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sharp bill, or instrument. They must be dibbled into the earth by an iron crow, to the depth of fourteen or twenty inches, so that not more than six, or less than four appear above. If the truncheon should not fill the hole, the earth must be trampled close round it, in order that the air may be excluded. Care must be taken that the plant be set as the pole grows. The cuttings should be from poles of about three years growth. Maiden poles are the best; they should be set three foot [feet] asunder in the quincunx form, as thus :

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Those truncheons will shoot out many branches, two or three of which will grow to poles if the land is good ; if not, only one. Those poles I have sold at eight years growth, for 2141. per acre, neat money; the kids or brushwood pay for the felliag. Had I suffered them to have stood two years longer, they would have produced 300l. per acre. Should any of the plants look weak or puny, or not shoot vigorously, it will be necessary to dig in a skuttle full of manure, to the roots, which I have no doubt in saying will pay.

: Though I have planted no less than ten acres, I cannot say positively, from my own knowledge, what the value would have been had they remained on the ground for fifteen or twenty years, having been called on for sets by the gentlemen of the neiglibourhood, which I have sold for three pound a thousand. I must here observe, that the stools from whence the sets are cut, shoot very luxuriously, and will produce from three to four poles.

• The length of poles, at eight years growth, were from thirty. three to thirty-six feet, and most of them were large enough to make three rails, two at the bottom and one at the top; but the great use to which they are applied, is the purpose of making hurdles, flakes, gates, and other farming implements, being a wood uncommonly tough and light, owing, as I conceive, to a new method I made use of in planting them close to the ground. If it is the design of the planter to let them grow into timber (which I would venture to say would be far superior to deal for the purpose of flooring, or other light work, particularly as it will neither splinter nor fire; and if suffered to remain for twenty or twenty-five years, would make good masts for small craft, as they shoot up perfectly strait, and without any colla. tera! branches) it is necessary, at the first or second year's growth, to observe which pole is the strongest, as the remaining poles must be cut away. In about fifteen years time I am led to suppose they will want thinning ; of course the inferior must be taken out and the superior be suffered to remain.

• The times of planting must be from January to the end of March; but the sets for that purpose should be cut from December to the end of February; when the sap is down.* If however there are

5* And the reason is, that if poles are cut in the spring (the sap being up) the stool will at last be weakened by bleeding, if not killed; and of course prevented from shooting so vigorously as if cut at the preceding time.

people people so injudicious as to sell sets in spring, it will be to the advantage of the purchaser to plant them, as the sap is then in the poles, The reason why many are induced to cut at that time, is on the

supposed account of their peeling better ; but I can affirm from experience, thar poles cut in December, January, or February, and laid ja rows upon the ground, or the ends put in water, will peel as well in the spring as at the usual time.

In regard to fencing, the planter should pay the greatest attention to it, otherwise his time and expence will be fruitless.'

Mr. Lowe does not forget to notice the manufactories of the county : but he complains of their increasing the rates on the occupiers of land. He speaks, however, very favourably of the Poor, and exhibits a pleasing picture of their comforts. On the subject of tythes, he gives his opinion with great ingenuous ness : but we cannot agree with him that occupiers in general would not be benefited by a composition, or compensation, in lieu of tythes. If tythes obstruct improvements, which is generally agreed, we are not to calculate the occupier's advan-, tage from the suppression of tythes in kind, according to the present value of his crops.

In returning thanks to several noblemen and gentlemen for their communications, Mr. Lowe is obliged to except the case. of one or two individuals. We cannot but feel extreme surprise that any should be so illiberal as to withhold their assistance, especially when solicited, from such an undertaking.

Moo-y.

I2s.

N the

Art. XII. Vindication of Homer, and of the Ancient Poets and

Historians, who have recorded the Siege and Fall of Troy, in Ali swer to two late Publications of Mr. Bryant*. With a Map and Plates. By J. B. S. Morritt, Esq. 410. pp. 124. Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1998. N

year 1794, Mr. Morritt, being on his travels, and having reached Constantinople, determined to investigate the Troad, and the shores of the Hellespont, with Homer in his hand. He accordingly arrived there in the November of that year, accompanied by two other English gentlemen, Messrs. Stockdale and Dallaway; the latter of whom has published an account of the present face of the country, and of its striking coincidence with the Homeric description t. On Mr. M.'s return to England in 1796, Mr. Bryant's scepticism respecting the Trujan war, and even the existence of Troy itself, engaged his attention, and full of zeal for the honour of the great Poet, and convinced by ocular demonstration that there is no bis

* See Rev. vol. xxii. N. S. p. 142, &c.
+ “ Constantinople and its cavirons." See Rev. vol.xxv. N. S.p.121.
Rev. OCT. 1799.

torian,

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torian, however exact, who can compare in this respect with Homer,' (p.78.) he offers the present vindication to the public.

We shall waive a positive decision on the merits of this grand literary question ; giving only a short analysis of Mr. Morritt's treatise, and some specimens of the scholar-like manner in which he has proposed and conducted his argument. · He first contends that chronological accuracy is not essential to the establishment of facts; and that the chronology of Homer is consistent with itself, as far as it goes; as well as his whole story, though corrupted by otħers. The proof of the probable cause of the Trojan war is furnished in the very analogous story of Dermot of Leinster and O'Rourk, in Mitford's History of Greece, Vol. I. ch. 1. sect. 4. The bond of connection of the Grecian army must be sought in the preponderance of the House of Atreus. Thucydides, so far from doubting, affirms the fact; he was aware of all the obnoxious circumstances relative to the manners of the heroic ages; and yet he never considered them as objections to the truth of Homer's story. Mr. M. does 13ot allow that Homer's silence was à proof that no correspondence existed between Greece and the army. As to the age of Helen, no inferences can be drawn from a chronology so imperfect. The general consistency of Homer evinces rather his truth than his ingenuity; and the names of his heroes were not applied merely to creatures of his imagination. Mr. Bryant's conjectures on the country of Homer are said to be unsupported and inadmissible.

These are the heads of argument, which are discussed with erudition and ability. The recapitulation of the whole is subjoined:

• From the thorough destruction of his supposeti series of evidence, I come to a conclusion diametrically opposite to Mr. Bryant's. If Homer bears such a semblance of truth; if Varro and Justin do not refute his veracity; if the grounds of the war were probable and naCural, the men engaged in it, and the conduct of it such as might be expected; if Thucydides, Diodorus, and Herodotus, both confirm and account for it; if the accounts giren of the numbers and ships of the Greeks are credible, and if their proceedings in Troas, as far as are recorded, are consonant to nature; if their correspondence with Greece and the age of Helen, and of the Lovers and Suitors, all prove nothing against the fact ; if the objection about the Arcadian mariners is without any foundation ; if the foss and rampart were such 25 might casily be destroyed, and the topographical objections every where founded on mistaken notions, as I shall now endeavour to prove ; it follows that all conclusions drawn from such premises are annihilated, and therefore that Troy may have existed notwithstand. ing the objections of Mfr. Bryant. There seems besides to be still es reason for supposing it to have existed in Egypt. Conjectures upen Homer's life and writings may be answered by other conjec. tures, but in reality as they prove nothing, they need not be answered at all; Homer's acquaintance with Egypt is slight ground for such an inference ; of the writers who treated the subject, only one (Phan. tasia) is said to be an Egyptian, and her name confutes the story. Not one is mentioned as placing Troy out of Phrygia either before or since, so that if it belonged to Egypt, such a concurrence in favour of one particular spot is wholly incredible. Therefore we must either suppose Phantasia wrote on a Greek story, or that Homer, Syagrius, Dictys, Dares, and other Greeks, wrote on an Egyptian one, and both ideas are equally absurd. The ancient traditions for ever are in contradiction with respect to the particulars, many different accounts are transmitted, but most of them are subsequent to Homer, whose consistency bears great internal marks of truth, and not one tradition or story, either antient or modern, ever removed Homer's llium to Egypt, till the attempt of Mr. Bryant. If I have accounted for the difficulties which he finds in respect to the Greek names and Grecian worship introduced by Homer into Phrygia; if the names said to be borrowed by Homer from the deities, were, in his time, probably the common names of his country ; if the Egyptian derivation of Agamemnon is without proof; and if his own authorities, so far from assisting him when they are fairly quoted, really disprove his arguments; if the memorials found in the different parts of the world, and the deification of Homer's heroes are reall; confirmations of the received opinion, the consequence follows that we have no sort of ground, from any

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argument Mr. Bryant has used, to suppose that the scenes of the Iliad were originally foreign to Phrygia, but we have many unanswerable reasons to believe the reverse. Having shewn therefore, as I trust, that Ilium did not exist in Egypt; having before shewn that there is no reason to doubt the ancient story concerning the war in Phrygia, it shall be my effort to convince the reader that it did exist, and in the very sicuation where Homer has placed it.'

In the second Part, Mr. Morritt enters into the investigation of the real Site of Troy and the Trojan war; following, in a great degree, the light held out by M. Chevalier, who had been Iris predecessor in the same pursuit, having been employed for that purpose by M. de Choiseul-Gouffier, the French Ambassador to the Porte. It does not appear that any conference had taken place between Mr. M. and M. Chevaliers nor that they were personally known to each other. The latter's description and map of the Troad were of course consulted by Mr. M. on the spot :--but Homer was his guide.

After some remarks on the nature of the plain, and the rivers Simois and Scamander; having arrived at Bounar-bachi, the Turkish village, near to the supposed site of Troy, the travellers visited the sources of the last mentioned river. Mr. M. (referring to an accurate engraving) observes : 02

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· The morning after this, our first object was to examine the nature of the fountains below the village, from which we took the ad joined view. The cold spring gushes out from four or five crevices at the foot of the rock, which forms the foreground of this picture. At the small distance here delineated, another spring arises, which, at the time I was there, was of considerable warmth. Its waters are even now received into a marble bason, like those of Homer's Scamander, and in that part of the bason where the water enters, the temperature is scarcely of less heat than that of the warm spring at Bristol. The Turks who had attended us from Bounarbachi, confirmed the assertion of Chevaliti, that the water was considerably warmer during frost, and steamed very visibly. If this was the Scamander, then the Scæan gate was near the springs, but I shall say more of this, wher I come to consider the situation of the city. After examining what related to tlie city, we followed the course of this stream, riding along the foot of the hills which bound the plain to the south and west.

The warm and cold springs very soon unite their waters, and roll along in the plain with a beautifully clear current. At the foot of the hills below Erkissiqui, the plain becomes marshy, and is overgrown with sedges and rushes; descending thence into the plain we crossed the Scamander over a bridge, which we had before passed in coming from Alexandria. The river here after winding through the marslı changes its course, and runs down a valley on the left in a perfictly straight canal. The ground on each side of this canal is thrown up, and affords the clearest conviction of its having been the work

From hence, therefore, guided by Chevalier, we attempted to trace the ancient channel: A winding bed, in which some water still trickles when the Scamander is full, immediately caught our eye ; it is of the same size with the adjoining part of the stream where it branches off, and by following the windings of its banks we arrived soon after at those of the larger river, into which it has formerly fallen. At and below the conflux, marsh, myrtles, osiers, and aqua. tic plants, grow in abundance: I have already noticed the high banks of sand through which the larger river flows: I will add that in summer this last is often dry, except where the sea which inundates the marshes flows in at the mouth of it. It is always muddy, and rolls down stones and fragments from the mountains. But the other, notwithstanding severe rains, was still, when I saw it, “ like crystal clear,” and in summer its channel is never dry; a property which, in this climate, might well justify the epithets of_aydaou vower &c. I own, throughout every part of this description, I cannot recollect any one local expression of Homer, which is not accurate at this day, if applied to the spot I have described.'

We have then the following very interesting piece of topo graphy, in confirmation of the locality of Troy and the Homeric description :

• Returning then to the sources of the spring at Bounatbachi, let us consider the nature of the ground that rises above them: A short slope rises on the east, and Bounarbachi stands on the flat table land above it; this plain farther east terminates at a deep dell, where

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of art.

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