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Bishop Percy says-General Richard Talbot, newly created Earl of Tyrconnel, and a furious papist, had been nominated by King James II. to the lieutenancy of Ireland, 1686. This ballad was written, or at least re-published, on the Earl's second visit to Ireland in October, 1638, and we are told by Burnet that its effect upon the royal army cannot be imagined by those who did not see it. Soldiers and people, the city and the country, were singing it continually. "LilliBurlero" and Bullen-a-lah" are said to have been the distinctive watchwords of the Irish Romanists in their massacre of the Protestants 1641. The song was attributed to Lord Wharton; but, according to Lord Dartmouth, the ballad contains a particular expression which the King remembered to have used to Lord Dorset, whom, therefore, he concluded to be the writer. If "Cymro Tawel" will read Tristram Shandy he will hear a good deal about "Lilli-Burlero;" also if he reads Macaulay's History of England carefully he will find some interesting matter; Lilli-Burlero not being overlooked. Read also Bishop Burnet's History of My own Times.
The following are the words of the song:
Ho! broder Teague, dost hear de decree?
Lilli burlero, bullen a-la.
Dat we shall have a new deputie,
Lilli burlero, bullen a-la.
Lero lero, lilli burlero, lero lero, bullen a-la.
Ho! by shaint Tyburn, it is de Talböte :
This song had more to do in bringing about our revolution of 1688 than all the fine speeches and intrigues put together. It was "Lilli burle'ro" and the seven Bishops that hounded the Stuart from his throne.
HY. G. BUTTERWORTH.
THE AUTHOR OF THE GRAMMAR OF ORNAMENT (xi.-87).-The author of the "Grammar of Ornament was the son, and I believe the only son, of Owen Jones
(Owain Myfyr), the "Thames Street, Furrier," the person at whose expense the Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales was published. The epithet Myryrian in the title of these volumes is derived from Owain Myvyr.
JOHN WALTERS, B.A. (xi.—87).-The Rev. John Walters, B.A., was the son of the Rev. John Walters, rector of Llandough, Cowbridge, and the author of an English-Welsh Dictionary published in 1784. John Walters the younger died master of Ruthin School in 1789. He was rector of Mynechdid, in the same neighbourhood, where he lies buried. A tablet to his memory will be found on one of the walls of that church. Machynlleth.
THE WELSH HISTORICAL TRIADS (xi.-S8).—I wonder if the following, taken from two works relative to Wales and Welsh history, will throw any light upon the subject "W.M.T." inquires about. The Druids are said to have delivered their oracles or doctrines of faith in verses called "Triades," and most authors affirm that none of them are now to be met with either in record or in tradition, but Bingley, in his Tour Through North Wales, gives five examples, of which the following is one —
In the oak's high towering grove,
Dwells the liberty I love.—
The two first lines you will observe have not much connection with the last, but the last line in these Triads" always sets forth some moral precept or good proverb. John Jones, LL.D., who wrote a History of Wales, published in 1824, says, apropos of the "Triads," that "the men of Glamorgan" composed, in the latter part of the fifteenth century, a set of maxims which were supposed to express the opinions of the Druids respecting the Deity and morality. There were Theological and Moral Triads, one example of each will suffice to show the style :
"The three grand attributes of GOD : Infinite plenitude of Life, of Knowledge, and of Power."
A Moral Triad ran as follows:
"Three things produce Wisdom: Truth, Consideration, and Suffering." Berry Grove, Liss.
COL. PHILIP JONES (ix.-395; x.-188, 376).—The following additional particulars relating to this worthy came to hand from "Contributions towards a History of Swansea," by Mr. L. W. Dillwyn. In 1645, the year when the Parliamentarians first obtained possession of the town, "The House did nominate and appoint Philip Jones, Esq., to be Governor of the Garrison of Swansea." on November 17th. Again, on April 27th, 1646, "A Common Hall was held before Philip Jones, Steward and Governor of the town." His residence in 1650 was in High Street, and in the accounts of 1657-8 he is called Philip. Lord Jones. In Burton's Diary, with the date of January, 1656-7, it is said that "Philip Jones, who has now 7,000l. per annum, was born but to 81. or 101. a-year;" and this might have been the value of Penywaun. From an old pedigree in the possession of the late Rev. J. M. Treharne, Jones appears to have been "The son of one David Philip John ap Rees, of Penywain, in the parish of Llangyfelach." That at this time there was a royalist spy at Swansea appears from an original letter which Mr. Traherne found at Penrice Castle; of which the following is an extract. It is dated "Nagges Head, xv. August, 1746;" and is addressed by one James Jenkins to the Lady Elizabeth Sebright: "All your frinds are heere well. Collonell Jones went out of towne on Wednesday last. He did what he could in this business. I here there is 100 horse to wait on Coll. Mansel, and five companies of foote to remain in the Garrison of Cardiffe and Swansea." Sir Edward Sebright, an active partizan of the King, had married this lady, who was a daughter of the Earl of Manchester, and widow of Sir Lewis Mansel, of Margam. On August 19th, 1650, Aldermen David John, Robert Donnel, and William John, were, on different pretences, discharged ;
and Col. Philip Jones (who, in October, 1646, had been made a burgess), John Franklen, Thomas Williams, and Mathew David, were appointed to fill up the vacancies. The colonel's name again figures in the list of aldermen for 1657 as "Coll. Philip Jones, one of the Lords of his Highnesses Council." The year
in which the above letter is dated, 1746, is evidently a mistake for 1646, but it seems to have escaped Mr. Dillwyn's notice.
The following from the Guide to Swansea and District may be appropriate just here. "Col. Philip Jones, son of a Llangyfelach farmer, born in High Street (there is a diversity of opinion as to his birthplace) about 1618, joined the Parliamentary Army, was created colonel 1646, appointed Governor of Swansea Castle in 1655 (1645 ?), elected High Steward of Gower in 1659, sat in Parliament as Philip, Lord Jones; died in 1674, aged 56; and was buried in Penmark Church. A contemporary pamphleteer says, 'At the first of the wars he had about £7 or £20 per annum, but he made Hay whilst the Sun shin'd, and hath improved his Interest and Revenue in Land to £3,000 per annum, if not more." Col. Jones represented Breconshire in Parliament for the year 1656 (vide Jones's Breconshire).
P.S. Since writing the above, I have dropped across a copy of the Arch. Cam. for January, 1861, which contains a very interesting "Account of the Parish of Penmark," by Messrs. G. T. Clark and R. O. Jones. From the dates on the monuments in Penmark Church, it appears that Philip Jones died September 5th, 1674. Jane, his wife, died 23rd October, 1678. Samuel, their eldest son, died 13th January, 1671. Sir John, son of Philip Jones, died 12th November, 1672. Col. Jones had nine children, four sons and five daughters, most of whom lie buried in Penmark Church. I believe I am correct in stating that there was a portrait of the colonel in the possession of the late Admiral Oliver Jones (brother of Mr. R. O. Jones, Fonmon, just deceased), who married the widow of Mr. N. V. Edwards-Vaughan, of Rheola. Admiral Jones's widow (who has since married Mr. F. Palmer, of London), has, I believe, the portrait still in her possession.
SIR EDWARD STRALLING (x.—186; xi.-89.)-Edward was a family name with the Stradlings. The baronet of that name, to whom Mr. Williams referred as M.P. for Cardiff, 1698, married Elizabeth, daughter of Anthony Hungerford, Esq., and had a large family, of whom the eldest son, Edward, succeeded him as sixth Bart. He was Sheriff of Glamorganshire, 1710, and M.P. for Cardiff, 1714-22. He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Edward Mansel, of Margam. Nicholas, in his pedigree of the family, says all their children died young, and that the property and title descended to his brother, Thomas, who died unmarried, when the estates passed to Bussy, Lord Mansel, for his life. The death of that gentleman brought about a prolonged lawsuit, when a large portion was swallowed up in costs. The following is the monumental inscription on the Stradling tomb in St. Donat's Church :
"To the sacred memory of Edward Stradling, Bart., by Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Edward Mansel of Margam, in the same county, Bart. He was born the 30th of March, 1699, and departed this life in the fear of God the 3rd day of October, 1726, aged 27, to the unspeakable griefe of his parents and all that knew him, being a most accomplished gentleman in all respects."
"Here lies Sir Thomas Stradling, the second Bart. of England, and last of the name; he was the second son of Sir Edward Stradling, Bart., by Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Mansel of Margam, Bart., and younger brother to Edward Stradling, Esq., deposited within this tomb. He died at Mompellier, the 27th September, 1738, N.S., and was buried here the 19th of March following. By his death the title and family, after its continuance here near 700 years, became extinct. Etatis Suæ 28."
Bussy, the fourth, and last Lord Mansel of Margam, succeeded his brother, Christopher, to the Margam estates in 1744. He had represented Cardiff in the Parliament of 1727, also the County of Glamorgan, 1737. He died in London,
1750, and was buried in the Church of St. James, Westminster. At his death the Margam property fell to Thomas, the son of John Ivory Talbot, Esq., of Lacock Abbey, Wilts, and Mary, the daughter and heiress of Thomas Mansel, Lord Mansel of Margam.
HY. G. BUTTERWORTH.
CIMBRI AND CYMRY (x.-564).-" Cymro" tells us the Athenæum of October 9th, in reviewing Mr. Baring Gould's Story of the Nations, states that the author regards the Cimbri as Celts, repeating once more the often refuted blunder that the names Cimbri and Cymry are identical.'" But this statement is not one of the greatest aberrations found in this high-sounding periodical. Certainly, "often refuted blunder" is very elegant diction of a reviewer, especially in reference to a point in which, as it will be shown, there is no blunder at all. Refute a blunder is not an English expression, but may be Bow Bells' gibberish. After all, Mr. Baring Gould has not blundered in regarding the names Cimbri and Cymry as identical, and the Cimbri and Celts as, ethnically, the same people. However, the querist asks for the "best authorities" on the point. Those are writers who lived two or three thousand years ago, not new-born scribes. Some of them are the following ones:
Herodotus says it seems that the incursion of the Kimmerians into Ionia was more ancient than the time of Croesus (Το γαρ Κιμμερίων στατευμα το επι την Ιωνίην απικόμενον Κροίσου τον πρεσβύτερον); that the Kimmerians having, in the reign of Ardys, been expelled their country by the Scythian Nomades (about 720 B.c.), passed over into Asia (Οι Κιμμέριοι εξ ηδέων υπο Σκυθέων των Νομάδων εξαναστάντες απικέατο ες την Ασίην.); and that there were, even in his time, found in Scythia, walls and ferries which were termed Kimmerian:—(Kai vvv eσTI μEV EV τη Σκυθική Κιμμέρια τείχεα, εστι δε Πορθμια Κιμμέρια) Cleio, 6, 15, Melpom. 11, 13. Homer, about 800 years, at least, B.C., mentions the Cimmerians as inhabiting the north-eastern part of Europe:-(Ενθα δε Κιμμερίων ανδρων δημος τε πολις τε, &c., Odyss. x., ver. 14.) Strabo, in three places, refers to Homer's knowledge of the position of the Cimmerians (Geog., pp. 12, 38, 222.) He also, on the authority of Posidonius, tells us expressly that the Cimmerioi of the Greeks were the Cimbro of the Greeks and the Cimbri of the Latin writers-Quum Græci Cimbros Cimmeriorum nomine afficiant (lib. 7). Diodorus Siculus (lib. 5) pointedly says that to those who were called Cimmerioi the appellation of Cimbroi was applied in process of time, by the corruption of language. Plutarch (in Mario) says they were anciently called Cimmerioi, and afterwards Cimbroi.
By some writers they are called Comarians, Chomarians, Gomarites, and Gomarians. When it is considered that, in all these names, or rather modifications of the same name, the C was anciently pronounced hard, like K in Cimbri, and the labial B changeable into the labial M, or vice versa, and so, particularly in all branches of the Celtic language, in which C changes into Ch and into G, it is by no means wonderful that these names, differently spelled and pronounced by different nations, unacquainted with the lingual pronunciation of the nation whom they designated, should be identically one and the same name, and also the same as the present form of the name-Cymry. Josephus calls them Gomarians, and tells us that they were the same people as those whom the Greeks called Gauls:—τους γαρ νυν Ελλίνιον Γαλατας καλουμένους Γομαρεις δε Aeyouevous; the Latin translation of which, by Hudson, runs thus:-Qui enim nunc a Græcis Galatæ appellantur olim vero Gomarensis. Antiq. Jud., lib. i., c. 6. In like manner, Eustathius of Antioch (Com. in Hexam, p. 51) identifies the Gomarians with the Gauls-Γαμάρεις τους νυν Γαλατας συνέστησεν. St. Jerome and St. Isidore make similar statements, and also identify the Galate with the Galli. (Hierom. Trad. Heb. in Gen. Isidor. Orig., lib. ix., c. 2). In accord with these ecclesiastical writers are Dionysius of Alexandria (ver. 700); Pomponius Mela (lib. i., c. 2); Pliny (lih. vi., c. 16); Ptolemy (Geog., lib. vi., c. 11, 13), and other celebrated geographers and ethnologists.
Such are some of the authorities in proof that the Cimmerioi and the Cimbri were the same nation. The proofs that the Celts, Celta, Keltoi, or Galatai were the same people are equally conclusive. The Celts appear to have been a branch of the Cimmerian or Cimbric stock, of which there were several. The name Cimmerioi appears to have been a generic term, but the appellation Celtoi denominated a specific branch of this vast nation. However, that the Celtoi were Cimmerioi is clearly stated by Diodorus Siculus (lib. v., p. 309), and with equal decision by Arrian in two places (Illyr., p. 1196; De Bell. Civ., lib. i., p. 625); while the account of Plutarch (in Mario) implies the same thing. Thus we see that the Cimmerioi, Cimbri, Celtoi and Cymry are the same national race. Under these names, as well as Galatæ, Galli, Celtiberii, Celto-Scythæ, and so on, they inhabited, at one time, not only almost the whole of Europe, but also a great part of Asia Minor-the latter country under the name Kimmerioi, as written by Greek authors; but by the Romans under the name Cimbri, which only slightly differs from Cymry, the I of the Latin and other languages being anciently sounded like the present first y in this name Cymry, or the English i in stir, fir, &c. It is inferrible from the statements of a great number of Greek and Latin writers that the Kimmerioi or Cimbri spread over the north of Europe from Thrace to Jutland and
the German Ocean, or from the Kimmerian Bosphorus to the Cimbric Chersonesus, which places, to this day, in classic writers, bear their name. Tacitus (Germ. 37), about A.D. 70, when the power and number of the Cimbri had greatly diminished, writes of them thus:-"In the northern part of Germany, near the ocean, we find the Cimbri-a people, at present, of little account, but of mighty renown. On every shore there are monuments of their past power and greatness. From the size of their camps and extent of their ramparts, portions of which still remain, an estimate may be formed of their prodigious might, and a verification obtained of what has been stated of the vast numbers of their fighting men. In the year of Rome 640 (B.c. 109), the arms of the Cimbri alarmed the world." As Cimbri or Kimmerioi, colonies of them, many centuries before they had “alarmed the world," had crossed the German Ocean into Britain, where, apparently, as some of its first inhabitants, they retained their national name, Cimbri or Cymry, and called a portion of the island-probably that in which they first landed-Cymru or Cumbria, which, to this day, is called Cumberland. From Germany it was easy for the Cimbri to cross over either to Gaul or to Britain. Montesquieu has fully proved the identity of the Gauls, Celts and Britons with the ancient Germans, in language, manners, customs, religion, &c. Cæsar (Bell. Gall. ii., 4) tells us that the Cimbri as well as the Belgae had emigrated from Germany into Gaul. A late king of Denmark, having visited the Alpine Cimbrians, could easily converse with them, when both spoke their respective ancient languages (Notes on Caesar's Commentaries, ver. Cimbri). That an expedition of Cimbri crossed from Jutland to Britain, many centuries before the Christian era, has been traditionally handed down by the Danes and recorded by Saxo Grammaticus as a tradition of his nation. This accords with the remark of Tacitus (De Mor. Germ. 45), that the language of the Estians on the Baltic-apparently a Cimbric tribe-resembled the British-Lingua Britannica proprior. The Triads of the Isle of Britain also record that the Cymry or Cimbri came through the German Ocean into Britain and France, and that it was from the Cimmerian Bosphorus they had come into Germany. (Archaiology of Wales, vol. ii., pp. 57, 58).
Should any pyrrhonean still doubt that the Kimmerioi, Cimbri, Galatæ. Galli, Celte and Cymry are names of the same nation or branches of that nation, let him read Ammianus Marcellinus (lib. xv., c. 9); Diodorus Siculus (lib. v., c. 32); Aristotle (Meteor. i., 12; De Mirab. Auscult; De Mundo iii.); Cæsar (Bell. Gall. i., 1): Appian (De Reb. Gall.), and a host of others well known to classic readers.
For the origin of the word " 'Cymry" see Zeuss's Grammatica Celtica, second edition, p. 207 (first edition appeared in 1853). Glück's Keltische Namen (1857), p. 26 note, and Rhys's Celtic Britain, second edition, p. 279.
MRS. CURTIS (X.-565).—Mrs. Curtis was the youngest sister of Mrs. Siddons, and a continual source of sorrow and disgrace to the whole Kemble family. She at one time made herself notorious by joining a quack, named Graham, who delivered lectures on health and beauty. Efforts were made to reclaim her, but she sank lower and lower. In the language of the day, "she could not conform to modesty, though offered a genteel annuity on that condition." She was allowed twenty pounds a year by Mrs. Siddons, which was continued by will till her death in 1838. In her latter days she eked out a miserable subsistence by writing novels, and "Ann of Swansea became known in the circulating libraries. Mr. Gattie, describing her as living at Swansea in 1819, writes-"She is allowed something by the family, she squints, is a large woman, writes novels." The two other sisters of Mrs. Siddons were named Mrs. Twiss and Mrs. Whitelock.
GEO. H. BRIERLEY.