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State of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's THER.
MOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before sun-rise, and at noon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from the 30th September, to the 30th of October 1790, dear the foot of Aro thur's Seat.
O.IT 0.36 0.15 0.06 0.21 0.19 0.17
0.06 0.07 0.15 0.04
DELONGING to Dr WAUCHOPE, is on the edge of Fala-moor, in the D county of Mid.Lothian. There is a beech-tree of vast lize close by the house: The drawing was made by the celebrated Mr Cooper, who now teaches drawing to the Royal Family, and is in the posfellion of Sir John Dalrymple. It is fingular, that close by the ancient mansion houses in this neighbourhood, as at Preston Hall, Arniston, and till lately, at Oxenford Castle, there is one great beech-tree, all of them of one age; which Mews, that about two hundred years ago, beech was considered as an exotic in Scotland, Cæsar says that all the trees of Gaul were in Britain præter fagum et abietem, that is the beech and the fir: By the fir is meant strictly the fir, and not the pine, for there is no doubt that the former is indigenous in Britain, as is plain from the immense forests of them in the Highlands of Scotland.
TO THE PUBLISHER. " Why beholdest thou the mote that is he thus renders himself disgusting " in thy bro:her's eye, but considerelt not and contemptible to men of sense, * the beam that is in thine own eye ?” he has the weakness to believe that he
excites the admiration of all who be. A Candid and judicious critic is a hold him. A most valuable literary charac But the malevolent critic, who, from ter : he checks improprieties, cor- envy or other baser passions, mangles reos errors, suggefts improvements, the writings of others, and distorts and excites new ideas, all tending to their meaning, that they may appear wards the improvement of science, furile and useless, is a creature of a and the discovery of țruth. He, of ftill more despicable fort. He is the course, ob:ains the esteem of every mere Grub of literature. His opera. respectable writer, Like an active, tions are carried on in the dark, beintelligent, and well-disposed civil cause he cannot bear the light of truth magistrate, he proves“ a terror to and his ravenous tooth tears to Evil doers, but a praise and protection pieces, the most rare and valuable to those that do well.”
pruductions with the same avidity as The captivus critic, however, who those of the baser sort. To guard catches at every trifling impropriety against the ravages of this rapacious he can perceive, and picks holes with spoiler, it becomes the duty of every no other view than to give his readers ' lover of science to watch the firit a high opinion of his own talents, motions of this reptile-to drag him deferves not the same applause. He from his secret haurts, and to caft is, on the contrary, a perpetual peft him forth from the literary vineyard, in society. His captious soarling ex- that he may never more have it in his cites the spleen of his opponents, which power to moleit iç.
o molet it. leads to ill natured wranglings that. These reflections were suggested disturb the good humour of society by the perusal of the first article in without producing any beneficial ef. your Magazine for September lalt, fe&. Like an upstart magistrate, Whether the anonymous writer of vain of his newly-acquired dignity, that performance deserves to rank in this literary intruder is perpetually any of these classes of critics, or which giving those within his reach a great of them would suit him beft, I shall deal of unpecessary trouble; and while leave to others to determine.--The E'e ?
following following remarks may ferve as an is produced for inserting here the words answer to his critique.
' worfied, linen, fax, and hemp, and I can In lately illustrating a subje&t of see no reason why the critic might not considerable national importance, it as well have included cotton and filkas chanced that I had occalion to take the others. Scrupulous persons, how. notice of a fa&t, which I quoted on ever,might have alledged, had I sentur. the authority of Bishop Gibson, the ed to go as far as this anonymous critic, learned translator of Camden's Brican. that before I had inserted these words, nia. The fact I quoted fairly; but, it would have been incumben: og me be ause ip a short essay, where many to bring some sort of proof, or at leal circumstances of great moment were probable reason for believing, that necessarily omitted for want of room, the culture of flax and bemup were I did not transcribe a long passage in practised in Britain at the period here which that leared prelaie, who was alluded to, so as to furnish the mate, no less distinguished for his knowledge terials for these manufactures ; a talk than his cantour, thought it proper which I willingly resign to this learn. to mention one author who in oppo..ed critic, as also to thow that the sition to his own opinion, and that of practice of combing wool, and ma. feveral others, had maintained a dif. pufacturing woollen fuffs of worsteds ferent hypothefis, I am accused as be. was known at this early period, and ing guilty of a most unpardonable fauit. practised in Britain. As this bas This dissentient opinion, I did then, been generally understood to be a as I do noty, co:fider as absurd in a much later invention than that of ma. high degree, as the bishop whom I king cloth, till I had done this, qu::e had done before me; I there. which I own I should not be easily ina fore difregarded it, and thought I had duced to attempt, I should think there done as much as common sense re. would have been indeed fome reason quired, when I referred to the place for adopting the language used by this where it might be found, by a fair gentleman in the begining of his estay, and distinct quotation. ; “ It is curious to see what ftrange : This omission is imputed to me as " materials are sometimes used in the a very unpardonable crime, and after" rearing of a fyftem.” Let me add much parade about it, I request the it is not less curious, thougb at least reader will attend to the important equally common, that a man should conclusion drawn by the critic on be sharp fighted in discovering fancithis head.. Instead of following the ed errors in others, and blind to those learned Bishop, who says, that “the much greater of his own. It is inRomans when in Britain establifhod deed very common for a certain class at Winchester a woollen-manufacture of critics “ 19 strain at & gaat and for the Emperor's own use," he con- swallow a camel." tends I should have said, " there was But whether the learned translator at Winchester a woľk-house for the of Camden, or this anonymous critic female flaves of the Emperor, and be right, is of little confequence ra that they were employed in weaving me; and though the fact that gave rite. wollen cloth from worsted, or liqen to thiswrangling were entirely ler afide, cloth from hemp and fax," such is it would very little affect the thesis 1 the great emendation he proposes. defend. It happens to be only a col. Parturiunt mortes !!
lateralillustration picked up in a course This emendation is indeed of fach of general reading, and haltily thrown a trifling oature, that did not com: among other facts picked up in the mon sense oppose it, I might adopt 'fame way, on the spur of the occait in a perfect confiftency with the fiọn, all tending to illuftrare a subject thefis I defend. No, authority whatever of great importance to this country,
and might be easily spared : I have, a over walls too, if not very high. however, the fatisfaction to find that " The late Lord Pigot procured a many persons whose judgment I ref. “ fcore of them in this country; an pect, have deemed the arguments « experienced person was engaged more conclusive, than, confidering “ to drive them into Staffordshire, the circumstances of the case, could " and receive a sum of money to acwell have been expected. Had any count ; in a few hours he returned thing been offered that serionfly af- “ back with them, returned the mo. fected the truth of my distinction, I “ney, and said, I would as foon un, should have been among the first who “ dertake to drive a flock of bares would have abandoned the hypothesis: “ into Staffordshire. I believe that but this is not yet done.
“ they must be confined, as hereroIt was an old fashion, and perhaps " fore, to islands; the sea is the on, a good one, that before a person would “Jy fit fence to keep them in.” venture to criticize the writings of Now, it happens that the only peanother, he should first take care to culiarity for which this breed of theep read them. But this critic, in the were recommended to the notice of language of Moliere, may say, “ nous' the public, was the fingular fneness avons change tout cela,” for it would of their wool; concerning which seem he had never read the publica. we do not here meet with one single gion in queition. He certainly does me word. So that the reasoning is very an honour to which I should be proud much the same with that of Joha' to lay claim, could it be done with Bull, when he wilhed to depreciate the justice, when he attributes to me the Scots, writing of the Report to the Highland « How can the rogues pretend to fense, fociety itself, with some other parts « Their pound is only iweuiy-pence?" of the performance to which any one He affirms that the ingenious wrir who had read the work, would see I ter of the Report," says therc are had evideatly no claim. Though he can iwo foris; [i. c. of Shetland sheep,] get nothing fpecific to urge against perhaps there may be twenty.” For these,yet he fhews his disposition to find any thing that occurs ju the report, faul;, and by ill-natured infinuations there may be two hundred; “ but the endeavous to discountenance an un- only one he is to enquire after is the ' dertaking, which he is even conipel- the native or kindly sheep.” Had this led to own deserves the public ap- critic read the work he prete:ds to probation. That I may do no injustice analize, he would have found that is to this writer, I shall beg leave to 'was there faid, that the gentleman transcribe the partage entire: who drew ap that paper, had been
« The most singular difficulty, fays inferired, that though there were hi he, feems to be that of ascertaining many freep in thefe islands that c.ir. "wbat Shetland Sheep are! He ried coarse wool, those only which " says, there are tw forts ; per. carried firie wcol were denominated "haps there may be twenty ; but the kindly sheep, which kindly sheep were W only one he has to erquire aftcr divided into two clasi, s,&c. concerning foto is the native or kividiy sheep. Sure. which the focicty withed to obtain a « ly they are no phenomenon in Mid. more perfe& knowledge; and for this 4 Luthian ; the Duke of Buccleugh purpose certain premiums were pro" had them long; they are the most posed for elucidating useful faces. tungovernable of our country ani. But, says this gentleman, “ They fete mals; they are fo small, and so are surely no phenomeron in Mid-Lo, "nimble, that they will force their thian." What is po phenomenon ? Is it way through every hedge, and the Shetland breed of theep in gene,
ral, or is it the kindly breed of Shet- we would say that nature intended land Theep, or what peculiar brced is these animals for very different uses, it to which he here alludes ? tor the and that the man who attempted thus fentence is to constructed, that the in- to employ them was out of his senses. definite pronoun they may refer to any The man who takes such a predilecof these. The quality of the wool tion for any one breed of animals as only, which was what claimed their to infift that it will answer all purposes potice, is here totally overlooked, berter than any other, would be guilty which is the circumstance that alope of an equal abfurdity. could determine it.
There is perhaps a greater diversi. But it seems these Shetl·nd sheep, ty in the breeds of Meep than of either whatever class they belonged to, “were the horse or cattle, and each valuable small,” and who ever aflerted anything breed possesses peculiar qualities, 'to the contrary? " ard nimble ;” which, if properly adapted to the 12very possibly they may be fo, “and ture of the pasture and circumstances will overleap fences if not very high." of the farmer, may prove highly adRace horses are nimble too, and will vantageous to him, though, by purlu. overleap gates that would prove per- ing an opposite condod, he might have fect fences to the weighty dray horse. been ruioed. Some breeds of theep But what connection has all this with are heavy Nuggish animals, wbich, like the wool? or indeed, of what import: the snail, may be confined to a partiance is it, had the general qualities cular spot, in a great measure by their of the animal teen enquired for, uo. native sluggishness alone. If food be less the circumstances in which they there provided for them in abundance, are to be placed be likewise taken in- they will never seek to ftray, but will to the account? Had these particu- thrive and fateen at their ease. But jars been intended to convey informa- put these sluggish and indolent ani. tion ferioufly, they should have been mals upon a bare pasture, where they suffered to pass unnoticed; but as 'would be obliged to range to a great they are plainly intended to depreci- distance in quest of food, what would 2te a set of animals with which the become of them. They would pine writer is evidently little acquainted, away in misery, and quickly dic, to it may be proper to make a few cur, the unspeakable lots of the owner. sory remarks upon this description. Bountiful nature, however, has pro
All animals, when left in a state of vided for him a help in this case fuit. nature, are wild ; but many of them ed to his neerls, by having formed.o. admit of being domesticated. The ther breeds of sheep, more active, more cows in Drumlanıig park were not nimble, and more disposed to travel, only wild, but ferocious animals also. Thefe, instead of being hurt by an exwill any one however alledge, that tensive range in quest of food, are bebecause of this, it would be tolly for nefited by the beaith it procures to any person to attempt to domnelticate them and climb the steepeft mouna cow with a view to derive benefit tains, and crop every blade of the from her milk?
scanty nourishment that these afford, A dray borse is a useful animal and thus convert it to the profit of when kept in his own sphere, and the the owner. Here then these active fame may be said of a ruoning horse, animals are in their native element, with a similar limitation ; but what and here they are abundantly useful. would we say of the man who should Try, however, to confine them iQ produce a dray horse to contend in small inclosures; they cannot there the race, or who Ihould insist on huv. reft. They long for that freedom they ing his waggon drawn by light barbe; enjoyed in the wide-extended heach