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CH A P. II.

Means for preventing the future Power of the Roman Pontiffs. And that of

Austria over the Countries composing the Republics on the North and South of the Po.-Moderation and Lenity of the French Republic to the Non-juring Clergy. At the same Time that their Bigotry and SuperNition are exposed to ridicule.- Excessive Rejoicings and Exultations of the French at the Successes of their Arms in Italy.-- Jealousy, Envy, and ReJentment, again Buonaparte.--Who uses Precautions for warding off the Effećts of these, und gaining Popularity and Confidence, not only in France but italy.---Moderation and Prudence of the Inhabitants of St. Marino.--Mumficence of Buonaparte to that small Republic.--Prevalence of Republican Principles in Italy. - Honour paid there to the French and Buonaparte. -Preparations of Aufiria, for disputing with the French the Empire of Italy.---The Imperial Army in Italy, commanded by the Archduke Charles.--- Attacked by the French, and forced to retreut.-Capture of Gradisca and Goritz.--Municipal Governments scttled in both these Towns, on the Republican Plan.The Austrians defeated with severe Loss near Tarvis.---Audacious Spirit oj the French Prisoners of War.-The InJection of this Spirit dreaded by the Imperial Ministry.-A Divison of the French Ariny, under Joubert, penetrates into the Tyrol.-Reduces most of the firong Forts of that Country. And gains other hgnal Advantages. The French obtain Pollefion of Brixen.- Proclamations of Buonaparte, addrefjed to the Subjects of the Emperor.--The Auftrians obliged to abandon their Head-Quarters at Clagenfurth.-The French cross the Drave.---Farther Successes of the French, under Joubert, in the Tyrol.Remarkable Engagement between the Auftrians and French, in the Defiles' leading to Newmarck.-The Auftrians continually defeated, but not dif couraged.-Confternation at Vienna.--But invincible Courage of the Auftrian and Hungarian Nobles.--Interesting Letter from Buonaparte to the Archduke Charles. And the Archduke's Answer.Armistice between the Auftrians and French.-Honours and Praises befowed by the - French Directory on the Army.--Reflections.

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FTER humbling, or rather in- of never fuffering future pontiffs to

deed annihilating, in this man- to recover them. It had already ner, the powers and importance made an essential progrels in this formerly annexed to the ice of bufinefs, by formally approvjpg the Rome, the political views oi'ihe re- confederation of Reggio, Modena, public were directed to the means Bologna, and Ferrara. To these it now added Romagna, for the neceflity of adhering faithfully to it purpose of forming a larger com- by those states that depend on it for monwealth, and allented to the pe- their preservation. tition of the people of the Milanese, In addition to these measures, and the other districts of Lombardy, others were taken, pot less conduwho were eager to follow that ex- cive to remove the charge of inhuample, by framing a republican manity against the French governcompact on a similar plan.

ment, than to prove of utility to it The union of intereits, which in other respects among the Italians. would, for many years, indissolubly As the laws enacted in France connect these two republics, was against the refractory clergy, though the best security that they would condemning them to banishment, make a common cause against the did not forbid their residence in the restoration of either the Austrian or countries conquered by the French, the papal power; both which were Buonaparte, who fought upon all equally inimical to their newly ac- occasions to adopt measures of quired liberties, and would neglect lenity, availed himself of the powno opportunity of relucing them to ers with which he was invested, to their former yoke. The French go- issue a proclamation in favour of vernment, having resolved to ac- these exiles. Herein he granted cede to no pacification that should them a formal permission to reside in replace these countries in the por- those parts of the pope's domisession of two such inveterate ene- nions, that had been subdued by the mies as Rome and Austria, was armies of the republic. The French equally studious tu enable them, by troops were strictly forbidden to iilproper arrangements among them- use, or infult them, and the inhabis selves, to acquire a degree of tants of the country of all descripstrength sufficient to maintain the tions were laid under the same rerepublican government they had ftrictions. These refugees were to erected, against the efforts which be provided with all the necessaries would be made to fubvert it by of life, at the expence of the conany Italian power. The population vents appointed for their residence. of the countries on the north and They were in return enjoined to south of the Po, that composed the take an oath of fidelity to the two republics, was computed at up- French government. wards of four millions. This was mission extended not only to those, amply adequate to their defence emigrant clergymen who had alagainst their neighbours, without ready taken refuge in the papal ter, requiring the aslistance of France, ritories occupied by the republic, which would only be needed to pro-, but also to those remaining in France, tect them from the hottile designs of that were desirous of availing themAuftria; and in this case they would felves of the like indulgence. thortly be in a condition to cu- This regulation was highly conoperate effectually in resisting ciliatory to those numbers of ecclethem. Thus the influence of France, fiastics, who, though disapproving in Italy, would henceforth be esta- 'of the changes effected in politics blidhed on the surest foundation, the and religious affairs in France, still

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could not avoid feeling for their their enemies that thirst of revenge country, and being defirous of its could produce. welfare and reputation. Though There was, however, a circumit had banished them, through ap- stance that diminished the fatif prehenfions of danger from their faction, enjoyed by the people, at the principles, yet the present measure triumphs of the French armies. It Thewed that it had not divested it was in the contemplation of many, self of all consideration for them. to bestow upon the commander-inThe priests did not forget the ser- chief such a remuneration, as might vice thus rendered them. However conspicuously perpetuate the reaverse to the system established in membrance of his victories. This their country, they still evinced, on was to conser upon him the title of several occasions, an attachment to Italicus, in imitation of the preceits interests, and a readiness 10 for- dents in ancient Rome, and in some ward them as far as their consci- modern states. All parties agreed in ences would permit

arknowleriging the extraordinary But while Buonaparte was intent pierit of Buonaparte, and the won. on mitigating the rigour exercifed on dertal actions he had performed. the non-juring clergy, the French di- But there was also a party, which, rectory took no le's care to lay before though it did not deny the greatness the inspection of the public, fundiry of his exploits, did not however coobjects of the superstitious veneration incide in the propriety of such a reof thofe ignorant and creclulcus mul- compense. They either thought, titudes, over whoin they fill the or preiended to think, it incentista tained so much infuence. Thote ent with those maxims of simplicity objects were tre principairelics con- in rewards, that had hitherto disting tained in the church of Loretto. guilled the republican government. They were transinitted to France, in This Turmise was deemed, hy a great order to be exposed to derifion, and part of the public, to be founded in to lefen, by their evident ablurdity, envy more than in truth, and prothe respect and credit of the Romiihi reeding from the royal rather than clergy, as abettors, either throngh the republican party. The hopes bigotry or hypocrisy, of those of those that longed for the return equally hameful and ridiculous im- of monarchy were fo enfeebled by pofitions.

the events of the campaign of In the mean time, the rejoicings Italy, that they could not dilguile and exultation of the French, at the their grief. It was not from them capture of Mantua, and the con- the author of these events could extinual succesles of iheir arms in pect to be rewarded for what they Italy, filled every part of the French would have been better pleased republic. The speeches that were that he had never performed. pronounced on this occasion, in the Thus a distinction, which the macouncil of five hundred, and in that jority of people asserted he had of the ancients, contained all the highly deserved, was withheld from applause of their soldiers and com- hiin, through relentment and envy, manders that enthusiasm could in- by the intrigues of the enemies to fpire, and all the reprobation of the republic, under pretence of

, acting conformably to its princi-' among the French, but among the ples.

Italians, who had hitherto experiThe indifference teftified on this enced little of that condelcenfion, and on fome preceding occafions, at especially from the Germans, whe the successes of Buona parte and his feldom studied to make their authocompanions in arms, produced both rity acceptable among the natives. in him and them a fufpicion, that The French commander never malevolent designs were harboured omitted any opportunity of ingratiagainst the republic; and that, not- ating himself either in his private withstanding the warmth expressed or public intercourse, for either of by the numerous majority in its fu- which he was equally qualified, by vour, a secret party was forming his education and the politeness ofhis that consisted of men equally artful

manners. The influence he had acand persevering, who would em- quired, by these means, poflibly was ploy every posible method of de- not inferior to that which he had preciating the services rendered to obtained by his exploits. These it, and who were at the fame time made him dreaded, but the others so thoroughly determined to effect procured him eftcem and attachtheir purposes, that no obstacles ment. The folicitude he had manicould weary out their patience in tested, in effecting and consolidating striving to compass them.

the federal union between the reFrom this persuasion of their com- publics, of which he had encoumander-in-chief and his officers, raged the foundation, had, more than arose the repeated asurances of in- any other circumstance, raised his violable attachment and fidelity to

fame and credit among the Italian the existing governmeni.

They politicians, who had long withed for thought them necellary to impose a the revival of tuch fyftems in their restraint upon its opposers, and to country, recollecting how much it deter then from the attempts they had formerly flourished under them. might be meditating, by letting

In compliance with this dispothem see how refolutely and eftion, which was now become very lectually they would be refifted.

general in Italy, and to give it In order to conciliate the minds every posible countenance and enof all people to the republic, Buona- couragement, the French commandparte had been particularly folicitous, er, while on the papal territories, ever since his appointinent to the availed himself of that opportunity supreme command of the French to take relpectful notice of the little army in Italy, to distinguish hin self but ancienicommonwealth of St. Maby a punctual observance of all those rino, fituated in the dutchy of Urmaxins, on which the zealous and bino. He deputed thither citizen fincere republicans chiefly prided Monge, one of the commissioners of themselves. He cautiously avoided arts, and a member of the national all oftentation, and in his personal infiitule, a man of genius and knowdemeanour readily put himself on ledge. The commissioner made a a footing of perfect equality with {peech to the people of St. Marino, all perfons of decent situations in which seemed to be intended as an society. Hence he had made him- address to all Italy, and indeed to all self a number of friends, not only Europe. He observed that liberty,

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which had transformed the ancient clined those offers of addition to Greeks and Romans into heroes, and their small territory, which had had, in latter ages, revived the arts been made by the French comand sciences in the republics of Italy, miffioner, telling him, that fimhad, while nearly banished from the plicity of manners, and the enjoyface of Europe, still existed in ment of liberty, were the best inSt. Marino, where, by the wisom of heritance transmitted to the government, and the virtue of their ancestors;' and that, content. the people, it had been preserved with their mediocrity, they dreaded for centuries. The French too, he aggrandisement, as dangerous to said, after å avhole age of know. their freedom. The only request ledge, had at length perceived their they would make was the protection own flavery, and asserted their free- of France. dom. But the powers of Europe, The moderation and prudence of Mutting their

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to the interest of the inhabitants of this little repubmankind, had confederated against lic was justly rewarded by the muthe liberty of France, and thought nificence of the French commander. to partition it among them. The He presented it with four pieces of French were assailed on all their cannon, in the name of the French frontiers; and what moft aggravated republic. He exempted their poftheir calamities, many of their own sessions in the Romagna, from all countrymen united with the enemy contributions, and refused the tento distress them. But they stood der of payment for a considerable firm in the midst of all dangers, and quantity of corn, of which he gegradually overcame all their ene- nerously made them a donation. mies. Some wereglad to relinquish Buonaparte had not only figna, the confederacy, and others were lized himself by feats of arms: he compelled to sue for peace. Jea. had equally succeeded in that object Joulý, pride, and hatred, kept to which was requisite for the comgether their remaining foes. The plete attainment of the purposes of French had, in the course of the his expedition. These were to represent campaign, destroyed four volutionize the minds of the Italians, Austrian armies; but the enemy still the better to fit them for those rejected peace. The commissioner changes in their various governthen assured the people of St. Ma- ments, that would assimilate them rino of peace and friendship on to the system established in France. the part of France. Were any of Republican principles had taken their possessions to be disputed, or any forcible root in many, if not of most adjacent territory necessary to their of those places lubdued by the well-being, they might freely apply French, or rather torn from their to the good offices of the republic. former owners, for the emancipa

The answer to this address was tion of the nations, to speak the respectful and temperate. After ex- language of these as well as of the pressing those sentimenis of admira- French themselves, who boasted. tion, at the valour and heroism of that, contrarily to the practice of, the French general and his army, to crowned heads, they conquered for which they were juftly intituled, the the benefit of mankind at large, and citizens of St. Marino modettly de fought no other emolument from

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