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tan on the subject, but received the following negation to the hypothesis that Mr Grattan was Junius :—
'SIR,-I can frankly assure you that I know nothing of Junius, except that I am not the author. When Junius began I was a boy, and knew nothing of politics, or the persons concerned in them. Our friend my countryman was mistaken, and did me an honour I had no pretensions to.
I am, Sir, your-not Junius-but your
Dublin, Nov. 4, 1805.
"This denial the editor communicated to the widow of Mr Boyd, who certainly believed that Mr Boyd, Mr Grattan, and perhaps Mr Eden and Mr Lauchlin Maclean, were joint-partners in the production of the letters signed Junius. It may be worth while to annex her reply, as furnishing further elucidation of the subject: I am sorry you troubled Mr Grattan, whose denial must be believed. If he was a boy when Junius began, what must Mr B. have been, who was a year younger than Mr G.; but Mr G. forgets dates, for he was in England in 67, and I remember our dining with him in the autumn of 69, when he and the present Judge Day resided in a cottage in Windsor Forest.' The editor was induced to challenge Mr Grattan by the following passages in previous letters from Mrs Boyd, and also by recollections of Mr Jesse Foot, the eminent surgeon of Dean-street, Soho, who knew Boyd, Grattan, and Eden, and believes they were the joint authors of Junius. The editor conceives, however, that Lauchlin Maclean was one of the junto, for in his conversation with the late marquess of Lansdowne, the marquess asked him emphatically, 'What does Almon say of Maclean?' And Mr Galt, in his Majola' preserves an American anecdote of Maclean, which confirms the fact of his participation. I have no proof of Mr Boyd's being Junius, my opinion being conjectural; however, long before Mr Almon's suggestions attracted the public attention, I was clearly of opinion that Mr Boyd was the joint-author of those farfamed letters. I surmised it before he left England, and above twenty years ago, in a confidential conversation with a relation of great taste and superior talents, my reasons and conjectures were thought convincing. A celebrated character now living, I suppose to have written conjointly with Mr Boyd the letters of Junius, for they were much together, the table was always covered with papers, and they were always writing, being always disconcerted whenever I went near the table.'
"A celebrated orator was acquainted with Mr Boyd from boyhood, and they admired each other's great talents, without envy, often arguing, ever with temper, criticism and politics their chief subject. During the publication of Junius he was frequently at our house, and when I used unexpectedly to enter the parlour I found them seated at a table, on which were various papers that they would instantly cover, and in polite terms request my absence, as they were particularly busy, and oftentimes Mr Boyd would be writing at a desk in a large inner closet which he generally bolted when alone. I should be sorry to impose on the public, but there can be no imposition in my believing, from the
concurrence of many circumstances, that Mr B. was Junius, with the aid and assistance of his friend. There was one letter highly polished, which I believe to have been Mr B.'s, and which I particularly admired, my praise of which he always seemed to be particularly pleased with, and there is one of great severity which I have always attributed to his friend.'
"Of Mr Grattan's private life there is but little generally known, because little had occurred in it to interest attention. It had passed on in a smooth manner, marked equally by the practice of every conjugal and domestic virtue. In his private intercourse, Mr Grattan displayed manners that were in a high degree pleasing. Wit he seemed not to possess, and he had a cast of mind too lofty for humour; but if he did not set the table in a roar,' or dazzle with the radiance of fancy, he diffused over the convivial hour the mild charms of good humour, and softened society with unassuming gentleness.
"As a public speaker, Mr Grattan ranked in the highest class. In his orations there is a grandeur which marks a mind of superior order, and enforces at once reverence and admiration. On every subject which he treats, he throws a radiance that enlightens without dazzling; and while it assists the judgment, delights the imagination. His style is always peculiar, for it varies its character with the occasion. At one time close and energetic, it concentrates the force of his argument, and compels conviction; at another, diffuse, lofty, and magnificent, it applies itself to every faculty of the mind, charms our fancy, influences our will, and convinces our understanding. At all times his manner was animated with a pleasing warmth, which rendered it impossible to hear him without interest; but on some occasions he exerted a power which was irresistible. Prostitution, under his influence, forgot for a moment the voice of the minister; and place, pension, and peerage, had but a feeble hold even of the most degenerate.'
On the 14th of June, according to the practice of the house, Sir James Mackintosh rose to move, that the speaker should issue a new writ for the election of a citizen to serve in parliament for the city of Dublin, in the room of the late Right Hon. Henry Grattan, deceased. He said it had been the custom to limit addresses delivered upon occasions similar to the present, to cases of death occurring under peculiar circumstances, or in the public service. Excepting in cases of considerable merit, that limit had not been exceeded; and in this particular he thought parliament had acted rightly. The honourable and learned gentleman, after adverting to the nature and character of those cases,
1 The reader may contrast with this eulogy of Sir Richard Phillips, the following account of Grattan's displays in parliament by an anonymous writer:-" You saw a little, oddly-compacted figure of a man, with a large head and features, such as they give to pasteboard masks, or stick upon the shoulders of Punch in the puppet-show, rolling about like a mandarin, sawing the air with his whole body from head to foot,— sweeping the floor with a roll of parchment which he held in one hand, and throwing his legs and arms about like the branches of trees tossed by the wind; every now and then striking the table with impatient vehemence, and in a sharp, slow, nasal, guttural tone, drawling forth with due emphasis and discretion a set of little smart antithetical sentences, all ready cut and dry, polished and pointed, that seemed as if they would lengthen out in succession to the crack of doom. Alliterations were tacked to alliterations, inference was dove-tailed into inference, and the whole derived new brilliancy and piquancy from the contrast it presented to the uncouthness of the speaker, and the monotony of his delivery."
went on to observe, that it was hardly justifiable to address the house in that manner upon any case which did not possess, besides a character of transcendent merit, some particular and individual claims upon parliamentary consideration. While it was reasonably to be expected that, if these proceedings were prefaced in the manner in which he could wish to preface his present address, they should be of adequate importance and merit, he thought that there could be no reason to suspect the sincerity of any part of the house in giving their concurrence to them; and he would add, that in speaking of names so celebrated, they must act under the peculiar disadvantage of speaking, as it might be said, in the presence of posterity, which must review, and might reverse, their decision. Having stated these conditions, he had only to add the name of Grattan, and the house must be convinced that he was justified in this view of the subject. The first of those peculiar claims, in the present instance, was to be traced in the most memorable occasion of Mr Grattan's life. As far as he knew, Mr Grattan was the only man of this age who had received a parliamentary reward for services rendered in parliament, although he was then only a private gentleman without civil or military honours. He was the only person to whom such a recompense had been voted under such honourable circumstances. It was now nearly forty years since the commons of Ireland voted an estate for him and for his family, not indeed as a recompense, because it was wholly impossible to recompense such services,— but, as the vote itself expressed it, "as a testimony of the national gratitude for great national services." These were the words of the grant. He need not remind the house what those services were, or what were the peculiar terms on which they were acknowledged: the only thing necessary to be said was this, that he was the founder of the liberties of his country. He found that country a dependent province upon England, and he made her a friend and an equal; he gave to her her native liberties, and he called to the enjoyment of their freedom a brave and generous people. So far as he knew, this was the only man recorded in history who had liberated his country from the domination of a foreign power, not by arms and blood, but by his wisdom and eloquence. It was his peculiar felicity that he enjoyed as much consideration in that country, whose power over his own he had done his utmost to decrease, as he enjoyed in that for which he had achieved that important liberation. But there were still more peculiar features in the general character and respect which he was so fortunate as to maintain in both kingdoms. It must be admitted that no great political services could be rendered to mankind without incurring a variety of opinions, and of honourable political enmities. It was then to be considered as the peculiar felicity of the man whose loss they deplored, that he survived them for a period of forty years: he survived till the mellowness of time, and the matured experience of age, had subdued every feeling of hostility, and had softened down every political enmity. If it were possible that in that divided assembly any honour could now be paid to that exalted individual equal to that which he had enjoyed in life, it would be clearly that which should be an unanimous recognition of his meritorious character. He need not remind the house, that the name of Grattan would occupy a great space in the page of history; for it would be connected with the greatest events of
the last century. Fertile as the British empire had been in great men during our days, Ireland had undoubtedly contributed her full share of them. But none of these,-none of her mighty names,-not even those of Burke and Wellington,—were more certain of honourable fame, or would descend with more glory to future ages than that of Grattan. He had not touched, neither did he intend to touch upon any question which might have a tendency to provoke political discussion; he meant no allusion which should apply to any opinions entertained by honourable gentlemen; but he might be allowed to observe that those opinions of his great public services which had obtained for Mr Grattan the gratitude of his country in the year 1782, were totally distinct from those which might be formed upon other subsequent acts of his, and particularly as regarded the union; for whatever those latter opinions might be, this at least was certain,-that no safe and lasting union could be formed between the two countries till they met upon equal terms, and as independent nations. What Mr Grattan said, therefore, of the union-which he trusted might be lasting to eternity-was this, -that instead of receiving laws from England, the Irish members in this country would now take their full share and equal participation of the duties of legislation, and of the conduct of the affairs of both kingdoms. It resulted, therefore, that the reward which Mr Grattan had formerly received was equally good and merited, and that he was still equally entitled to the approbation of his countrymen. If he might be permitted to mention the circumstance, he would observe that there was one strong peculiarity in Mr Grattan's parliamentary history, which was, perhaps, not true of any other man who ever sat in that house. He was the sole person in the history of modern oratory, of whom it could be said that he had obtained the first class of eloquence in two parliaments, differing from each other in their opinions, tastes, habits, and prejudices, as much possibly as any two assemblies of different nations. He was confessedly the first orator of his own country. He had come over to this country at the time when the taste of that house had been rendered justly severe by its daily habit of hearing speakers such as the world had never before witnessed. He had therefore to encounter great names on the one hand, and unwarrantable expectations on the other. These were his difficulties, and he overcame them all. He surpassed his friends' expectations, and he made others bend to the superiority of his genius, who had, perhaps, formed a very different estimation of his powers. This great man died in the attempt to discharge his parliamentary duties. He did not, indeed, die in that house, but he died in his progress to the discharge of those duties. He expired in the public service, sacrificing his life with the same willingness and cheerfulness with which he had ever devoted his exertions to the same cause. It was not for him to define what those services and exertions were. He called on no man to remodel or to alter his former opinions, relative to that great measure which Mr Grattan was about once more to propose to them; but he would only mention that Mr Grattan considered it in the same light as he had always done. Mr Grattan risked his life to come into that house for the purpose of so proposing it, because he believed that it would be the means of healing the long-bleeding wounds of his suffering country;-of establishing peace and harmony in a kingdom whose independence he had himself
achieved ;—of transmitting to posterity, with the records of her political, the history of her religious liberation ;-of vindicating the honour of the Protestant religion;—of wiping from it the last stain that dimmed its purity, and of supporting the cause of religious liberty, whose spirit went forth in emancipated strength at the Revolution, although its principle was long unknown to the reformers themselves. There was one important circumstance in the case of Mr Grattan, which was well entitled to observation: his was a case without alloy; it was an unmixed example for the admiration of that house. The purity
of his life was the brightness of his glory. He was one of the few private men whose private virtues were followed by public fame; he was one of the few public men whose private virtues were to be cited as examples to those who would follow in his public steps. He was as eminent in his observance of all the duties of private life as he was heroic in the discharge of his public ones. Among those men of genius whom he had the happiness of knowing he had always found a certain degree of simplicity accompanying the possession of that splendid endowment; but among all the men of genius he had known he had never found such native grandeur of soul accompanying all the wisdom of age, and all the simplicity of genius, as in Mr Grattan. He had never known one in whom the softer qualities of the soul had combined so happily with the mightier powers of intellect. In short, if he were to describe his character briefly, he should say, "Vita innocentissimus; ingenio florentissimus; proposito sanctissimus." As it had been the object of his life, so it was his dying prayer that all classes of men might be united by the ties of amity and peace. The last words which he uttered were, in fact, a prayer that the interests of the two kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland might be for ever united in the bonds of affection; that they might both cling to their ancient and free constitution; and—as most conducive to effect both these objects-that the legislature might at length see the wisdom and propriety of adopting a measure which should efface the last stain of religious intolerance from our institutions. He trusted that he should not be thought too fanciful if he expressed his hope that the honours paid to Mr Grattan's memory in this country might have some tendency to promote the great objects of his life, by showing to Ireland how much we valued services rendered to her, even at the expense of our own prejudices and pride. The man who had so served her must ever be the object of the reverential gratitude and pious recollection of every Irishman. When the illustrious dead of different kingdoms were at length interred within the same cemetery, there would seem to be a closer union between them than laws and nations could effect; and whenever the remains of the great man should be carried to that spot where slept the ashes of kindred greatness, those verses might be applied to him which had been elicited on another occasion of public sorrow from a celebrated poet, who resembled Mr Grattan in nothing but this, that to a beautiful imagination he united a spotless purity of life:
'Ne'er to these chambers where the mighty rest,