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of Anżasca form the handle. The nearly horizontal, but they rise a few principal place of the village of Ma- degrees towards the south. The head cugnaga, according to this idea, is of the White Pic is almost insulated: fituated in the interior part of the but its base and its body adhere on the racket, but near its boundary, or ra- eaft and west to the chain of Mount ther that part of the disc which Rose ; and on the north to a mountain joins its bandle. The Alp of Pe- which projects to the interior of the driolo is on the opposite fide. The circle. This mountain is the Cichudiameter of the circle, including fa, and it is, by following its afcent, half the thickness of the walls, is that a traveller can go from the pas, about two leagues.

tures of Pedriolo to the summit of The white Pic is not overlooked the pic. It is wholly composed of foby any mountain which can conceal liated rocks, of which some are beauthe plains of Italy; but during our au- tifully veined granites, hard and whit: thor's stay, a bluish vapour covered ith; others quartzy, micaceous, ferru. these plains, and a vast cloud, suspend- gineous stones, sometimes mixed with ed over the vault of heaven, formed schorl, and occasionally with plumbaan immense curtain, which concealed go: They found also a ftratum of all this profpe&t. “ At times, this calcareous stone, like that which occurtain seemed to break, and through curred at Siinplon, and like it, boundthe rents we saw sometimes lake Major, ed on each side by rocks, supposed to fometimes the Teslin, then the Na. be primitive. viglio grande ; but we could dif- The veined granites of this moons tinguish neither Milan Dor Padua, tain are mixed occasionally with solid nor any city of Lombardy, which granite, and the fame block is someare fufficiently conspicuous in clear times found to contain each kind; but weather.” Thé ftructure of the moun- they observed a very singular pherotains which separated them from the menon. In a great mass, the middle plains, was not remarkable. The was of veined well characterized gras highest was Tagliaferro; its form that nite, while the two external surfaces of a sharp pyramid, and its point scarce. were of maffy granite. M. Warner, ly less elevated than that of the White we understand, has a large mass of Pic: it is bare of snow, which is to true granite, in which are very dif. be attributed to the steepness of its tinct rounded stones in some places, Gides; the height is 1594 toifes. pretty large, of gneiss. We have In their delceat, the travellers had mentioned

formerly having seen mas time to examine the nature of the ses of granite in granite, but we do not rock more particularly. Its top is recollect that the included stones were partly composed of granite veined in of the gneiss kind: and those too were twisted laminæ, filled with large crys- not rounded. The latitude of Mount stals of feld spath; and partly of a fo- Rofe is 46° 0' 10". Its longitude liated rock, composed of thin plane could not be determined on account leaves. The strata, we have said, are of the cloudy weather.


Account of the Czar Peter III. by the King of Sweden. HIS prince; who for fome time through the medium of the calumnies

was only known in Europe, of his affaflins—this prince; born and VolXII. No.70.

educated • Danger of the Political Balagcc of Europe,

educated in Germany, had all the in. Turkish negociations, or the caprici.
clinations of his native country, and, ous motions of the Khan of the Tare
a contempt for his new subjects.- tars.
Maiter of Holstein, a member conse- The first misfortune of this prince
quently of the German empire, he ad. (Peter III.) was, to be adopted by E.
ded weight to the Ruslian crown, in- lizabeth to mount the throne one day.
terfered in the German system, in his The second, to have been led from
own personal right, and fortified his Holstein, to become a slave at Eliza-
influence with new alliances with the beth's court; and his wife was the
northern powers. Happily, this pro- third misfortune. His Imperial aunt
fpect did not inspire him with ambi- ed the crown by a revolution
tion; he was influenced only by a stained with injustice, and was always
just resen: ment against Denmark, and in dread of a counter-revolution; her
by his friendship for Frederick the nephew was a prisoner of state. The
Grea. Policy leagued with his mo- cabinet was barred, and its councils
deration. For, the ruinous war wliich were concealed; all intercourse was
Elizabe:h waged against the king of suspected with him; his German fer-
Prussia, bad cost her three hundred vants were deprived of the comforts
thousand men, and above thirty mil- of his conversation, and their attach-
lions of roubles.

ment was a principle of disgrace ;
Though the third Peter had no o. surrounded by enemies, the right of
ther citie to public esteem than that approach was only given to spies, ob-
of saving a prince, upon whose prefer- servers, and betrayers of his converfa.
vation the maintenance of the politi- tion_his matrimonial misunderstand.
tal equilibre depended, his memory ing left the prince without domestic
should be regarded and esteemed. In confolation, and reviewing fome troops
some venal writings, the productions at Orienabaum, became his only re-
of fanciful historians, his attachment creation.
to the king of Prussia was ridiculed His complaints gave rise to an in-
as the effect of enthusiasm, and the trigue, which serves to lead us thro'
puerile love of emulation :—but as, the mazes of those deplorable events,
furedly an enthusiasm for, and admira- which uliimately deprived the emper.
tion of, the qualities of a man, who or of his scepter, and of his life.
wrought, such prodigies of wisdom The chancellor Bestuchef, the great
and intrepidity, was very excusable-confidant of Elizabeth, was the Grand
and the heroism of friendship is a rare Duke's avowed enemy; his insolence
quality amongit kings.

in coptriving mortifications, made him This profound respect, and regard, tremble at the profpe&t of a new reign; for Frederick the Great, demonftrat. he formed the project of substituting ed judgment and sensibility in the the prince Paul, son of Catharine the third Peter; the enemies of Prussia, Second, under her regency, in the at Petersburg, had signalized them- place of Peter the Third. Bestuselves, by the perfecution of the young chef presupposed the success of his ezar, during the reign of Elizabeth. plot, from a multitude of groundless This prince had accordingly counter- calumnies against the Grand Duke, acted their measures, and liis fubfe- and the favourable reception of Eliquent conduct, in supporting the king zabeth; and, lastly, upon the intention of Prussia, vias perfectly consistent of Catharine to deprive her husband This last monarch was now in dans of the crown, and to appropriate the ger; the new English minister (Lord' regency to herself. It would be preBute) threatened him with desertion, sumptuous to advance, that this prinand his fafety seemed to depend on his cess was concerned in this plot - but


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assuredly Bestuchef must have believ- lities of his government were justice ed it, or he never would have en- and clemency- and his magnanimity countered her resistance. Elizabeth, to fome Prullian officers, whom the doubtful at first, resumed a more dig- fortune of war had deprived of libernified conduct, and supported her ne- ty, and who groaned in extreme serphew against the chancellor ; and an vitude, is too well known to be reincautious expression of the empress corded. Elizabeth is itill cited, I know my The commencement of his reign nephew,' said she one day, to the flan- promised zeal for promoting order, derers of the prince, I have nothing and discovered application, vigilance, to fear from a good heart, I am not and activity-he was early at the seso well acquainted with my niece. nate, at the different offices, and set

Bestuchef, afterwards disgraced by an example of industry, by his superElizabeth, was excepted out of the intendance in various departments : ampefty; upon the acceflion of the the first Peter was his model, and his third Peter ; but apon the indulgence plans formed the chart of his legislaof Catharine, he was recalled from ex- tion-to him Russia owes the wiseft ile.

ordinances which have decorated that The preceding facts, which repose government. upon the authority of authentic hifto- Not satisfied with limiting the defrians, describe the first clouds of that potism of his officers, he abridged his tempest, in which the third Peter was own power, by abolishing the secret lavolved; prudence could alone pre- council of chancery, a state inquisiserve him from the rocks and break- tion, which, upon the least suspicion, ers thruugh which he passed ;-but imprisoned, tortured, or executed, naamongst his other virtues, he found tives and strangers. He was a warm one, namely, confidence, which cauf- friend to toleration ; and he framed ed his destruction.

that memorable decree which enfrana Notwithstanding the reproaches chised the nobles from compulsive term justly cast upon that monarch, from vice, and pernitted them to travel, the excess of his good qualities, spite without the royal permission. of the blame with which he is at- These traiis exhibit the character tacked, upon the unfortunate career of Peter III. in a new point of view, of his debaucheries, and of the Nan- and afford a very striking example of Lers which hatred and remorse have the light that is usually thrown on attached to his memory, few prioces truth by time. have began to reign with more wil- Precipitation, however, the king dom; his first public actions expiated of Sweden obferves, accompanied some the defects of many preceding years, of his falutary innovations; particuand they had only fix mon:hs dura. larly those relating to the clergy; tion.

which, though just, reasonable, and Siberia, and the state prisons, were political in themselves, shocked the filled with distinguished captives, vic- cuftoms and manners of the country, tims of the favourites, and ministers and furnished pretexts for rendering of Elizabeth—the emperor redressed his government unpopular. their wrongs-tbe illuitrious Munich The regiments of lsmailoff and Prewas recalled, and reinstated-Biron, obrazinski, formed a body of guards, Leftock, and some of those who had of- in barracks in Petersburg, licentious fended him in the late reign, were re- and ill disciplined, their want of subftored to liberty, by a prince who ex- ordination enervated their loyalty; tended his clemency to the infolent and in former revolutions they were favourites of his aunt—the first qua- fold to the highest purchaser. 'Peter


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Account of the Czar Peter HI. by the King of Sweden, the Third conceiving, that a rigorous favours were lavished; at the end of discipline would secure their obedi- fix months, he experienced a fare, ence, and prevent the disorders of a which ten years stained with crimes, body so badly organized, be introdu- and with tyranny, could have scarceced the Prussian discipline, modelled ly justified, them after his Holstein guards, and Our author having detailed the insecured order by severity : had this trigues that led to the death of the discipline been firmly established, their Czar, says, fidelity would have been secured ; cor- * To his last day, even to his lali ruption is difficult in a corps inured boar, Peter preserved his magnanito the daily detail of their duty; but mous, fatal securiiy, and confdeace; the reformation was of necessity en- his Ruslian guards were corrupted by trusted to German, in preference to Orlof, and Rozamousky ; Catberine Russian, officers. These strangers was mistress of the Capital, and his were considered as usurpers; their fa- officers were seduced by landers avour became the object of ridicule, gainst their sovereign. Already had and the national troops were insti- the confpirators impiously counteractgated to revolt, by the ignorant pride ed their fidelity, by swearing and of being offended at foreign inftruc. binding themselves in the most fotion.

lemn mapper, to commit bigh trea. When we refled, that many of these fon--and the archbishop of Novogowise regulations were in that short pe- rod, ibat fanatic incendiary, whom riod of lix months, which put a peri- the clemency of Peter had pardonod to the reign of their author, we are ed, presided in the folempization of affected by pity, and with horror." this ceremony, under the auspices of

Some of these innovations deserve the Emprefs. At leogth the Em fublic gratitude, others, the reproach peror's friends were arrefted, and of precipitation--though a sovereign ihe people were deceived by the despot, this prince excelled in acts of artful reports, that the Prince had died bounty, and of justice. His enter- by a fail from his horfe, before Peter prizes against Denmark were more suspended the enterfrize at Petersnatural, and less pernicious, than the burg. war againft Pruslia, fostered by the "He was then at the Orienabaum. personal hatred of Elizabeth, and her Spite of the bateness and servile inkminister. The private life of Peter, delity of many nobles, of military it is true, was disfigured by the excef- and civil officers, he had still some ses of the table, which ultimately resolute friends,--the chancellor of might have rendered him contemp- Woronzof, the various mareschal

but where is the king, or the Munich, and his faithful Holleia individual, whore infirmities are not troops ;-affairs were not yet defperelieved by fome good qualities ? rate—the intrepid Munich counselDoes not equity hold the balance of led Peter to march direaly to Peteria good, and of bad qualities - If the burgh, at the head of the German virtues and defects of the Einperor troops :—“I shall precede you," said were weighed, who is there could juf- the generous veteran," and my dead tity his dethronement, and his death? body shall be a rampart to your sacred Is the least equality visible, between perfon.” Polhibly such a resolution the discontents he produced, and his would have crushed the conspirators ; unfortunate exit? A warm friend, a the same fervile fpirit which had good father, an indulgent husband, prostrated the nobles, the people, and but too easy, too confident, and too o. the foldiery, would have reduced themi çen to those traitors, upon whom his to their lawful fovereign, marching to



vindicate his crown with his sword, Papin, that frivolous and versatile and with the abilities of Munich. minister, loaded with praises by hirc.

“ But, alas ! irresolution superced- ling gazetteers--that Panin, who had ed courage ; not that Peter wanted dared to dictate to his master, and spirit, but he was distracted by dis- benefactor, to a favereign, who was cordant councils—in his train were a prisoner, an act of abdication, and emiffaries of the Empress, bathing the of dishonour; an act conceived in bands of this prince with deceitful the most humiliating exprellionstears, affecting to reprefent the dangers that Parin, in fine, who forced the he incurred, and inviting him to the descendant of Peter the First to Empress, and deprecating relistance. take his oath in the presence of the This perfidy accomplished what treach. Almighty, and renounce his crown, ery had commenced ; and thus Peter, to sign with his own hard fuch a furrounded by tra tors, was entangled monument of audaciousness, and ins in their snares, and a prey to uncer famy. tainty, when every moment was pre

Notwithstanding this abdication, cious, and called for decision. which served as a new title for pre

“ Europe, and posterity, will never fersing his life, and liberty, the emi forget the cruel fate of this monarch, peror, that very night, was confined in the flower of his age-dragged io- in the castle of Robscha. Whilft her to captivity, and expiring in the fe- husband entered this tomb, the emrocious bands of his wife, and his press furprised Petersburgh with the own confidents. The humane com- poise and buftle of a triumphal entry. passionated his misfortunes; and none " But this pegeant was not suffwere insensible of his sufferings, fave cient to stifte the sensibility of the only those from whom he had a claim multitude; disloyalty, in a vast numto succour and to confolation, ber of them, was rapidly succeeded

"On the contrary, outrages of every by remorse, and by compassion. The kind were offered to himn : by deliver- people, who are always good, when ing himself up voluntarily to her, who, left to their natural impulfe, were during fourteen years, had the hon- fhocked at hearing that their sovereign our to be the partner of his bed, it had just passed from a throne, into seemed he was protected by all that the horrors of an eternal prison. The is most facred amongst nien. His foldiery manifested their emotions, person, committed to the discretion every one was affe&ted by the rememof the Empress, became a depofit, up: brance of Peter's virtues, and his on which it was no longer permitted faults were forgotten, as the difpleato form attacks--it neither belonged fure hourly increased; the Empress to his enemies, by the rights of war, was threatened with a frightful renor by that of the laws; and from verse ...... But let us draw a veil the moment Peter had surrendered, over this melancholy scene, which put without compullion, every abode of an end to his inquietudes; let us not Catherine should have been an in- repeat, that the seventh day of his violable asylum for him :- alas! captivity, Peter the Third was no this illusion, by which he had been more; that he contended for his undazzled, was of a short duration. happy life, with the ferocious cour

“ He had been defamed by a ma- tiers who penetrated into the fornifesto of June the twenty eighth ;, tress ; that the screams of his convulbardly arrived at Peterhof, he became live agonies were so that two days a prisoner, and felt the humiliation after, fonje strangers saw the walls of being secretly visited by count stained with the Emperor's blod;


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