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OBSERVATIONS ON THE CULTURE OF

THE SUGAR CANE IN THE UNITED

COLONIAL POLICY.

right, the fish were wholly abandoned may be sure I accepted of the invitato the poachers, who generally con- tion with great cordiality, nor had I trived, by burning lights at the shal- any cause to repent it. I have, since lows, and spearing the fish by night, that time, had many conversations and netting the pools, to annihilate with Peter, of which I have taken every shoal that came up. This is, notes; but the description of a country however, a subject that would require wedding, together with the natural an essay by itself.

history of the Scottish sheep, the Our conversation turned on various shepherd's dog, and some account of matters connected with the country; the country lasses, I must reserve for and I soon found, that though this future communications.

H. hind had something in his manner and address the most uncultivated I had ever seen, yet his conceptions of such matters as came within the

STATES, AND ON OUR SYSTEM OP sphere of his knowledge were pertinent and just. He sung old songs, MR EDITOR, told us strange stories of witches and

While the example of the successe apparitions, and related many anec- ful efforts made by the negroes in dotes of the pastoral life, which I think Hispaniola for the recovery of their extremely curious, and wholly un- freedom and independence, and the known to the literary part of the com- recent commotions in our own West munity. But at every observation that India colonies, have powerfully athe made, he took care to sleek down tracted the public attention, it seems his black hair over his brow, as if it to have entirely overlooked the rising were of the utmost consequence to his competition which must, at no distant making a respectable appearance, that period, materially affect the demand it should be equally spread, and as for the staple commodity of these disclose pressed down as possible. When tant settlements. From a short statedesired to join us in drinking tea, he ment given in Mr Pitkin's Statistical said “it was a' nonsense thegither, for View of the Commerce, &c. of the he hadna the least occasion ;" and United States, published last year, it when pressed to take bread, he per- appears, that in 1810 above Ten MILsisted in the declaration that “it was LIONS of pounds weight of sugar had great nonsense.” He loved to talk of been manufactured from the cane in sheep, of dogs, and of the lasses, as he the state of Louisiana :* and so rapidcalled them; and conversed with his ly has its cultivation extended, that dogs in the same manner as he did in 1814, only four years afterwards, with any of the other guests; nor did not less than FIFTEEN MILLIONS of the former ever seem to misunderstand pounds, or above 8,300 hogsheads, him, unless in his unprecedented and were made in the same district. The illiberal attempt to expel them from culture of the cane has also been inthe company.-“ Whitefoot! haud aff troduced into Georgia, and there seems the woman's coat-tails, ye blockhead! little reason to doubt of its succeeding Deil hae me gin ye hae the mense of equally well as in Louisiana. a miller's horse, man.”

Whitefoot 1805,

says Mr Pitkin, " Thomas instantly obeyed.—“Trimmy! come Spalding, Esq., a gentleman of wealth back aff

' the fire, dame! Ye're sae wat, and enterprise, procured one hundred ye raise a reek like a cottar wife's lum cane plants from the West Indies, for

-come back, ye limmer!" Trimmy the purpose of trying them on his went behind his chair.

plantation, on an island near the seaIt came out at last that his business coast of Georgia. After repeated with Mr Grumple that day was to trials, in which he was guided princirequest of him to go over to Stride- pally by his own judgment and exkirton on the Friday following, and perience, he completely succeeded, unite him, Peter Plash, in holy wed- About three years since, he made a lock with his sweetheart and only joe, Jean Windlestrae ; and he said, if I

* Hennepin, quoted by Labat, asserts

that the sugar cane is indigenous in Louisi. “ would accompany the minister, and

ana, and was found growing spontaneously take share of a haggis wi' them, I wad near the mouth of the Mississippi on its see some good lasses, and some good first discovery. Edwards' Hist. West Insport too, which was far better.” You dies. Vol. ii. 208, 4to ed. Vol. I.

D

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small quantity of sugar of a good qua- good policy to import raw materials
lity; and in 1814, he had one huns with a view to export them when
dred acres in cảne, which produced wrought up. If we shall hereafter
seventy-five thousand weight of prime purchase sugar from America, it will
sugar, and four thousand gallons of enable her merchants to order still
molasses; and but for the want of larger quantities of our manufactures.
boilers; which, on account of the war, They will not, we may rest assured,
could not be brought to his plantations, send us their produce gratis, and they
he would have produced one hundred cannot take money in payment, the
thousand weight. The culture of the real value of gold and silver being
cane is found not to be more laborious greater here than on the opposite side
than that of cotton, and is not liable of the Atlantic. But supposing them
to so many accidents. One thousand to receive payment in gold and silver,
pounds per acre is not considered a it would only shew, that we found it
great crop. This at ten cents, (54d.) more advantageous to export manufaca
would be one hundred dollars. Als tures to countries abounding in those
most every planter along the sea coast metals, and then to pay them over to
of Georgia is now turning his attention, the Americans, rather than export
more or less, to the culture of the su- directly to the latter.
gar cane; and from experiments already The remarks I have just made,
made, the cane is found to grow luxu- apply equally to the case of any other
riantly as far north as the city of power who might come into competi-
Charleston in South Carolina." tion with our own sugar colonies: and

These facts render it nearly certain now that peace has been restored to
that America will soon be in a situa- the country, and the attention of the
tion to export sugar; and I confess legislature is no longer attracted by
that I contemplate the probability of the momentous discussions to which an
that event without any feeling of re- arduous and long protracted contest
gret, and am even convinced it will be gave rise, I do hope that our system
much to the advantage of this country, of colonial policy will be thoroughly
-If the Americans cannot undersell investigated. - I am not aware that
our planters, the latter have nothing to it has been materially changed since
fear from their competition ; but if Dr Smith exposed its mischievou's
they can afford us a valuable necessary tendency; and I confess, I cannot see
at a cheaper rate, very cogent reasons the utility of employing our soldiers
indeed would be required to shew, and sailors at an infinite expense, to
why we should not become their cus- preserve a precarious authority over
tomers — There is surely nothing so isles situated in an unhealthy and
very attractive, or advantageous, in the pestiferous climate, if we can purchase
possession of the West India islands, their products cheaper elsewhere.
as to induce us to tax ourselves for No colonies were ever reckoned so
their support,—for such, to the con- important to this country, as those
sumers, is the real effect of every mo- which now form the powerful repub-
nopoly. Sufficient employment for lic of the United States. But has
capital can still be found in this coun- their independence had any bad effects
try, and it is not necessary to force it on the wealth, commerce, or industry,
into the colony trade, by giving an of Great Britain ? The reverse
undue preference to its products over decidedly the fact.-Without the ex-
those of other countries, and even if pense of maintaining armaments to
such employment could not be found, defend these distant and extensive
it would be impolitic in government to territories, we have continued to enjoy
give any factitious encouragement to every previous advantage resulting
one department of industry, inasmuch from their commercial intercourse. - As
as it is certain some other branch long as we can afford to sell manufac-
must be thereby proportionally de- tured goods to the Americans, cheaper
pressed. No bad consequences have than they can prepare them at home,
resulted to us from purchasing the and cheaper than they can purchase
cotton of the United States; on the from any other power,

we shall contrary, it has been attended with the continue to supply their market to happiest effects.—The Americans have precisely the same extent we should taken an equivalent in our manufac- have done had they still remained tured goods, and it is always reckoned our colonies. -Surely no person ima

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gines, that had America been depende desire to sell has always been, and ent on this country, we could have must always be, as strong as the inclicompelled her to purchase our mere nation to purchase. chandise, though really higher than With the present colonial system that of other states. --Our colonial the slave trade can only be considered system was always more liberal than as nominally abolished. I do not that of Spain; but did all the re- imagine any such keen and determined strictions, regulations, and guarda-cos- opposition would have been made to tas, of that power, prevent her colonies the slave registration bill, if vast numfrom being deluged with the commo- bers of those wretched beings had not dities of England, France, and Ger- still found their way to our islands. many? No custom-house regulations, But when the cultivation of the sugar however rigorously enforced, can ever cane shall become general in America, command or preserve any market; it is it is to be presumed that this infamous solely by the comparative cheapness traffic will be really put an end to. and quality of the goods offered for A government residing on the spot, sale, that the demand is regulated. can see that the laws preventing fresh

The dread of being deprived of co- importations are rigorously executed; lonial produce, if we had no colonies, but the same thing

cannot possibly be appears equally futile and unfounded. effected by a far distant government,

What country can be mentioned, whose agents must often be interested which, though it had no share in the in a continuance of the traffic, which colony trade, ever wanted its products, they are officially engaged to suppress. if disposed to pay for them. Coun- The following table shews the quan, tries possessing extensive colonies are tity of sugar imported into the United frequently reduced to great difficulties States, and again exported, and, conseby foreigners refusing to buy their quently, the quantity of foreign growth commodities, but when did we hear consumed in that republic from 180) of any people refusing to sell ? This to 1812, both inclusive. It is extracted is altogether a visionary danger :--the from Mr Pitkins' work, page 255.

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Imported.
Exported.

Consumed.
..143,611,596 lbs, 97,734,209 lbs. 45,877,387 lbs.

78,476,165 61,180,208 17,295,987
85,740,537 23,323,482 62,417,055
.129,969,997 75,096,401 54,873,596
..205,792,755 122,808,993 82,983,762
..200,737,940 145,630,841 55,107,099
.215,836,202 143, 119,605 72,716,597

86,694,229 28,962,527 57,731,702
64,081,810 45,297,338 18,784,502
68,368,792 47,024,002 21,344,790
73,976,609 18,268,347 55,708,262
72,437,561 13,927,277 58,510,284

1808,

1809, 1810, 1811, 1812,.

Average consumption of foreign sugar in the United

States, during the twelve years ending with 1812,}

50,279,249 lbs.

M.

NEMORANDUMS OF A VIEW-HUNTER.

No I.
London, Sth Mar. 1817.

To Dover.
MR EDITOR,

-Preparing the race-ground If you can find room for some brief for the races. This raised a train of sketches of a view-hunter, who has a ideas about the D_,, the fair little enthusiasm in his line, and who, M-, and all that, varied but pleaslike not a few of his countrymen, has ing:-Pretty clean-looking village of been a view-hunting lately in France, Bridge in the bottom. The country his memorandum book is very much rich with gentlemen's houses and garat your service. The sketches have at den-like enclosures. The track was least one merit—they are warm from

This had been the the life.

boundary of my former trips on the

now new to me.

Dover road. The dale to the right,

Dover. with hamlets, villages, churches, gen- At the Paris hotel. Very good house. tlemen's seats, appears peculiarly ele- Civil and attentive. Full of passengant, contrasted with the plainness on gers to and from the Continent, Walkthe left. The road is carried along the ed out with my companions, Dr B. east side of a valley. This valley is and Mr S. to view-hunt a little on the narrow and rich—of the glen sort- heights on so fine an afternoon. The and, as we approach Dover, it has se- town built on a narrow slip of land at veral pleasing vista-openings in the the bottom of steep chalky cliffs. AsScottish style.

cended a circular excavation in the We got a small peep of the channel, chalk. Three winding stairs up it, of two or three miles from Dover. The about 200 steps. Made some years ago. town itself is scarcely seen till we en- Sentinels both at the entry below and ter. On descending to the bottom; in above. Part of the works of defence, which it stands, we took up a little on the top of the hill, a little to the man about twenty, one of the most right of this. Ascend it by ladder free and easy persons I have ever met stairs on the outside. These have a with. He introduced himself to us in fine effect, combined with the fortifia moment, and gave us all the infor- cations. The castle, also, has a venermation we wanted ; indeed, much more able and picturesque appearance from than my companion S— seemed to this station. want. But I was pleased with the I inquired about Shakspeare's cliff rattle for the moment. He, however, of the soldiers. A decent-looking midid not lack either sense or discrimi. litiainan, who was carrying a pretty nation. He pointed out the stream child, while two more were playing that creeps in the bottom, as being round him, pointed it out to mea reckoned the richest in England of its mile or so off. A few halfpence made size, for manufacturing returns. . So the little folks very happy, and the he said. Saw several paper manufac- parent's fond eye glisten with delight. tories and flour mills. One of the I cast a wishful look to this favourite former, he said, was famous for fine cliff: The declining day was so fine. paper ; the scenery of its banks pleas- But Dr B. said, he was so fatigued he ing, and from this account it became could not think of it; and as I could more interesting. It seems to descend not leave him so abruptly, I was obliged from a vista on the right, and to run to give up the project, but not withonly four or five miles.

out regret that was constantly recurOur attention was attracted by a ring. This is the inconvenience of a group of young women promenading view-hunter entangling himself with in a green field on its banks, near a very any non-view-hunter as a travelling small rustic chapel and church-yard; companion. He is prevented from the latter only about fifty feet square. seeing half of what he may see.--A The whole formed a fine rural picture. word to view-hunters. I determined On descending to the level of the to give my companions the slip for the stream, we found both the footway future, except at meals. and the road covered with walkers; I then proposed ascending to the for this was Sunday afternoon, and the citadel. The way at first steep, and weather was uncommonly fine. When nearly on the edge of the precipice. we entered the town, we still found Dr B. said to some of the soldiers the footway-for it has a footway on who pointed out our way, as they were each side, and this was one of the few reclining on the declivity, that it looke we were to see for many a hundred ed like ascending to the skies. Nomile still crowded with promenaders. thing of that sort, said a drummer. I The people well dressed, particularly have climbed it often, and I never the women. The girls very pretty. found I was a bit nearer heaven than Seldom have seen so many fine faces before. The pert drummer might not in a town of the same size; but it was be very far wrong with respect to himKent. A smile on every countenance. self. I like to see the evening of the Sab- The view of the harbour, which is bath-day kept in this cheerful but de- a tide one, and very extensive, having

gates between the outer and inner I shall compare this with what I see station, with the ships so far below us, at Calais, said I to my companions of formed an interesting picture. The

sea was delightfully calm. The white

corous manner.

the top

1

cliffs of France, whither we were go- truly grand and beautiful. I felt the
ing, had their effect. The sight set justness of the observation home, and
us a talking of the probability of the I echoed it with the most cordial as-
junction of Great Britain formerly sent.
with the Continent. The sameness of As we marched off, highly delighted
the soil, and other geological pheno- with this short evening view-hunt,
mena, and the proximity, seemed to we were assailed by a host of native
make a junction likely; the vast length enemies. These were hornets. I did
of the British channel, and the wide not mind them, and they soon left
German Ocean approaching so near, me. But Dr B. was quite alarmed.
render a separation from the first, as In vain I advised him to let them
natural. In short, whether this part alone. The more he laboured to chase
of the channel was once an isthmus, these buzzers away, the more furious
and Albion a peninsula, or not, will and numerous did they return to the
ever be a doubtful speculation. We attack. I have frequently found these
have nothing but conjectural reasons, insects near cannon and ordnance de-
and these appear to be as strong on the pots. I do not know why.
one side as the other.

While we sat at tea, a little valetu. Two very bonny lasses, with a fine dinarian Jew, whom they called Mochild, ascended at the same time with ses, offered his services in the moneyus, but still nearer the precipice. I changing line. He said he followed begged them, for Heaven's sake, not to this business merely for the sake of a go so near. They laughed, and went little amusing employment. He chargstill nearer ; and sat down almost on ed a penny more for his Louises (of the very edge of the tremendous pre- twenty francs) than I had paid in cipice, which, even at the distance London, or 16s. 4d. He wanted very we were standing, made us shudder. much to tempt me to part with some Goodbye, my poor dears, said I to of the slips of paper I had received them; I shall see you no more. They from Hammersley, for French gold, gave me some jocular reply. Such is no doubt by way of amusement also. the effect of custom.

But in vain he offered me a douceur, Went up to the citadel. Not al- as I meant to keep my paper till I got lowed to enter. A nice-looking wo

to Paris. He loitered in the coffeeman and her husband on the draw. · room, and again and again he attemptbridge. She seemed quite frightened. ed to bribe me to part with it. Pho! On raising my eyes, I soon found the thought I, as I sipt my tea ; and is the cause of her terror. They were going theory of our bullion committee come to fire the evening gun from the ram- to this in practice. The notes of the part. The picture was truly fine. Bank of England, alone, are now from The poor female was crouching down eight to ten millions more than when on the bridge, though the gun was

this learned body, far above the prefull twelve feet above her, and stop- judices of metal-money times no doubt, ping her ears; and the artillery men were theorizing; and yet here is a were standing in order by it, waiting Jew (for the sake of mere amusement, till the sun, who was now going down, it is granted) offers me more gold for should sink under the hill. We were my paper money, than even its mint at unequal distances, watching the price warrants. His urgency, also, hand that held the lighted match. certainly looks very much like his.conThis was applied. The height seemed sidering paper really more valuable to sbake under us. The thunder ran than gold. 'Tis a pity that facts will round the hills for some time, and re- still be giving the negation flat to certurned again. The varied and pleas- tain favourite theories. We shall, ing form of these winding heights, however, reach something like good with their picturesque ornaments, sense on money at length, perhaps. I the glens between them, which put say good, and not common sense ; for me in mind of some of the glens of the common sense on the subject of the Grampians, though in miniature, money, as on many others, has a good --and the brilliant tints which the sun deal of that negative kind of sense in had left behind him, received such an it, which is styled nonsense. addition from this simple and familiar All this, it is to be noticed, I thought, incident, that Dr B., who seemed to and not said. From some remark that possess a very moderate share of view. had fallen from Dr B. I perceived he hunting enthusiasm, exclaimed, 'Tis was an adherent of the metal money

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