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205

Et, quantum longis carpent armenta diebus,
Exigua tantum gelidus ros nocte reponet.
Nigra fere et presso pinguis sub vomere terra,
Et cui putre solum,-namque hoc imitamur arando-
Optuma frumentis ; non ullo ex aequore cernes
Plura domum tardis decedere plaustra iuvencis;
Aut unde iratus silvam devexit arator
Et nemora evertit multos ignava per annos,
Antiquasque domos avium cum stirpibus imis
Eruit; illae altum nidis petiere relictis ;
At rudis enituit inpulso vomere campus.

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201, 202.] ‘Nay, all that your herds can ‘Namque hoc imitamur arando :' Col. (5. 4. devour on a summer's day will be replaced 2) quotes this line as meaning that the natuby the cold fresh dew of one short night.' ral character of the soil actually saves the This of course is an exaggeration. But manual labour of artificially loosening the Varro 1. 7 quotes a statement that in the earth (“pastinatio '). plains of Rosea in the ager Reatinus a pole 206.) •Tardis,' from the load they are left lying on the ground one day was over- drawing. “Tardis iuvencis' might perhaps grown by the next. 'Longis diebus' and be taken as an abl. of the agent, construing exigua nocte' are of course opposed. For “decedere' as a neuter passive. But it is

reponet' the Med. and one other Ms. better to take it as a modal ablative, or have 'reponit. Plaut. Pers. 1. 1. 37, “ Ut ablative of circumstance. mihi des nummos. . .•

Quos continuo tibi 207.] The meaning is that ground lately reponam hoc triduo."

cleared is another kind of soil which is good 203—225.] ' For corn-crops a dark, rich, for corn. • Aut' then refers grammatically crumbling soil is the best, or ground lately either to the sentencenigra fere,' &c., or eleared of trees. Gravelly soils yield but to 'non ullo ex aequore,' &c., the sense scantily—tufa and marl are infested by being the same either way. In the one snakes. But a grassy soil which imbibes case we supply 'optuma frumentis,' in the and exudes moisture readily will be good other .quam ex illo aequore, unde,' &c. for every thing, whether vines, olives, pas- Pliny (17. 4) denies the universal truth of ture, or corn.

this and most of the following signs. “Ira203.] • Nigra,' called pulla' by Cato 151 tus,' at the wood cumbering the ground. and Col. 2. 10, § 18, &c. “This is the There is a slight reference to . ignava' in colour of the land in Campania, and indi. the next line. •Devexit,' carted away.' cates the presence of decayed animal and 208.]. Unde' governs devexit' only, vegetable matter (Keightley). • Presso,' evertit' anderuit' being in material, but &c., which shows itself fat when the not in formal connexion with the previous ploughshare is driven into it.' Depresso clause. Comp. A. 4. 263, aratro," 1. 44. * Fere' goes with optuma munera Dido Fecerat et tenui telas disfrumentis.'

creverat auro." 204.] Putris' is clearly 'crumbling.'

Frondiferasque domos avium," Of.pinguis ' Virgil says below, v. 250, that · Lucr. 1. 18. it sticks to the fingers like pitch. It is hard 210.] ·Petiere ;' the tense does not detherefore to see how the same soil can be note rapidity, like .fugere ferae,' 1. 330, both ‘pinguis' and putris.' Yet Col. 2. and exiit'above, v. 81, but is determined 284, after referring to this passage, dis- by that of the preceding verbs. tinctly speaks of the best land as at once 211.] Pliny (17. 5) uses the words 'illa 'pinguis' and 'putris,' and of the next best post vomerem nitescens,' and quotes Hom. as pinguiter densus,' at the same time Il. 18. 547 for an actual shining appearance adopting, in a later part of the chapter, Vir- of the earth after the plough, though he gil's definition of pinguis ' just referred to. mistakes that passage, the point of which is The reference however may be merely to the supernatural appearance of blackness in the greasy look of the ground when turned gold, not the natural appearance of brightup, before it has been dried by the sun. ness in the earth. But it is safer to refer

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209.] “

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215

Nam ieiuna quidem clivosi glarea ruris
Vix humilis apibus casias roremque ministrat;
Et tofus scaber, et nigris exesa chelydris
Creta negant alios aeque serpentibus agros
Dulcem ferre cibum et curvas praebere latebras.
Quae tenuem exhalat nebulam fumosque volucris,
Et bibit humorem, et, cum volt, ex se ipsa remittit,
Quaeque suo semper viridis se gramine vestit,
Nec scabie et salsa laedit robigine ferrum,
Illa tibi laetis intexet vitibus ulmos,
Illa ferax oleae est, illam experiere colendo

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*enituit' to the trim appearance of the that the presence of tufa and marl is a sign newly reclaimed land, or perhaps of the that snakes haunt the place. rising crops, a sense supported by Attius in 216.] ‘Dulcem' is to be taken strictly; Cic. Tusc. 2. 5, “Probae etsi in segetem oti ydp yukcia, Geop. I. C.

• Aeque sunt deteriorem datae Fruges, tamen ipsae goes with .ferre' and 'praebere.' •Curvas' suapte natura enitent,” and by 1. 153 above, relates to the shape of the snake. “nitentia culta."

• Enituit,' like the prece- 217.) • Fumos' is the same thing as ding perfects, is aoristic. "At' is ó ôè, as "nebulam,' steam,' which rises in a thin

illae ' is ai uév. The birds fly and the field cloud. • Volucris' is equivalent to ' tenuis,' on which they lived so long brightens under as · lentus' or 'tardus' applied to vapour cultivation.

(A. 5. 682) is to spissus.' 212.] He gives the reason why he re- 218.] “Ex se ipsa remittit’ may refer to commends ground such as he has been exhalations, like the preceding verse, or to mentioning, because soil of a contrary exudations. character is far less productive. Nam- 219.] The best MSS., including Med. quidem,' .for as for gravel.' Quidem 'is and Rom., place semper' before the adnearly ye.

jective. • Viridis ’ is the reading of only one 213.] Casias:' see E. 2. 49. • Rorem,' MS. But where one word ended and the rosemary,' as in Pliny 24. 11. He men. next began with 's,' a transcriber might tions the bees as being part of a husband- naturally join the words, and write one's' man's care, anticipating, as it were, Book 4. instead of two, as is frequently the case in

214.] Tofus :' this is the orthography Med., so that viridise' may have stood for of the Med. and other MSS. Others write either viridis se' or viridi se.' • Viridis • tophus. It is a sort of volcanic sand- then will be taken closely with vestit,' as stone, “tufa.' Pliny 17. 4 and Col. 3. 11 if it had been “viridem.'' Wagn. compares say that soil where 'tufa' is found is not A. 1. 314, “mater sese tulit obvia,” and necessarily to be condemned. Chelydri,'a other passages. venomous snake of amphibious nature, men- 220.] The .scabies' is the effect of the tioned in Lucan 9. 711, where they are de- 'robigo' on the surface of the iron; “ scribed as 'tracti via fumante chelydri.' The bra robigine,” 1. 495. "Salsa,' because the name water-tortoise (xéduç ödwp) referred same saltness which would rust iron would to the hardness of the skin.

be unfavourable to produce: see vv. 237 215.] • Creta’ is generally rendered foll. It is opposed to dulci uligine laeta,' • chalk; but Col. in a passage referred v. 184. Pliny, 17. 4, says,

“ ferro omnis to on v. 180 identifies it with “argilla, qua (terra] robiginem obducit.” utuntur figuli.” For the notion that it was 221.] The emphatic words are laetis eaten by certain creatures Keightley refers vitibus. In prose it would be illa feret to Front. in Geop. 7. 12. The old com- laetas vites quae ulmis intexantur.' mentators put a stop after 'creta,' connect- 222.] Oleae :' this is the reading of ing • tofus' and creta,' like 'glarea,' with Med. and of the old editions. Heins. from

ministrat,' and understanding negant' the Rom. and the majority of MSS., supmen deny,' or as Serv. gives it more speci- ported by Nonius Marcellus and Arusianus fically, “negant: Nicander et Solinus, qui Messius, restored oleo.' If this is the de his rebus scripserunt.” Virgil means true reading it should be construed as the

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225

Et facilem pecori et patientem vomeris unci.
Talem dives arat Capua et vicina Vesevo
Ora iugo et vacuis Clanius non aequus Acerris.

Nunc, quo quamque modo possis cognoscere, dicam.
Rara sit an supra morem si densa requires,
Altera frumentis quoniam favet, altera Baccho,
Densa magis Cereri, rarissima quaeque Lyaeo :
Ante locum capies oculis, alteque iubebis
In solido puteum demitti, omnemque repones
Rursus humum, et pedibus summas aequabis arenas.
Si deerunt, rarum, pecorique et vitibus almis
Aptius uber erit; sin in sua posse negabunt
Ire loca et scrobibus superabit terra repletis,

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rae.

abl., on the analogy of 'fertilis ’ and .fe- to ascertain them, e. g. v. 180, 185, 212 cundus.'

foll., while in the present paragraph he has 223.] • Facilem pecori :' facilis' seems still something to add about the aptitudes here to be a metaphor from personal cha- of each (vv. 228, 229. 239, 240, &c.) ; but racter, and nearly equivalent to commodus,' the awkwardness of this want of arrangewhich is joined with patiens’ in Hor. A. ment can hardly be said to be felt in poetry. P. 257. Well-natured to cattle.' See on 226.] For «quo quamque' Rom. and 4. 272, “ facilis quaerentibus herba.” others of Pierius' MSS. read • quocumque,'

224.] · Vesevus’ is properly an adjec. which Jahn adopts, understanding an acc. tive. · Where used as a substantive it is from the context. • Vesevus mons.'

227.] Requiras' is the common reading, 225.] Gellius (7. 20) has a story that 'Requires' was restored by Wagn. from Virgil first wrote . Nola iugo,' and changed the first reading of Med., three other MSS., it because the people of Nola would not and the Dresden Servius, and agrees well allow him to bring water to his land. We with .capies.' “Si’ is obviously out of its can scarcely argue in support of ‘Nola' place, so that with the common reading it from the topographical character of the pas- would cause some ambiguity, as it might be sage, because that is satisfied by Vesevo.' taken with sit’ in the sense of whether.' Non aequus,' because it overflowed Acer. "Supra morem' is not to be pressed, as if it

• Clanius' is of course put for the meant 'excessively.' The meaning evicountry through which it runs, like · Hy- dently is whether the earth in question is daspes,' 4. 212. • Vacuis' does not seem looser or stiffer than the average. Serv. to mean.unpeopled by inundations,' as Serv. says of these lines, “Illi autem versus in. takes it, but simply “thinly peopled, like comparabiles sunt: tantam habent sine ali. “ vacuis Cumis," Juv. 3. 2; "vacuis Ulu- qua perissologia repetitionem.” bris,” Id. 10. 102.

229.] “Magis' seems to belong to densa.' 226—258.] .To tell close soil from loose, This answers best to é rarissima quaeque.' sink a pit, throw the earth in again, stamp 230.] 'Ante locum capies oculis ’ is exit down, and see whether it exceeds or falls plained by 'in solido,' which gives the rea. short. To tell bitter soil, put some in a son for the choice. basket, mix it with fresh water, and taste 231.] ‘In solido,' where the experiment what trickles through. To tell rich soil, may be fairly tried, which it could not be if handle it and see whether it crumbles or the ground was hollow. sticks to the fingers. Moist soil shows it- 232.] · Pedibus summas aequabis arenas self by the luxuriance of its herbage. Heavy = recalcare,’ Col. 2. 2. and light soils tell their own tale. Black 234.] Uber' is a laudatory synonym and other colours speak to the eyes. Cold for ‘solum.' soils are hard to detect, except by the pre- 235.] Scrobibus :' scrobes' is here sence of firs, yews, and ivy. In the pre- used as a synonym for puteus ;' rather ceding account of the soils Virgil has to a loosely, for scrobes' as a general rule were certain extent anticipated the question how excavations longer than they were broad,

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Spissus ager; glaebas cunctantis crassaque terga
Exspecta, et validis terram proscinde iuvencis.
Salsa autem tellus et quae perhibetur amara-
Frugibus infelix ea, nec mansuescit arando,
Nec Baccho genus, aut pomis sua nomina servat- 240
Tale dabit specimen : Tu spisso vimine qualos,
Colaque prelorum fumosis deripe tectis ;
Huc ager ille malus dulcesque a fontibus undae

Ad plenum calcentur; aqua eluctabitur omnis such as a trench for vines, or a grave. Col. ment in the sense, ea' being thus made 5. 5 allows, as an exception, the scrobs' the subject of a bona fide parenthesis, for vines to be as broad as it is long. “Scro- giving the reason why a salt soil is to be bibus 'is the plural for the singular. “Su- avoided, not of one which is a mere expansion perabit' supererit.' The word as used of what has been said before. In any case intransitively seems first to mean to be frugibus' seems to be used generally of superior,' hence to be in excess,' and lastly the fruits of the earth, as in v. 173, not

to remain over,' without the notion of specially of corn. • Infelix' = 'infecunda.' excess, as in E. 9. 27, “superet modo • Frugibus' is the dat. Sall. Jug. 17, “ ager Mantua nobis," &c. Possibly here there frugum fertilis, bonus pecori, arbori infe. may be the further notion of elevation in cundus." Had it been felix' instead of the soil, which would fall under the first of infelix,' we might more properly have the meanings given, as in Statius, Theb. taken frugibus as the abl. Arando' 4. 458,“ Quamquam infossus humo superat = aratione :' see on E. 8. 71. With tamen agger in auras.” In v. 314 below mansuescit arando' comp. Lucr. 5. 1368, the third meaning seems to be chiefly in- “ fructusque feros mansuescere terra Cernetended ; in v. 330 the first or second, though bant indulgendo blandeque colendo," where the distinction of shades is not always easy. Lachmann's conj. ' terram' seems needless. A further doubt about the sense of the word 240.] Genus' is best illustrated by the will meet us A. 1. 537., 2. 311. Pliny adj. ‘generosus.' In such a soil the vine throws doubt on the practicability of this degenerates.' So we apply the words test (17.4),“ Scrobes quidem regesta in eos race,' .racy,' to wine. Nomina,''name' nulla complet, ut densa atque rara ad hunc for character.' Both this and genus' are modum deprehendi possit.”

metaphors from nobility. Cato 25, “ Sicque 236, 237.] The epithets cunctantis' facito studeat bene percoctum siccumque crassa,' validis,' should be brought out in legere, ne vinum nomen perdat.” • The translation, being such as would be ex- grape is not kept true to its race, nor the pressed in Greek by the position of the ad- apple to its name.' jective either before the article or after the 241.] •Specimen,'' a sample,'. instance,' substantive. Prepare yourself for resist- or, as here, ' a proof,' in which sense it ance in the clods, and stiffness in the ridges, occurs Lucr. 4. 209, “ Hoc etiam in and let the oxen with which you break up primis specimen verum esse videtur, Quam the ground be strong.' • Proscinde,' 1. 97. celeri motu rerum simulacra ferantur."

238.] Pliny 17.4 gives a more favourable The qualos ' appear to be the same thing as view of this kind of soil:“Salsae terrae multo cola.' They were made . spisso vimine' that melius creduntur, tutiora a vitiis innascen- they might strain the wine from the grapes. tium animalium." • Perhibetur' seems to 242.] Comp. 1. 175 note. denote that amara’is a common epithet of 243.] · Ager:' the whole .ager' is vir. soils. Diophanes in Geopon. 5. 7, recom- tually the subject of the experiment.

• Mamending a similar test of soil to Virgil's, lus :' he assumes the bitterness, which he speaks of την γευσιν πικράν ή αλμυράν. calls malignity (comp. ' sceleratum frigus,'

239.] On the whole I have preferred v. 256), of the soil both in making the ex(with Jahn and Keightley) Wakefield's periment and in its result, where a prose punctuation to that commonly adopted, writer would of course have expressed himwhich makes the parenthesis begin after self hypothetically. • Dulces' is important.

infelix.' The metrical harshness intro- •Huc ad plenum calcentur' = 'huc ad duced by the former is not unpleasing as a plenum ingerantur et calcentur.' variety, and is compensated by the improve. 244.] Calcare' seems to be used tech

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245

Scilicet, et grandes ibunt per vimina guttae;
At sapor indicium faciet manifestus, et ora
Tristia temptantum sensu torquebit amaro.
Pinguis item quae sit tellus, hoc denique pacto
Discimus : haud umquam manibus iactata fatiscit,
Sed picis in morem ad digitos lentescit habendo.
Humida maiores herbas alit, ipsaque iusto
Laetior. Ah nimium ne sit mihi fertilis illa,
Neu se praevalidam primis ostendat aristis !

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nically of other kinds of pressure than At contra tetra absinthi natura, ferique treading. Cato (117) says of olives “in Centauri foedo pertorquent ora sapore." orculam calcato." * Ad plenum' is undoubtedly a phrase (Hor. 1 Od. 17.15, &c.), the whole passage seems to have been in

This also illustrates ora torquentur,' and but that is no reason for giving it with Forb. Virgil's mind. From it we may see that the vague sense copiously,' instead of taking it 'to the full [of the strainer],' till the Ladewig is wrong in connecting temptanstrainer is full. "Eluctabitur,' .ooze out.'

tum sensu' (reading of course amaror '). 245.] ' Scilicet ' denotes the consequence mouths of the triers into a frown by the

• Tristia' is proleptic. • Will warp the of the process, · You will see.' 246.] Virgil is expressing himself poeti

sense of bitterness.' cally, not with logical precision, so he marks

248.] • Denique' belongs to . hoc pacto,' the progress of the narrative by .at," dis- and means to be brief. The remaining tinguishing the water from the taste of the instances are despatched concisely. water, and, as it were, following the fortunes

249.] 'Fatiscit,' cracks, breaks in pieces, of both, though of course the meaning is

1. 180. Wakefield conjectured 'tractata,' only as the water oozes out, the taste

which the poet seems purposely to have rewill show you,' &c. Comp. vv. 211, 212. jected in favour of a more poetical word. • Manifestus' seems plainly to go

with
There is the same liveliness in the Lucretian

Manibus ' faciet,' not with the following clause, expression 'iacere indu manus.' whichever reading be adopted : The taste

tractata' occurs Lucr. 4. 230, singularly will clearly betray the truth. Indicium enough, within a few lines of "amaror, facere' is a phrase for playing the tells mentioned in the note just above; so that tale.' “ Id anus mihi indicium fecit,” Ter. have happened to be in Virgil's mind at the

it is conceivable that the whole passage may Adelph. 4. 4. 7.

247.] ‘Amaro' is the reading of the time of writing, especially if it be supposed oldest Mss., including the Med. a m. pr. lar instances, where, as here, there is no

that • amaror 'was the word he used. Simi. Heyne, with the Med. a m. sec. and some other MSS., read • amaror,'which, it appears

connexion in the original between the two from Gell. 1. 21, Julius Hyginus, an old things supposed to be imitated, are not un. commentator on Virgil, professed to have frequently to be found, though the coincifound in a MS. belonging to the poet's dence is generally too shadowy to be pro

amaro family. Gellius says that •

nounced intentional.

in his time was almost universally read, though

250.} ' Ad digitos' is explained by the Hyginus' discovery was approved by several notion of adhaeret' contained in ‘lentescit.' critical authorities. • Amaror' is supported

* Habendo :' see on E. 8.71, and comp. Lucr. by Lucr. 4. 224, the only place where the 1.313, “ Annulus in digito subtertenuatur word occurs.

The introduction of another habendo,” where, however, the sense of nominative similar in meaning to sapor

; 'habere,' 'to wear,' is not quite parallel. would be unnecessary, and therefore un

Here it seems to mean to handle,' so that graceful, while 'sensu,' which is not, The test is mentioned by Col. 2. 2, § 18,

we may compare

• male habere aliquem.' as Gell. objects, necessarily synonymous with a slight variety. with sapor,' would be improved by an

> epithet. For

251.] • Maiores,' higher than usual.' sensu amaro

comp. Lucr. 2. 398,

• Ipsa,' in itself,' altogether,' as distin

guished from the particular luxuriance of “ Huc accedit, uti mellis lactisque liquores the grass.

Iucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore; 253.] • Primis aristis,' in its first crop ;'

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