region, enjoying a mild and pleasant climate, but is not thickly settled. The principal river is Sheblif, 300 miles long. The highest mountain is Jurjura, whose top is covered with snow. The other mountains are for the most part covered with forests and vineyards. It contains a mountain of salt, and there are salt pits six miles in circumference. The grain, fruits, and vegetables of Southern Europe are here abundant. The manufactures are carpets, silk handkerchiefs, and sashes. The coral fishery on the coast is a source of wealth. But piracy has been the character and chief resource of the Algerines. Coral, wool, bees wax, ostrich feathers, camel's hair, goat and sheep skins are the principal exports.

The former governor was a despot, called a Dey. In 1830, Algiers the capital was taken by the French, and the government of the country is now in their hands. They will probably retain possession of it and establish a colony here. The city of Algiers is situated on the declivity of a hill. The houses are flat roofed, and may be walked upon the

whole length of a street. But it is extremely difficult to pass in the streets, for the largest of them is said to be not more than 12 feet wide, and yet contains the palaces of the rich and the warehouses of the mer. chants. Pop. 80,000. Bona is the port for the coral fishery, and has a fine harbor. Constantina, in the interior, is on the site of the ancient Cirta, and is surrounded with its ruins.

QUESTIONS.

What are the extent and population of Algiers? How bounded? What was the country called anciently? What of its soil and climate? Principal river? Mountain? Mountain of salt? What of the grain and fruits? Of the coral fishery Of piracy? What exports? What was the former governor of Algiers called? In whose hands is the government now? What is the situation of Algiers the capital? What is said of the houses and streets? What of Bona? Of Constantina?

TUNIS.

Extent 70,000 sq. ms.- -Pop. 2,000,000.-28 per sq. mile.

Tunis is distinguished among the Barbary states for its natural beauty and fertility, for the civilization of the people, the comparative mild. ness of its government, the encouragement afforded to commerce, and other laudable enterprise, and for its general prosperity and power. The inhabitants are industrious, and raise grain and fruits for exportation. And their caravans from Nigritia, beyond the desert, come la. den with gold and gums, and other precious merchandise. Tunis, the capital, is beautifully situated on a large bay, and is celebrated as a seat of Mahometan learning, and for the civility and politeness of the citizens. Pop. 125,000. About 10 miles north-east from this city are the remains of Carthage, the ancient rival of Rome, but they are scarcely perceptible.

QUESTIONS.

What are the boundaries of Tunis? Its most northern lat. ? Its extent and population? Its direction from Rome? Its distance from the island of Sicily? Ans. 100 miles. For what is Tunis distinguished among the Barbary states? What exports are mentioned? What trade do the inhabitants carry on beyond the desert? Where is Tunis the capital, and how described? What ancient city was located in this vicinity?

TRIPOLI.

Extent 100,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 1,500,000.-15 per. sq. m.

Tripoli is a large country, not remarkably fertile, and sustaining but a thin population. Dates are abundant and extensively used for food. The coast is the most fruitful. There is considerable commerce and some degree of civilization. The inhabitants on the coast were formerly notorious as pirates. Robbery and plunder are common in the interior. The government is now independent of Turkey, is administered by a bashaw, and is despotic in its character. Tripoli the capital, is situated upon sandy ground, by the sea shore, about 300 miles south-east of Tunis. Its walls and towers are lofty and its ramparts

strong. The streets are narrow, and the houses are low and far from being magnificent. Yet the city is well built, and exhibits a degree of regularity and neatness unusual in these states. Pop. 15,000.

BARCA.

Extent 90,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 300,000.

Barca is a large country, chiefly a desert, lying between Tripoli and Egypt, and was anciently called Lybia. It belongs to the government of Tripoli. A great proportion of the inhabitants are wandering Arabs. Derne, the capital, is near the coast. It was captured, in 1805, by the American General Eaton, a native of Brimfield, Mass. Pop. 5000. Siwah contains a population of 6,000.

FEZZAN.

Extent 60,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 75,000.

Fezzan is a large oasis or tract of country, like an island in the midst of the desert. The heat in the summer is intense. The soil is fertile, where it can be artificially watered. It abounds in dates. Fezzan is important as the grand depot for the trade carried on between Northern and Central Africa, and its population, in a great measure is composed of merchants from Egypt, Tripoli, and various parts of the continent. They are Mahometans. Its government is tributary to Tripoli. Mourzouk, the capital, makes a mean appearance; but it is a famous rendezvous for caravans, and is often thronged with slaves brought as articles of trade from the interior. Fezzan is 30 days' journey west from Cairo. It is 300 miles long from north to south, and 200 broad from east to west, and embraces 100 towns and villages. From Mourzouk, southward to Bornou, through the desert of Bilma, is 50 days journey.

QUESTIONS.

What are the extent and population of Tripoli? The boundaries? What kind of a country is it? What products are abundant? What of the commerce and civilization? What of the people on the coast and in the interior? What of the government? What is the capital, and where situated and how described? What are the boundaries of Barca? What was its ancient name? To what government is it nominally subject? What is the capital? When and by whom was it taken ? How is Fezzan bounded? Which way from Tripoli? What of the climate, soil, and products? For what is it chiefly important? To what power is it tributary? What is the capital, and how described?

EGYPT.

PART FIRST.

Extent 200,000 sq. ms.-Pop. 4,000,000.-20 per sq. mile.

In Egypt we recognize all that is renowned in history, or venerable for antiquity. It has been celebrated as an original seat of the arts and sciences, and as one of the earliest civilized, and most wealthy and powerful of ancient kingdoms. It is remarkable in modern times, chiefly, for its pyrainids, temples and obelisks, and other memorials of

[graphic]

Pyramids and Sphynx.

its former greatness, and most stupendous monuments of human art and labor.

Egypt is about 700 miles long and 250 broad. But the cultivated and habitable part of it consists only of a narrow valley, 15 or 20 miles in width, bounded on both sides by rugged mountains, and intersected and fertilized by the river Nile. Lower Egypt is sometimes called the Delta of the Nile, and lies between Cairo and the Mediterranean. Middle and Upper Egypt extends south from Cairo to Nubia.

The climate, in the winter, is pleasant and salubrious. In the summer, it is remarkably hot and sultry, for the latitude. The plague is a native disease of this region, and the inhabitants frequently feel the deleterious effects of the simoom, that pestilential, suffocating wind from the desert. Fair weather is almost uninterrupted here, and rain very rarely falls. Yet the dews are copious, and the inundations of the Nile give to Lower Egypt a soil of almost unexampled fertility. In this part rice and maize are most abundant, constituting the common food of the people. Upper Egypt, along in the valley, is also fertile and rich in wheat and barley, being artificially watered by streams from the river.

The inhabitants of Egypt, at present, are composed of Copts, Arabs Turks, and Jews. The Copts are descendants of the aboriginal Egyptians. They are Christians by professions, well educated, and resi ding chiefly in the Upper country. The Arabs are very numerous. They are partly agricultural or mechanical in their occupations; while multitudes of them live a wandering life among the rocks and mountains, in deserts, or on the banks of rivers, removing from place to place as convenience may dictate.

The Turks and Jews are found in greatest numbers in the cities,

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