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It is easier to guess than describe any such were fown, they did not the situation of his mind at that mo- vegetate longer than till the next ment-standing on that spot which general convocation of all the tribes, had baffled the genius, industry, and who meet annually at the source of inquiry of both ancients and mo- the river, to which they facrifice, derns, for the course of near three calling it by the name of the God of thousand years. Kings had attempt. Peace. One of the least considerable ed this discovery at the head of of these clans, for power and numarmies, and each expedition was ber, has still the preference among distinguished from the latt, only by its brethren, from the circumstance the difference of the numbers which that, in its territory, and near the had perished, and agreed alone in the miserable village that gives it name, disappointment which had uniform- are situated the much fought-for ly, and without exception, follow. springs from which the Nile rises. ed them all. Fame, riches, and ho Geesh, however, though not far. pour, had been held out for a series ther distant from these than fix hunof ages to every individual of those dred yards, is not in fight of the Anyriads these princes commanded, sources of the Nile. The country without having produced one man upon the same plane with the founcapable of gratifying the curiosity of tains, terminates in a cliff about bis fovereign, or wiping off this three hundred yards deep down to stain upon the enterprise and abili- the plain of Affoa, which flat coun, ties of mankind, or adding this deli-try continues in the same subaltern deratum for the encouragement of degree of elevation, till it meets the geography.
Nile again about seventy miles Mr. Bruce describes the sources of southward, after it has made the cirthe Nile, which have, as he says, cuit of the provinces of Gojam and remained to our days as unknown as Damot. they were to antiquity; no good or A prodigious cave is in the middle genuine voucher having yet been, of this cliff, in a direction straight produced capable of proving that north towards the fountains, whether they were before discovered, or seen the work of nature or art, Mr by the curious eye of any traveller, Bruce cannot determine ; in it are from the earliest ages to this day ; many bye-paths, so that it is very and it is with confidence Mr. Bruce difficult for a stranger to extricate proposes to his reader, that he will himself; it is a natural labyrinth, consider him as still standing at these large enough to contain the inhabifountains, and patiently hear from tants of the village, and their cattle. him the recital of the origin and In this large cliff, Mr. Bruce tired circumstances of this the most famous himself part of several days, enriver in the world.
deavouring to reach as far northDivine honours are paid by the ward as possible; but the air, when he Agows of Damot to the Nile; they had advanced something above one worship the river, and thousands of hundred yards, seemed to threaten cattle have been offered, and still to extinguish his candle by its dampare offered, to the spirit supposed to ness; and the people were besides reside at its source. They are di- not at all disposed to gratify his cuvided into claps, or tribes; and it riosity, farther, after assuring him is worthy of observation, that it is that there was nothing at the end Laid there never was a feud, or he more remarkable than what he then reditary animosity between any two faw, which he had reason to believe of these clans ; or, if the feeds of was the case. The face of this
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cliff, which fronts to the south, has founded much deeper in it. The a most picturesque appearance from diameter of this is something short the plain of Affoa below, parts of of twelve feet; it is surrounded by a the houses at every stage appearing, shallow trench, which collects the through the thickets of trees and water and voids it eastward; it is bushes with which the whole face of firmly built with fod or earthen the cliff is thickly covered ; impe- turf, brought from the sides, and netrable fences of the very worst constantly kept in repair, and this is kind of thorn, hide the mouths of the altar upon which all their relithe caverns above mentioned, even gious ceremonies are performed. In from fight; there is no other com- the middle of this altar is a hole, munication with the houses' either obviously made, or at least enlarged, from above or below, but by narrow. by the hand of man. It is kept clear winding sheep-paths, which through of grass, or other aquatic plants, and these thorns are very difficult to be the water in it is perfectly pure and discerned, for all are allowed to be limpid, but has no ebullition or moovergrown
with the utmost wildness, tion of any kind discernible upon as a part of their defence; lofty its surface. This mouth, or openand large trees (most of them of the ing of the source, is some parts of thorny kind) tower high up above an inch less than three feet dithe edge of the cliff, and seem to be ameter, and the water stood at that a fence against people falling down time, the 5th of November, about into the plain ; these are all at their two inches from the lip or brim; proper season covered with flowers nor did it either increase or diminish of different forts and colours, fo are during all the time of his stay at the bushes below on' the face of the Geesh, though they made plentiful cliff: every thorn in Abyssinia in- use of it. This spring is about fix deed bears a beautiful flower. feet fix inches deep.
From the edge of the cliff of At the distance of ten feet from Geesh above where the village is the first of these springs, a little to fituated, the ground flopes with a the west of fouth, is the second very casy descent due north, and fountain, about eleven inches in lands you at the edge of a triangular diameter; but this is eight feet marth above eighty-fix yards broad, threeinches deep. And about twenty in the line of the fountains, and feet distant from the first, is the third two hundred and eighty-fix yards fource, its mouth being fomething two feet from the edge of the cliff more than two feet large, and it is above the house of the priest of the five feet eight inches deep. Both river, where Mr. Bruce resided. these last fountains stand in the mid
Upon the rock in the middle of the dle of small altars, made, like the plain, the Agows used to pile up the former, of firm fod, but neither of bones of the beasts killed in facrifice, them above three feet diameter, and mixing them with billets of wood, having a foot of less elevation than after which they let them on fire. the first. The altar in this third This is now discontinued, or rather source seemed almost diffolved by the transferred to another place near the water, which in both stood nearly up church.
to the brim ;' at the foot of each ap. In the middle of the marsh, near peared a clear and brisk running rill; the bottom of the mountain of Geesh, these uniting joined the water in the arises a hillock of a circular form, trench of the firt altar, and then about three feet from the surface of proceeded directly out, pointing eastthe marsh itself, though apparently ward, in a quantity that would have
filled a pipe of about two inches height of twenty-two English inches. diameter. The water from these Suspecting that some air might have fountains is very light and good, insinuated itself into the tube, he and perfectly tasteless; it was at this laid it by in a warm part of the time most intensely cold, though tent, covered till morning, and reexposed to the mid-day fun without turning to bed, llept there profoundly Melter, there being no trees 'nor till fix, when, satisfied the whole was bushes nearer it than the cliff of in perfect order, he found it to itand Gcesh on its south side, and the at twenty-two English inches; neis trees that surround St. Michael ther did it vary sensibly from that Geesh on the north, which, accord- height any of the following days he ing to the custom of Abyssinia, is, itaid at Geesh; and thence he inferlike other churches, planted in the red, that, at the sources of the Nile, midst of a grove
he was then more than two miles On the 5th of November, the day above the level of the sea; a prodiafter Mr. Bruce's arrival at Geesli, gious height, to enjoy a lky perpethe weather perfectly clear, cloud. tually clear, as also a hot sun never less, and nearly calm, in all respects over-cast for a moment with clouds well adapted to observation, being from rising to setting. On the 6th extremely anxious to ascertain, be- of November, at a quarter past five yond the power of controversy, the in the morning, Fahrenheit ́s therprecise spot on the globe that this mometer stood at 44°, at noon 96°, fountain had so long occupied un- and at sun-set 46°. It was, as to known, he pitched his tent on the sense, cold at night, and still more north edge of the cliff, immediately fo an hour before sun-rise. above the priest's house, having The Nile, keeping nearly in the verified the instrument with all the middle of the marth, runs cast for care possible, both at the zenith and thirty yards, with a very little inhorizon. With a brass quadrant creale of stream, but perfectly visiof three feet radius, by one meridian blé, till mer by the graffy brink of altitude of the sun's upper limb, all the land declining froin Sacala. necessary equations and deductions. This turns it round gradually to the considered, he determined the lati- N. E. and then due north; and, in tude of the place of observation to be the two miles it flows in that direction, 10° 59' 11"; and by another ob- the river receives many small confervation of the fame kind made on tributions from springs that rise in the 6th, 10° 59'8"; after which, by, the banks on each side of it: there a medium of thirty-three observa- are two, particularly one on the hill tions of Itars, the largest and nearest, at the back of St. Michael Geesh, the first vertical, he found the lati- the other a litele lower than it on tude to be 10° 59' 10"; a mean of the other side, on the ground dea which being 10° 59' 9", fay 10° clining from Sacala. These last59' 101. The longitude he ascer- mentioned springs are more than tained to be 36° 55' 30! east of the double its quantity; and being armeridian of Greenwich.
rived under the hill whereon stands Mr. Bruce had procured from the the church of St. Michael Sacala, English thips, while at Jidda, fome about two miles from its fource, it quicksilver, perfectly pure, and there becomes a stream that would heavier than the common fort ; turn a common mill, shallow, clear, warming therefore the tube gently and running over a rocky bottom at the fire, he filled it with this about three yards wide : this must quick filver, and, to his great fur- be understood to be variable accordprise
, found that it stood at she ing to the feason; and the present
obfervations are applicable to the Aformafha; and, united, fall into 5th of November, when the rains the Nile about twenty miles below had cealed for several weeks. its fource; it begins here to run ra
Nothing can be more beautiful pidly, and again receives a number than this ipot; the small rising hills of beautiful rivulets, which have about them were all thick-covered their rise in the heights of Litchamwith verdure, especially with clover, bara, the semicircular range of mounthe largeit and fineft he ever saw; tains that pass behind, and seem to the tops of the heights crowned with inclosc Aformasha. Here it begins trees of a prodigious size; the stream, to become a considerable stream ; at the banks of which they were sit- its banks high and broken, covered ting, was limpid and pure as the with old timber trees for the space of fineft crystal ; the ford, covered about three miles ; it inclines to the thick with a bushy kind of tree that north-east, and winds exceedingly, feemed to affect to grow to no height, and is then joined by the small river but thick with foilage and young Diwa from the east. As the mere branches, rather to court the surface names of places, through which the of the water, whilst it bore, in pro- Nile paffes, can afford very little digiousquantities, a beautiful yellow amufement to our readers, we shall fower, not unlike a fingle wild rose only observe, that it empties itself of that colour, but without thorns. at last into the Mediterranean.
After having stepped over the ford fifty times, he observed it no larger REMARKABLE INSTANCĘ than a common mill stream. The
OF TREACHERY. Nile from this ford, turns to the weftward, and, after running over
[From Bruce's Travels. ] loose stones occasionally, in that di THE town of Dixan consists of rection, about four miles farther, Moors and Christians, and is very the angle of inclination increasing well peopled; yet the only trade greatly, broken water, and a fall of either of these fects is a very commences of about six feet, and extraordinary one, that of selling thus it gets rid of the mountainous of children.' The Christians bring place of its nativity, and issues fuch as they have stolen in Abył: into the plain of Goutto, where finia to Dixan as to a fure deposit ; is its first cataract. Arrived in the and the Moors receive them there, plain of Goutto, the river seems and carry them to a certain market to have lost all its violence, and at Masuah, whence they are sent fcarcely is seen to flow; but, at the over to Arabia or India. The fame time, it there inakes so many priests of the province of Tigré, Ararp, unnatural windings, that it especially those near the rock Damo, differs from any other river 'Mr. are openly concerned in this inBruce ever faw, making about twenty famous practice ; and some of these tharp angular peninsulas in the course have been licensed to carry it on as of five miles, through a bare, a fair trade, upon paying so many marthy plain of clay, quite deftitute firelocks for each dozen or score of of trees, and exceedingly incon- flaves. venient and unpleasant to travel. Two priests of Tigré, whose names After passing this plain, it turns due Mr. Bruce has forgotten, had been north, receives the tribute of many long intimate friends. They dwelt small streams, the Gometti, the near the rock Damo. The youngest Googueri, and the Kebezza, which was married and had two children, defcend from the mountains of both fons; the other was qld, and
bad none. The old one reproved The payment of the money, per-
was delivered by it were to repent of their bargain, his father to the old priest, to carry from a pretended apprehension that him to this friend, who sent the boy they might be itopped and questioned to Dixan, and sold him there. Upon at going out of town, unless he would the old priest's return, after giving accompany them to some finall difthe father a splendid account of his tance; in consideration of which, fon's reception, treatment, and prof- they would give him, at parting, pects, he gave him a piece of cotton
two pieces of cloth to be added 10
[From the same Work.]
the bridge, which consists of one
OF THE GREAT CATARACT OF