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the sea shore, on a slight eminence, composed of the remains of the former city, to which, at one time, it had served as an ornament; but it is now a sepulchral monument, pointing out the site of the ancient town, which lies buried in ruins at its feet. We had understood, before going there, that the date of its erection might be fixed from an inscription discoverable on the pedestal. On approaching this, the first thing we remarked was—“H. M. S. Glasgow, March, 1827,” in large black letters, surmounted by the classic name, Henry Cram, of the equally classic town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Of less daring or less ambitious Dogberries, who had also written themselves down-beneath, there were Johnsons, Thomsons, and many of that eternal name, Smith

“A name so spread o'er Sir and Madam,
That one would think the first who bore it, Adam.”

So that, what with black paint and red ochre, pitch and sand, the pedestal and the lower part of the shaft may now rival the party-coloured mantle of Jacob's favourite son. It was in vain to look for any of Dioclesian's inscriptions, since the scribbling of those who had ascended to the top had obliterated all other traces. It

appears that, in March, 1827, the officers of the Glasgow, by means of flying a kite, had passed a string over the top of the column—to this was fastened a cord, and eventually a rope-ladder was affixed. Their example has been followed by the crew of almost every man-of-war which has been stationed in the port. The Turkish flag having been left, by a party visiting, at the top of the column, caused offence to the governor ; and it is said that nothing of the kind is now allowed. Breakfasts have been given, and letters written from the top, and even a lady has been known to ascend. It is evident, on inspection, that the shaft does not correspond with the capital, base, and pedestal, which, to say the most of them, are poor, both in execution and taste. The feeble prop-work put up by the Turks is fast mouldering away, and should not a more substantial support be furnished, the column, ere long, will add to the heaps of ruins already scattered around it.

About a mile farther to the N. E., in a solitary, dull, square, and unpicturesque corner, stands the obelisk, called Cleopatra's Needle. It is a fine piece of granite, covered with hieroglyphics. No one having ascended it, it is undisfigured with writing. Having dined with Mr. S. the Dutch consul, we proceeded to the palace, where we found that the Pacha had not yet risen from the siesta. We were introduced into a large plain room; and, after waiting for about ten or fifteen minutes, we crossed the hall, and were introduced into the audience chamber. The room was surrounded by a divan, at the farther end of which he was seated in the corner. Mr. B., the

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dragoman, was standing before him. We were then introduced by the consul; and, taking our seats on the divan, coffee was served, and conversation began. Mohamed Ali, in personal appearance, has nothing very imposing. He is a little man ; and his countenance would be dull and inexpressive, were it not for a keen and restless eye. His forehead is high, his nose rather short and broad, and his beard white. He is rather corpulent. On quitting him, we went to visit his seraglio, which was being erected on the point of land close to the port. Its walls, of wood and plaster, weighed down by a heavy tiled roof, and its marble floors, exposed to the united effects of the sea and the wind, denote any thing but durability: while the rich, though fantastic, decorations of the interior, render it worthy of notice as a curiosity, though not of imitation as a work of art. The artists employed are mostly Greeks, who have decked the interior with a mixture of Arabesque and Chinese views, in which proportion and perspective are woefully disregarded. Not a single human figure is introduced in any part. It appears that the Turks do not object to draw any thing but a human being. We saw a drawing of the giraffe, on the divan in the Pacha's

The day after, we visited the catacombs. The first few rooms are evidently Greek, and in very good style; the rest of the excavations are nearly filled up with rubbish : and, although we



crawled a considerable distance on our hands and knees, we discovered nothing else worthy of admiration. A short distance from the catacombs are two or three grottoes, partly formed by excavations, and partly by subterranean ruins. These have obtained the name of Cleopatra's Baths. They may possibly have been at some time used for this purpose ; but it is very questionable whether they deserve their name. The suburbs of Alexandria, for miles, are covered with the ruins of the antient town. Heaps of brick and mortar, mixed with the broken shafts of columns and mutilated capitals, cover immense vaults, which serve as reservoirs to the town, and are plenished on every overflow of the Nile. Each inundation adds to the deposit left by the preceding one, and will eventually, if no steps are taken to remedy it, choke up and destroy the reservoirs — another example of that apathy and indolence, which so strongly mark the Turkish character. “ Sufficient for to-day is the evil thereof,” seems to be their motto ; and they leave the future to Providence and the prophet.

Although treated with much hospitality by the gentlemen to whom our letters of introduction were addressed, and who, in their own houses, are most friendly, and seemingly, as far as we could observe, on good terms with the neighbouring Franks, still we did not enjoy that frequent and friendly intercourse, which so strongly characterizes the society of Smyrna. Whether this must


be attributed to the effect of conflicting interests, or to the check which all communication receives during the plague, we must leave to others to determine. Thus much, however, is certain, that, of all the towns in the Levant, Alexandria is the last, both from climate and company, which would tempt the traveller to a lengthened stay. Such

our impression, and it induced us, with all possible despatch, to prepare for our departure.

We made preparation for our journey, and, accompanied by our dragoman, we proceeded to the Mahmoudia, which is that part of Alexandria joining the port, by which it is separated from the canal. We here engaged our cangia, a kind of boat, with a small cabin, lofty enough to admit of any one sitting upright in it, on the divans placed on each side. Having embarked our luggage, we proceeded up the canal which connects the Nile with Alexandria. This canal was dug by the present Pacha, and we were credibly informed that upwards of three hundred thousand persons were hired in the villages, in the different parts of Egypt, and forced to work, and more than twenty thousand of them fell victims to the insalubrity of the climate, scarcity of food, and the want of proper shelter. We arrived the next day at the end of the canal, which is separated from the river by a dam, to prevent a reflux of its waters, as the river gradually decreases. This dam was not the only obstacle to our proceedings. On application

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