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booles, and warriors of Neafoo, painted and decorated themselves with streamers, and put on mats, in token of Finow's inferiority as a relation to his aunt Toe Oomoo, chief of the fortress of Felletoa. They took spears in their hands, and, thus equipped, marched out of Neafoo, two and two, with Finow at their head, carrying with them presents for their relations in the opposite garrison. In this order they entered Felletoa, and proceeded to the malái, where all the chiefs and matabooles of Toe Domoo were seated ready to receive them. A quantity of hogs, yams, and fowls, were deposited in the middle of the circle, at the upper end of which a place was left vacant for the king to preside in, for, his aunt not being there, he was the greatest chief present. Had Toe Oomoo been also present, she must have presided, at the head of the circle, and the king, as her inferior relation, must have seated himself opposite to her, on the outside among the common people; for no two relations of different rank can sit in the same circle together. On this account, and out of respect to Finow, he being sovereign, Toe Oomoo did not make her appearance.

Finow being seated, his men, as they came in, deposited their spears in the middle of the circle, to be afterwards shared out in the same manner as was done by the Vavaoo people at Neafoo the day before ; they then retired to the outside of the circle, ready to wait upon the company. A large root of cava was then split into pieces, and distributed to be chewed as usual ; and while the cava was preparing, the provisions were shared out, ready to be eaten after it

** An accurate description of the ceremonious regulations of a cava party will be given in the second volume.

*

was drunk. This being done, and the provisions consumed, a second course of cava was prepared and served out, of which Finow having drunk a small quantity, retired to pay a visit to his aunt. When he arrived in her presence he went up to her, and, with great respect, kissed her hand, and she, in return, kissed his forehead. He then sat down to drink cava with her and her attendants, and, as

he presided, he of course sat outside facing her. When the cava was finished, he walked out to view the fortifications, on which occasion the matabooles of Toe Oomoo waited on him, and pointed out every thing worthy of notice. They descanted on the excellence of the plan, and then gave him anecdotes of the war, telling him where such a chief was killed, where another lost his arm or his leg, where a cannon-ball had struck, &c.; and, as they viewed the outside of the works, they pointed out where the different murderers of Toobó Nuha, met their fate. All this, however, they told him in answer to his queries ; for it is a thing very remarkable in the character of the people of Tonga, that they never exult in any feats of bravery they may have performed. On the con

When a person salutes a superior relation, he kisses the hand of the party; if a very superior relation, he kisses the foot ; the superior in return kisses the forehead. There may be some doubt as to the propriety of the term to kiss in this ceremony, for it not performed by the lips after our usual mode, but rather by the application of the upper lip and the nostrils, and has more the appearance of smell-" ing. When two equals are about to salute, each applies his upper lip and nostrils to the forehead of the other, or he applies his lips to the lips of the other, but without any movement of them, or smack, as in our mode. Our kiss they never adopt, not even between the sexes--they always ridicule it, and term it the white man's kiss,

trary, they take every opportunity of praising an adversary; although this adversary may be plainly a coward, and will make an excuse for him, such as the unfavourableness of the opportunity, or great fatigue, or ill state of health, or badness of his ground, &c. In their games of wrestling they act up to the same principle, never to speak ill of their antagonist afterwards, but always to praise him. As an illustration of this character it may be remarked, that the man who called himself Fannà Fonnooa, and ventured his life to throw his spear at the muzzle of Mr Mariner's carronade, never afterwards boasted of it, nor appeared to think he had done any thing worthy of afternotice. Their notions of true bravery seem to be very correct, and the light in which they viewed this act of Fannà Fonnooa serves for an example. They considered it in short a rash action, and unworthy a great and brave mind, that never risks any danger but with a moral certainty, or at least reasonable expectation, of doing some service to his cause.

In these respects they accuse Europeans of a great deal of vanity and selfishness, and, unfortunately, with too much justice. It must be remarked, however, that these noble sentiments belong to chiefs, matabooles, and professed warriors : not much to the lowest orders.

Finow having for a considerable time inspected the fortification, praising everywhere the judgment with which it was planned, retired to the house which had formerly belonged to Toobó Nuha, where he passed the night. The following morning he summoned a general meeting of the inhabitants of Vavaoo, which was soon accomplished, as the people were all at one or other of the two

ance.

fortresses. He then gave directions to all the principal men respecting the cultivation of the country, which the late war had reduced to a sad state. He commanded that every one should be as frugal as possible in his food, that the present scarcity might be recompensed with future abund

He ordered his fishermen to supply him and his chiefs with plenty of fish, that the con, sumption of pork might be lessened ; and, having settled these matters, he next gave orders that the large fortress of Felletoa should be taken down, its fencing carried away by any body who might want it, its banks levelled with the ground, and its ditches filled up; urging, as his reason, that there was no necessity for a garrisoned place in time of peace, particularly in a spot which could be so much better employed for building an additional number of more commodious dwellings. The fortress of Neafoo, he said, might remain, for it was a place not convenient to live at, and therefore it was not worth while to take any trouble about it. These were his ostensible reasons, but his real motives were easy to be seen into. He was apprehensive that, in the event of another insurrection, his enemies might again possess themselves of this stronghold ; but as to the other fortress, if he did not succeed in securing it for himself, he could easily dispossess them by destroying it with his carronades whenever he thought proper.

These orders were begun immediately to be put into execution, under the inspection of the chiefs of the different districts of the island. The following day, the king gave orders to Toobo Toa to proceed back to the Hapai Islands, of which

he constituted him tributary chief; the tributes * were to be sent to Vavaoo half yearly, as usual. At the same time, all the natives of Hapai, who had come to the war, were to return with their chief. On this occasion the young prince (Finow's son, Moegnagnongo) went with Toobó Tòa to the Hapai islands, as he wished to look over his lands on the island of Foa; and Mr Mariner accompanied the prince, preferring his character and habits to those of his father. They arrived safe at this island after a quick passage of about nine hours.

• The tributé generally consists of yams, mats, gnatoo, dried fish, live birds, &c. and is levied upon every man's property in proportion as he can spare. The quantity is sometimes determined by the chief of each district, though generally by the will of each individual, who will always take care to send quite as much as he can well afford, lest the superior chief should be offended with him, and deprive him of all that he has. This tribute is paid twice a year ; once at the ceremony of Inachi, or offering the first fruits of the season to the gods, in or about the beginning of October ; and again at some other time of the year, when the tributary chief may think proper, and is generally done when some article is in great plenty. The tribute levied at the time of the Inachi is general and absolute; that which is paid on the other occasion comes more in form of a present, but is so established by old custom, that, if it were omitted, it would amount to little less than an act of rebellion. It may here with propriety be observ. ed, that the practice of making presents to superior chiefs is very general and frequent. The higher class of chiefs generally make a present to the king of hugs or yams about once a fortnight. These chiets, about the same time, receive presents from those below them, and these last from others, and so on, down to the common people. The principle on which all this is grounded is of course far, but it is termed respect (ofa).

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