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Unguentum Chrysarobini,-Chrysarobin 10, Benzoinated Lard 90 parts. Should be diluted for average use from 3 to 5 times.

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS.

In 20 grain doses Chrysarobin is a gastro-intestinal irritant, producing large, watery, bilious stools, with repeated vomiting but not much nausea. Locally it produces diffuse dermatitis often followed by follicular and furuncular inflammation. It stains the skin a dark yellowish-brown color, which may be removed by a weak solution of chlorinated lime. The use of this remedy is confined to superficial parasitic skin diseases of vegetable origin, and for psoriasis, in the latter affection it being the best remedy known. It may be used in weak ointment locally, and internally in-grain doses.

CIMICIFUGA, Black Snake-root, Black Cohosh,-is the rhizome and rootlets of Cimicifuga racemosa, a plant of the nat. ord. Ranunculaceæ, native in the United States. Rhizome horizontal, 2 inches long or more, about 1 inch thick, with numerous upright or curved branches. Rootlets numerous, containing a ligneous cord which branches into four or five rays. Contains a Volatile Oil when fresh, resin, tannic and gallic acids, also an acrid, crystallizable, neutral principle. Cimicifugin or Macrotin is an impure resin obtained by precipitation from a concentrated tincture by the addition of water. The active principle has not been isolated.

Preparations of the Fresh Root. Extractum Cimicifuge Fluidum,-alcoholic. Dose, mv-xxx. Tinctura Cimicifuga,--20 per cent. Dose, mxv-3j.

Macrotin (Unofficial),-Dose, gr. 1⁄2-ij.

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.

Cimicifuga is stomachic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant. Its taste is bitter and nauseous, resembling that of Opium. It acts on the heart and circulation similarly to Digitalis, and on unstriped muscular fibre like Ergot, but is much feebler in activity. than either of these agents. Small doses stimulate digestion and secretion, the generative function and the menstrual flow, and especially the secretions of the bronchial mucous membrane and the kidneys. Full doses slow the heart while increasing its force, raise arterial tension and stimulate uterine contraction. Large doses dilate the pupils and produce dimness of vision, vertigo, intense headache, nausea, vomiting, and in some persons soporific and anodyne effects.

THERAPEUTICS.

Cimicifuga closely resembles Digitalis in action, but it is safer, and should be more frequently used when the latter drug is indicated.

In

cardiac diseases it is very efficient, especially in weak or fatty heart where Digitalis would be dangerous. It is a good stomachic tonic, particularly in the irritable dyspepsia of alcoholism. As an expectorant it is used in acute and chronic bronchitis. It is a good nerve-tonic, in delirium tremens, and in functional impotence it is remarkably efficient. In rheumatism of the localized muscular variety, as lumbago, torticollis, pleurodynia, intercostal rheumatism, etc., it is one of the most efficacious remedies, having a strong affinity for the muscular system. Neuralgias of various kinds are benefited by it, particularly ovarian neuralgia. Chorea about the age of puberty is one of the affections in which it is most efficient, and the same may be said of the hysterical form of this disease.

Many uterine disorders are remarkably benefited by Cimicifuga, such as amenorrhoea, neuralgic and congestive dysmenorrhoea, subinvolution, spinal irritation due to some obscure sympathetic or neuralgic affection of the womb, sympathetic pains and neuralgia arising from the so-called irritable womb, passive menorrhagia, etc. In obstetrics it gives excellent results when used to initiate uterine contractions, check hemorrhage, allay afterpains and nervousness after delivery. In puerperal mania and peritonitis its good effects are frequently remarkable, and in puerperal hypochondriasis it is strongly recommended by very high authority.

CINCHONA, Peruvian Bark.-The Cinchona tree belongs to the nat. ord. Rubiacea and is a native of the eastern slope of the Andes, but has been largely planted in India, Ceylon, Java and Burmah, with the result of improving the quinine-yielding value of many species by cultivation. In late years the test of appearance has given way to that of assay in judging of the various barks of commerce, and only those are official which yield 3 per cent. of total alkaloids of which at least 2 per cent. must be Quinine. Yellow bark contains most Quinine (as high as 9 per cent. having been obtained from one specimen), pale bark contains most Cinchonine and least Quinine, while red bark contains these alkaloids in about equal proportions. The Columbian varieties afford the largest percentage of Cinchonidine.

The principal varieties of the sub-order Cinchoneæ, the barks of which are found in commerce and used by manufacturers of the alkaloids, are

Cinchona Calisaya, Yellow Bark,-from Peru, Bolivia and India.
Cinchona Succiruba, Red Bark,-from Ecuador, Java and Ceylon.
Cinchona Condaminea, Pale Bark,-from Ecuador and Peru.
Cinchona Pitayensis, Pitaya Bark,-from New Granada.
Cinchona Micrantha, Gray Bark,-from Peru and Bolivia.

Altogether there are some 31 species acknowledged by botanists, and the list is constantly increasing, from the tendency of the different trees

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to hybridize. Several trees formerly acknowledged as Cinchonas are now placed in the genus Cascarilla, but their barks are to be found on the market. Cuprea bark is from trees of the genus Remijia, growing in Columbia; it contains Quinine and a peculiar alkaloid, Cinchonamine, but no Cinchonidine.

OFFICIAL SPECIES.

CINCHONA, is the bark of any species of Cinchona which contains at least 3 per cent. of its peculiar alkaloid, as determined by assay according to a prescribed rule.

Cinchona Flava, Yellow Cinchona, Calisaya Bark,-is the bark of Cinchona Calisaya, containing at least 2 per cent of quinine. Occurs in tawny-yellow flat pieces or quills, ridged exteriorly, finely striated on inner surface, breaking with a transverse fracture showing numerous rigid fibres in bundles or radial rows.

Cinchona Rubra, Red Cinchona,-the bark of C. succiruba, containing at least 2 per cent. of Quinine. Occurs in brown-red quills and flat pieces of various sizes, with ridges and warts on outer surface, coarsely striated on inner surface.

Bark may be administered in doses of gr. x.-3j, but it is never used now in substance, being too bulky and disagreeable.

COMPOSITION OF CINCHONA.

The bark contains 21 natural alkaloids (of which 4 are official), 8 artificial alkaloids, 2 simple acids, 2 tannic acids, a resinoid and coloringmatter, as follows::

Quinine, CH,,N,O,,-a strong base, fluorescent, the most valuable of all the alkaloids; heated with glycerin to 374° F., it is converted into the isomeric base Quinicine. Quinidine, CH, NO2,-isomeric with Quinine, fluorescent, probably the most powerful as an antiperiodic, but existing in very small quantity.

Cinchonine, CH,N,O,—the least active of the official four, having about half the therapeutic power of Quinine. Not fluorescent.

Cinchonidine, C2H4N,O,-isomeric with Cinchonine, not fluorescent, one of the most powerful of the alkaloids.

Kinic and Kinovic Acids,—are combined in the bark with the alkaloids. The former is used to make a Kinate of Quinine, and the latter occurs in non-official pharmacy as Kinovate of Lime, an ingredient in Deloudre's Extract, which is used in Europe and India for dysentery.

Kino-tannic and Kinovo-tannic Acids,―give to bark its peculiar and powerful astringent qualities. They have not been fully studied.

Kinovin,-is a bitter, amorphous resinoid, which is resolvable into Kinovic Acid and It is soluble in alcohol, but not in water.

sugar.

Cinchona Red,—a reddish-brown, insipid, inodorous substance.

[The other alkaloids are of no interest medicinally.]

Preparations of the Bark.

Extractum Cinchona,-made from Yellow Cinchona. Dose, gr. j-v.
Extractum Cinchona Fluidum,-from Yellow Cinchona. Dose, mx-3j.
Tinctura Cinchona,-Yellow Cinchona, strength 20 per cent. Dose, 3s-ij..

Tinctura Cinchone Composita,-made from Red Cinchona, strength 10 per cent. Contains Bitter Orange-peel 8, and Serpentaria 2 per cent. Dose, 3j-3 ss.

Infusum Cinchona,-made from any official bark. Cinchona 6, Aromatic Sulphuric Acid 1, Water 93 parts. Is the only official infusion containing this acid. Dose, 3j-3j

or more.

Huxham's Tincture of Bark, 1788 (Unofficial), is still used. Red Cinchona iv, Orange peel iij, Serpentaria gr. lxxx, Spanish Saffron gr. clx, Cochineal gr. lxxx, Brandy 3xl, digested for 4 days, expressed and filtered. Dose, 3 ss-ij.

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Quinine and its Salts.

Quinina, Quinine, C2H2N2O2.3H,O,—a white, amorphous or minutely crystalline powder, of alkaline reaction and very bitter taste, soluble in 1600 of water and 6 of alcohol at 59° F., in 25 of ether, 5 of chloroform, and readily in dilute acids. Dose, gr. j-xx, or xl in special cases. Is insoluble in saliva.

Quinine Sulphas, Sulphate of Quinine (CHN2O2),.H2SO,.7H,O,—very light, snow white, fragile crystals, of very bitter, persistent taste, soluble in 700 of water and 65 of alcohol at 59° F., in 30 of boiling water, 3 of boiling alcohol, also in acidulated water. Dose, gr. j-xx, or even gr. xl in special cases.

2

Quinine Bisulphas, Bisulphate of Quinine, CH NO.H2SO, .7H2O,-clear, colorless, efflorescent crystals or small needles, of very bitter taste and strongly acid reaction, soluble in 10 of water with blue efflorescence, and in 32 of alcohol, at 59° F. Dose, gr. j-xxx, or even gr. lx in special cases.

Quinine Hydrobromas, Hydrobromate of Quinine, C20H2,N ‚N2O2HBr.2H2O,—colorless needles, of very bitter taste, soluble in 16 of water and in 3 of alcohol at 59° F., and in I of boiling water or alcohol. Is the best salt for hypodermic use, 3j of water dissolving gr. iv, which may be injected every 4 hours without causing irritation. Dose, gr. j-xx.

Quinine Hydrochloras, Muriate of Quinine, CH,N,O,HC1.2H,O,-white needles in tufts, of very bitter taste, soluble in 34 of water and 3 of alcohol at 59° F., in I of boiling water or alcohol. Is used hypodermically. Dose, gr. j-xx. An excellent salt which should be more generally used; 5 to 10 gr. doses are antipyretic.

10

Quinina Valerianas, Valerianate of Quinine, CH, N2O,CH12.H2O,-white, pearly crystals, of valerianic odor and bitter taste, soluble in 100 of water and in 5 of alcohol at 59° F. Dose, gr. j-iij. It is the only salt of Quinine supposed to be affected by the constituent acid.

Quinine Hydrochloras Carbamidata, Carbamide Hydrochlorate of Quinine (Unofficial), -is a new compound salt of Quinine and Urea, soluble in equal parts of water and there. fore admirably adapted for hypodermic administration in a 50 per cent. solution. It is almost unirritating to the tissues, and is given subcutaneously in doses of gr. j-iij.

Chininum Amorphum Boricum, Amorphous Borate of Quinine (Unofficial),—is a new preparation, soluble in an equal quantity of water, and claimed by its introducers to be equally as satisfactory as any other Quinine salt, and much better borne by the stomach than any other one. It is also said to cause little or no congestion of the membrana tympani.

--

Tinctura Pyrexialis, Warburg's Tincture (Unofficial),-is a celebrated preparation, formerly secret, but published in 1875 by the originator, whose formula is as follows:R. Aloes soc. Ib j; Rad. rhei (chinens), Sem. angelicæ, Confec. Damocratis,* aa Ziv; Rad. helenii (s. enulæ), Croci sativi, Sem. foeniculi, Creta, prep., ää 3ij; Rad. gentianæ, Rad. zedoariæ, Pip. cubeba, Myrrhæ elect., Camphora, Bolet. laricis, aa 3j. Digest the whole with 500 oz. of proof spirit in a water-bath for 12 hours, express, add 3x Bisulphate of Quinine, dissolve by aid of a water-bath, cool and filter. Dose, j, in two doses 3 hours apart. Hager's modification of the original formula is-R. Quininæ sulph. part. j, Spt. camphoræ part. ij, Elix. proprietatis (Tinct. aloes et myrrhæ) part. xxij, Alcoholis part. xvj. The evidence published in favor of this preparation goes to show that its power does not wholly lie in the quinine, camphor, aloes or rhubarb, but in some of the .aromatic plants contained in it.

Other Official Alkaloids and their Preparations.

Cinchonina, Cinchonine, C20HN,O,-white, lustrous prisms or needles, of bitter after-taste, almost insoluble in water, readily so in dilute acids and 110 of alcohol at 59° F. Dose, gr. j-xxx or more.

Cinchonine Sulphas, Sulphate of Cinchonine (CHN2O), H2SO.2H,O,—white, shining prisms, of very bitter taste, soluble in 70 of water and in 6 of alcohol at 59° F., and readily soluble in dilute acids. Dose, gr. v-xxx or more.

Cinchonidina Sulphas, Sulphate of Cinchonidine (C20H24N2O),H,SO, 3H,O,— white, silky crystals, of bitter taste, soluble in 100 of water and in 71 of alcohol at 59° F., freely soluble in acidulated water. Dose, gr. j-xx or more.

Quinidine Sulphas, Sulphate of Quinidine (CH ̧Ñ2O2)¿H¿SO2H,O,—white,

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* For the formula for this ingredient see the article on Confections in the section on Extemporaneous Pharmacy, Part II.

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silky needles, of bitter taste, soluble in 100 of water and in 8 of alcohol, readily in acidulated water, at 59° F. Dose, gr. j-xx or more. It is not so bitter as Quinine, is less expensive, and is a valuable antipyretic and antiperiodic.

Chinoidinum, Chinoidin, Quinoidin,-a mixture of alkaloids, mostly amorphous, obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of the crystallizable alkaloids from Cinchona. A black solid when cold, plastic when warmed, of bitter taste, almost insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol and in dilute acids. It contains the 4 alkaloids in amorphous condition, and has about 1⁄2 the therapeutic power of Quinine. Dose, gr. v-xxx or more.

Non-Official Preparations.

Quinquinina, or Quinetum,-is an Indian preparation containing the total alkaloids extracted from bark by acidulated water, then precipitated by soda and dried. In India it is called "febrifuge."

Cinchonidine Salicylas, Salicylate of Cinchonidine,—has anti-malarial power only inferior to the salts of Quinine.

SUBSTITUTES FOR QUININE.

The synthetical production of Quinine has been the "philosopher's stone" of the modern chemists, who have prosecuted with untiring energy the search for an artificial product possessing all its properties. Though in this they have as yet been unsuccessful, they have discovered several organic bodies, which closely resemble each other and also quinine, both in chemical constitution and physiological action. These substances belong to the aromatic series of carbon compounds, all of which are derivatives of Benzene or Benzol, CH, the Hydride of the organic radical Phenyl, CH5. The distinctive action of the lower members of this series is their antiseptic and antipyretic powers,-as that of the fatty series of carbon compounds is stimulant and anesthetic (Brunton). Many of these agents are obtained from coal-tar oil (petroleum) by fractional distillation, etc.,—and they are all derivatives of Benzene (Benzol), either directly or from some of the products formed therefrom, by substitution; various radicals replacing the different constituent atoms of H and C.

Thus, by the ring-arrangement of atoms peculiar to this series, there are formed from Benzene (CH), the following substances, viz.—

Phenol, or Carbolic Acid, CH,OH-by replacing H by OH, (hydroxyl).
Pyrocatechin, or Ortho-

Rescorcin,

or Meta

CH(OH)2.

di-hydroxy-benzene,—by replacing 2H by 2OH. Hydroquinone, or Para-) CH ̧(OH),.

Pyrogallol, Pyrogallic Acid, Tri-hydroxybenzene CH(OH)3,-3H by 3OH.
Amido-benzene, or Anilin, CH,.NH,-by replacing H by NH, (amidogen).
Nitro-benzene, CH.NO,-by replacing H by NO, (nitroxyl).

Benzoic Acid, CH,CO.OH-by replacing H by CO.OH (carboxyl).

Salicylic Acid, HC,H,O,—by replacing 2H by OH and CO.OH.

Naphthaline, CH-by uniting two Benzines in an over-lapping ring.

Pyridine, CH,N-by replacing tetrad C by triad N.

Chinoline, CH,N-uniting Benzene (CH) and Pyridine (CHN).

Derived from Chinoline is the hypothetical base.

Chinicine or Quinicine, C,H,N,,-represented in Antipyrine.

Also Kairine, Thalline, and other compounds.

The most important of these are Antipyrine, Acetanilide, Resorcin.

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