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that are wasted. The land is waste, and all that is therein is desolate.' Who can behold the fields of Misraim, once swarming with a wise and enlightened nation, but now with a people writhing beneath the cursed despotism of a tyrannical power, under whose pernicious system of government, justice has given way to extortion and rapine, whilst poverty and wretchedness rise pre-eminent, the fruit of wanton oppression—who, I say, can behold this, and not call to mind the declaration against her prosperity, from the most high God, by the mouths of his prophets ? Pharaoh, king of Egypt, was, like the Assyrian, ‘Fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches. The cedars of the garden of God could not hide him; the fir-trees were not like his boughs, and the chesnut trees were not like his branches, nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty.' But now Egypt is 'sold unto the hands of wicked.'-p. 156.

In every part of this volume we find abundant proofs of an attentive perusal of the sacred books, by an appropriate application of the inspired text. Our author, however, knows how to variate his narrative according to circumstances; and the natural liveliness of his temper does not desert him, even in the dark catacombs of the pyramids, where the reader follows him with intense interest, either in his chase for a specimen of the numerous bats that inhabit these shady regions, or in his search for mummied Ibis, or anything which could help to unravel the mysterious secrets of those incomprehensible hieroglyphs. In a corner (of one of the pyramids of Saccara previously explored by Colonel Howard Wise,) stood a young lady mummy, to whom offering my arm, I led her forth, with the intention of transmitting her to England; but creeping out of the confined entrance, her head unfortunately came in rude contact with the side wall, and rolled off ; upon which my gallantry led me to carry her back to her former position, where, putting her head on again, as neatly as I could, we parted.'

His visit to the convent of Sinai is not the least amusing of our tourist's narratives. His introduction into the monastery is thus given :

• Onward we went, and passing up the narrow way leading to the convent, after crossing the plain Er Rahah, we soon were beneath the walls of the sacred building, and shouting lustily, a monk presently replied, and, after peering forth from the little trap door, with an eye of suspicion, he ventured to open it, so as to receive from us a letter from the branch convent at Cairo ; which potent document being delivered, by means of a rope let down for the purpose, he read it, and again lowering the same rope with a cross stick attached, very similar to an antiquated broomstick, we, one after another, sitting astride upon it, were hauled up thirty feet of wall, and embraced by Father Nico. demus, the head of the convent, a noble-looking man of good stature,

and adorned with a magnificent beard of spotless white. The process of arriving at this peculiar portal of the convent, requires a little attention on the part of the person ascending ; otherwise he is liable, much to the disturbance of his dignity, to spin round and round, like a joint of meat on a bottle-jack—now his back against the wall, and now his face! Whether the Oriental who preserves, with so much care, his long lock of hair as a hoisting rope to Paradise, considers the strange evolutions he will be liable to perform, I know not ; but our ascent to the convent's seventh heaven, totally overturned that becoming demeanour with which one would wish to greet a venerable host ; for, after many vain kicks and struggles, effecting the landing, we were half smothered in the old gentleman's arms, before quite assured that we had ' found our own legs.''-p. 320.

Without discussing Mr. Borrer's opinion (offered with becoming modesty) regarding Professor Robinson's hypothesis, as to the true site of the passage of the Israelites across this gulf, our limits compelling us to refrain from following him too closely, we will at once proceed to his account of Syria, where he dashes over the ground, rapidly recording his impressions and adventures by the way. Of the latter, the most stirring is what he relates, as befalling his party at Hebron, one scene alone from which we can insert. After mentioning an attempt to assassinate a servant of the party, and their presenting themselves to the governor of the city, vigorously demanding the arrest of the criminal, we find them stationed in a divan, in the governor's house, alike deaf to subterfuges and entreaties to depart, and here the following scene took place.

• The hours were rapidly flying on: a mysterious silence pervaded the crowd without, and no governor appeared. Anxious to proceed on our journey, our patience began to Aug, and our suspicions to increase, that something unpleasant was hatching for us; when suddenly a sound was heard approaching—a great bustling, in the outer court. Grasping our arms, we started on our feet, deeming the climax at hand; when, to our utter amazement, thirteen aged Israelites, with long white beards and flowing robes, chief rabbis of the synagogue of Hebron, shuffled into the room, and scrambling up to the divan, seized and hugged us in their arms, kissed our hands, our feet, and the lowest hem of our garments, put their fingers to their eyes, (by which we were to infer that we were as dear to them as the apple of the eye), and bowed to the ground, with a motion of throwing dust upon their heads. Then, rending their garments, they took up a lamentation and bitter wailing, accompanied with most urgent prayers, beseeching us to relent from our purpose, and leave the ity, out of compassion to them; for otherwise, when we were gone, the moslems would wreak their rage on them, because we were lodging in their quarter. The sudden and affectionate descent of these venerabie old

gentlemen upon us, for a time stupified us. For my own part, I was so out of breath, with struggling in the embrace of an ancient patriarch, who had run me up into a corner, that when escaped from the tempest of his affection well nigh smothered, and gasping thanksgiving for ultimate deliverance, I sat me down again upon the carpet, and seizing a cup half full of sherbet quaffed deeply, leaving the rest of the party to make the best of it they could. Quiet somewhat succeeding this extraordinary scene, we assured our venerable assailants that our regret would be very great, if we should risk bringing evil on their heads; but the present case being one which concerned not only ourselves; but all future travellers in these regions, it was but a necessary act of justice and precaution to protect our servants; we could not, therefore, forego our intention of punishing the criminal, if possible. They said no more, but groaning, in the bitterness of their hearts, rose and went their ways.'-p. 459.

The details of this adventure are as extraordinary and curious, as any thing of the kind we have for a long time met with, in any book of travels. Mr. Borrer, in its relation, takes the opportunity of moralizing upon the present state of the Jews in Palestine.

• What more forcible illustration of the humiliating and degraded state of the people of God beneath the tyranny of the worst of the heathen,' who now possess their fatherland, could have been offered us, than that painful scene we had this day beheld? Those amongst them standing highest in their veneration, for authority, learning, possessions, and years, forced before us, to crave, with trembling and every sign of humble supplication, for favour towards their haughty oppressors! What a train of meditation, upon the present debased state of that marvellous people, did this scene fire! Their 'plagues' have indeed been wonderful and great, and of long continuance ; and well may they be mad for the sight of their eyes that they do see.'-p. 465.

The chapter in which our author describes the modern Jerusalem, and the impression made upon his mind, by the ruins which, on every spot of the sacred city, are stamped with super. natural grandeur, will be perused with deep interest. We will give a last quotation :

• The sun shone brightly over the western slope of the Mount of Olives, as, early in the day, we passed through St. Stephen's gate; and, resting for a moment, on the brow of the descent into the Valley of Jehosbaphat, looked down, upon the bed of that brook, which our Saviour had so often crossed, and beheld, upon its opposite bank, the ancient olive trees, descendants of those which graced the garden that he loved—the garden of Gethsemane-that spot where, in retirement, he communed with his father in heaven, and with his humble followers, and apostles: that sacred spot, of which the Evangelist says, Jesus oft-time resorted thither with his disciples ;' and where the traitor Judas proved himself the chosen instrument to bring the Lamb to the slaughter.

. Proceeding down the steep side of the valley, we crossed the little bridge which spans the ancient bed of the brook, at that time perfectly dry; and, leaving the tomb of the holy family, (as Greek and Moslems are pleased to consider a square sunken court, with several excavations in it, and a chapel,) we reached the loose stone wall surrounding the garden of Gethsemane. The olive trees upon the spot are doubtless of great antiquity; for the olive, where it flourishes, (as those evidently have done, being fine grown trees) preserves its firm and healthy appearance for between two and three hundred years, it is said, without presenting that gnarled and worn trunk, which those of the garden of Gethsemane possess. The trees are but few, perhaps a dozen, certainly not more within the inclosure. Following a narrow path, between two walls, we found the end closed, and inquiring the reason, were informed that that was the accursed spot where the betrayer of Jesus said, 'Hail, Master, and kissed him.'

The heat was very great, as wending our way up the rugged path, we sought to gain the church of the Ascension, on the central summit of Olivet, where, at last, we arrived ; but not without having tarried a moment at that spot pointed out as where the Son of God wept over the fate of the beloved city, the joy of the whole earth, beholding Zion with his prophetic vision, as a ploughed field, and Jerusalem heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of the forest.' Yes! that glorious city, with her domes and palaces, presenting a noble panorama, a city rejoicing in her strength and her uneqalled beauty ; to all other eyes a very emblem of eternal prosperity, the vision of peace,' (as its Jebusite name intended) rejoicing in a well regulated government, in quietude and rest, free from external enemies and internal factions; to those inspired eyes, then gazing on her, lay enveloped in devouring fire, besieged by a fierce army, 'a nation from afar, from the end of the earth, a nation whose tongue they understood not, who would not regard the person of the old, nor show favour to the young;' her inhabitants frenzied by fierce dissensions, faction striving against faction, robbers, and zealots; blood drenching the very altars, brother contending with brother in ferocious combat, father with son, • Those eyes beheld them that did feed delicately, desolate in the streets; them that were brought up in scarlet, embracing dunghills ;'-—'the hands of the pitiful women soddening their own children ;' the whole city wrapped in fury, unheard of calamity, and dreadful tribulation; the abomination of desolation nigh at hand! for to him, 'the days of vengeance' were present, and his blood was on them and on their children.'-p. 406.

We need not go any further with our quotations to convince the reader that our sincere commendation of this book is well deserved, and that the young author who makes such a debut

Vol. XVII,

on the literary stage, gives hope of a most desirable addition, to the small band of sound minded and noble hearted writers, who have no other object in view but the gratification, the instruction, and the improvement of their fellowmen.

With another work, we should have mentioned the illustrations, which are perfect, but Mr. Borrer's journey did not want the assistance of the engraver.

Art. VIII.—The National Church, a mere Political Institution.

William Thorn. London: Jackson and Walford.


The epithet secular clergy as opposed to the regulars, in the church of Rome, is indicative of an error pervading that system of religion: which, not contented with isolating its parish priests into a religious caste or order, more holy than other christians, endeavours to rear a still purer body, quite uncontaminated by contact with the world. By teaching that the business of life is too unspiritual for a saint, it has given a licence of unspirituality to those who of necessity move in that common region; and has encircled its worthies with a halo of unearthly greatness in honour of their fantastical piety.

This is an error against which the reformers contended, not in vain. They not only exposed the vanity of monkish saintship and ceremonial observances, but plainly taught the true doetrine of Jesus, that religion is to leaven every occupation of life; and that the court, the parliament, the counting-house, the shop or the field, are as truly the sphere of christian holiness as the cloister or the church. The lesson is a most important one; but in practice admits of a perverse interpretation. It is possible so to justify the epithet 'secular' in its application to the clergy, as to leave them with no other character at all but a secular one. While maintaining that they are not to be excluded from an interest in literature and politics, or innocent amusements,—in the measure which becomes other christians, -it is possible practically to make out that the ball-room and the card-table, the theatre and the hunt, the club, the committeeroom and the hustings, are the most appropriate resorts of the teachers of religion. Zeal for the cultivation of their minds may end in regarding it as a highest qualification for a bishopric, to have edited Greek plays, or improved the astronomical calculus; and instead of demure ascetics, the clergy, under the

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