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in readiness to join them with other Regiments, fpreading a Report that he was going in Perfon.
If the Duke of* Milan had been faithfully ferved by his Generals and the Governors of his Towns, he had given fo good Orders, and taken fuch proper Measures, that, notwithstanding the great Superiority of the Forces against him, the French and Venetians would have been hard put to it to have penetrated far into his Country, and in all probability their Campaign would have ended with only taking fome few Places upon the Frontiers; but the Cowardice of fome of the Commanders, and the Treachery of others haftened his Ruin. Several Fortreffes, capable of refifting the Enemy, furrendered immediately; Valencia was delivered up to Trivulca by the Governor; Tortona opened its Gates at the first Summons; Alexandria, the strongest Town in the whole Dutchy, except Milan, hardly held out at all, owing to the Count de Cajazza, who betrayed his Master, and foon after entered into the French Service, which spread a Confternation throughout the Milanefe.
The Dutchy of Milan lieth in the Eaft, Mantua and Parma in the West, Piedmont, and fome Part of Switzerland, one of the Provinces of the Alps, in the North, and on the South Part the Apennine, which parts it from the Republick of Genoa. The Revenue is computed at above a Million of Ducats; in which are one Archbishop, and fix Bishops. This Dutchy, with other States of Italy, are now enjoyed by the prefent Queen of Hungary; and tho' large Kingdoms and Provinces came to the Emperor Charles the Vth, in Right of his Mother, Time has fo altered the Cafe, that, by the
Death of the Emperor Charles the VIth, without Iffue Male, the Auftrian Family is now centered in the Female Line; and, by Virtue of the Pragmatick Sanction, the Kingdoms and Territories the Emperor poffeffed at his Death (fave the Empire) are defcended to the faid Queen, his eldest Daughter; and which Princefs, before her Father's Death, married the Duke of Lorain, who furrendred up his antient Dominions to the French for Tuscany, &c. and is now ftiled Great Duke of Tuscany, and her Hungarian Majefty was, Mar. 2, 1741, delivered of a Prince, en titled the Arch-duke.
Then the French Generals advanced to Mortara, whither the Inhabitants of Pavia came to capitulate, and furrendered up their City; most of the other Towns revolted, and received the French Army; and even Milan itself held out but a very little Time. The Venetians, on the other hand, advancing to the Cremonois, made themselves Masters of feveral Places about the Adda.
Wretched Ludovic, finding his Condition defperate, and that his own Subjects were in the Intereft of his Enemies, faw it was in vain to contend, quitted the Dutchy with his Family, September 2d, and escaped to Infpruck, having only the Castle of Milan, and a few Towns left. This Fortrefs he committed to the Care of Bernardino de Cortê, and ftored it with all Things neceffary to fuftain a long Siege, and, to encourage him therein, he promised to return fpeedily with Succours that he did not doubt of railing in Germany.
But, as foon as Ludovic's Retreat was known, most of the remaining Towns, that had ftood out for their Sovereign, offered to receive the French; fo that they had nothing to do but to take Poffeffion wherever they came. The Inhabitants of Cremona, obferving the Difpofition of their Fellow-fubjects, offered likewife to furrender to them, which they refufed to accept of, because the Venetians, by the Treaty, were to have that Part of the Country.
Bernardino de Corte foon forgot his Mafter, and delivered up the Castle of Milan, without fo much as a Discharge of the Cannon, having fold the Place for Money.
Miferai fays, That Bernard's Treachery appeared ugly, nay, even horrible to the very Purchasers, and which loaded and cloathed the Seller with fo • much Shame, that he died with it about ten or twelve Days afterwards.'
In fhort, this great Conqueft took up but twenty Days.
Genoa, on this fudden Change of Affairs, fent Deputies with the Keys of their City to Count de Ligni, and fubmitted to Lewis the XIIth.
The King, during this Flow of Fortune, remained at Lyons, and, notwithstanding all the Care and Provifion that he had made, in order to fucceed in this Expedition, he could not reasonably expect fo fudden a Conqueft. As foon as he heard of the Surrender of the Castle of Milan, he went immediately to that City, and made a Publick Entry into it, October 14th, in a Ducal Habit, and ftaid there about three Months, which Time he employed in regulating the Affairs of the State; he took off a fourth Part of their Impofts; allowed Liberty of Hunting to the Nobles, which they had not before; and, thinking to make them more affectionate to his Service, he diftributed a confiderable Part of his Demefnes amongst them, particularly to Trivulca, one of his Generals, who he also made Governor of the Dutchy; and that of the Caftle he gave to the Baron d' Efpi; the Command of Genoa to the Lord Raveftein; and the other Towns belonging to thofe States he committed to Officers of known Valour and Fidelity.
Still it was a Matter of Surprize, that he trufted the Government of Milan to Trivulca, not that his Fidelity was to be queftioned, but because he was of a fierce, haughty, and violent Spirit, Qualities very improper fiftants, all fubject to a General Council of 400 Men. It has one Archbishop, fourteen Bishops, and is now a free Republick. They are great Remitters of Money to different Parts of the World, and of late Years have been the King of Spain's Bankers. It is faid of Lombardy, which Genoa is part, (together with Savoy, Piedmont, and other States) That as Italy is the Garden of Europe, fo Lombardy is the Garden of Italy.
Genoa lies Weft of Tuscany, from which it is divided by the River Macra. The Women here are privileged above all Italy, having Liberty to talk with the Men, and to be freely courted by them. From hence, and for fome other Realons, it has become a Proverb of this State, Mountains without Wood, Seas without Fih, Men without Faith, and Women without Shame. It is governed by a Duke with eight Af
proper to cement a new Government, and by which he foon made himself odicus to the People of Milan. All the Princes of Italy, except Frederick, congratulated Lewis on his good Succefs, and the Florentines propofed to affift him in the Conqueft of Naples; on Condition he would aid them to recover Pifa.
In order thereto, before Lewis left Milan, he gave Directions for part of his Troops to march under the Command of the Lord Beaumont to join the Florentines in fubduing that City; thefe Forces accordingly fet down before the Place, and made no less than three Affaults against it, and were as often beat off. The French finding the Florentines very remifs in fupplying them with Provifion, and feeing nothing before them but Stone Walls and Famine, Beaumont, without further Ceremony, drew off his Party, and returned to Milan.
But the Succefs, which attended Lewis in this Expedition against Milan, was by no means pleafing to Maximilian; he all of a fudden changed his Note, and gave out, that he would affift Ludovic with a confiderable Body of his Forces, in order to recover back his loft Dominions; and indefatigably laboured to raife up all the Princes of the Empire against France, by causing formal Reprefentations to be made to thofe Princes; wherein he fet forth the vast Ambition of the French Ling, the great Injury he had done the Empire in feizing on Milan, and that he defigned nothing lefs, than to get Poffeffion of all Ff Italy t
The Dukedom of Florence, or the Eftate of the Great Duke of Tuscany, as it is now called, is divided in the Eat from St. Peter's Patrimony. The Length of this State is 260 Miles, the Breadth in fome Places much inferior; the Revenues are very great, and here are three Arch
bishops, and twenty-fix Bishops. This Great Duke is in all h Dominions fupreme and abfolute Lord, and impoíes what Taxes and Gables he pleates on his Subjets. The Territories of Florence and Pifa are called the Old State; and that of Sienna the New State.
Italy: And the Sequel will fhew what became of this mighty Stir.
Now to attend Borgia: Soon after he arrived at Rome he acted his Part, the Pope fupplying him with vaft Sums of Money, and, having imprifoned those of the Family of Sforza that remained and fell into his Hands, he made himfelf Mafter of all the Cities of La Romagna, except Bologna, and banished or murdered their antient Lords.
He feized upon Forli and Imola, and caufed the poor young Riari, their Lords, to fly for Safety into diftant Countries, and took Catherine, their Mother, and fent her in Difgrace to Rome: From thence he paffed to Faenza, which City he took by Force, and put to Death Aftor Manfredi, its Lord; he did the fame by Armino and Pefaro, forcing Malatesta and John Sforza to fly, in order to avoid the Cruelty they were fure to undergo; then he befieged Siniguglia, and took it by Force, committing infinite Acts of Inhumanity.
With the fame Courfe of Depredations, by Craft and Blood, his main Inftruments thro' his whole Proceedings, he deprived Montefeltri of the Dutchy of Urbin, making him fly to Mantua. Then he led his Banditti against the City of Camerino, which he took, and put to death Giulio Cefare and Varani in a most cruel Manner, who had been long in Poffeffion of it; and at 'laft fell to perfecuting all the neighbouring Princes: After he had fo done, he must needs return home, to give his Father an Account of his Actions, which was fo acceptable, that nothing would do but another Publick Entry: And
Valentinois entered Rome with a magnificent Attendance. As he paffed by the Caftle of St. Angelo, fuch Honours were paid him as never were known before, the whole Garrifon being ordered to ftand under Arms as he paffed along. On the Walls and Ramparts were plared Enfigns and Colours flying,