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245

Circum

perque duas in morem fluminis Arctos,
Arctos Oceani metuentis aequore tingui.
Illic, ut perhibent, aut intempesta silet nox
Semper, et obtenta densantur nocte tenebrae;
Aut redit a nobis Aurora diemque reducit;
Nosque ubi primus equis Oriens adflavit anhelis,
Illic sera rubens accendit lumina Vesper.
Hinc tempestates dubio praediscere caelo

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Μυρίος αι δ' άρα οι σπείρης εκάτερθε φύ. 249.] 'Redire,' 'reducere,'and other words

of the sort, are constantly used, as Wund. "Αρκτοι κυανέου πεφυλαγμέναι ωκεανοίο. remarks, of the recurring order of nature. Elabitur,' shoots out :' not the same as

“ Informis hiemes reducit Iuppiter, idem • labitur.' Forb.

Summovet,' Hor. 2 Od. 10. 15. The words 246.] ‘Metuentis—tingui' like “metu. imply that the thing has happened before, ente solvi," Hor. 2 Od. 2.7. So Homer of and thence the notion of regular succession

is inferred. the Bear (II. 18. 489), oίη δ' άμμορός έστι λουτρών ωκεανοίο.

250.] · Oriens,' the rising sun, as in A. 247.] The two cases are that either the 5. 739, where this line is nearly repeated. southern regions are in total darkness or

The horses of the sun come panting up hill, that they have day when we have night. casting their breath, which, as Keightley The doctrine that the sun perishes every observes, represents the morning air, on the day is Epicurean. Lucretius mentions both objects before them. alternatives (5. 650 foll.):

251.] Seneca (Ep. 122), quoting this

line, gives • Illis,' which would be highly “At nox obruit ingenti caligine terras, plausible, if supported by any MS. But

Aut ubi de longo cursu sol extima caeli Virgil is speaking of the region, not of the Inpulit, atque suos afflavit languidus ignis inhabitants, and the hypothesis of vv. 247, Concussos itere, et labefactos aere multo : 248 would be hardly compatible with the Aut quia sub terras cursum convortere cogit existence of antipodes at all, though in a Vis eadem, supra quae terras pertulit or- different connexion, v. 237, he seems to bem."

believe in them, placing them doubtless in Intempesta nox:' Enn. A. 106, 172, Lucr.5. Libya. So 'a nobis,' v. 249, answers to 986, like vurtòwoi: “cum tempus agendi 'illic,' v. 247. •Lumina' is Vesper's own est nullum,” as it is defined in Varro, L. L.5. rays-not the light of sunset, as Voss thinks, 2. It seems to have been a question whether taking Vesper' generally of evening; nor the expression denoted any particular time the other stars, as others interpret it, much of night. Macrobius (Sat. 1. 3) and Cen- less, as the old commentators thought, the sorinus (Die Nat. last ch.) make it the in- candles that are lighted on earth. Comp. terval between bedtime (* nox concubia ) 4.401, “ medios cum Sol accenderit aestus.and midnight. Varro l. c. identifies it with · Rubens' may merely mean · bright,' like .nox concubia :' Serv. on A. 3. 587 with “ Luna rubens," Hor. 2 Od. 11. 10 (where midnight ; while Festus, p. 82, arguing from see Macleane's note), or the colour of sunits etymology, refers it to no fixed time. set may be naturally transferred to the star. There appears to be the same uncertainty 252-258.] From this disposition of about its Greek equivalent. The rhythm of nature the husbandman and the mariner the verse is doubtless meant to be descrip- get certain knowledge, and may consult the tive.— All is wrapped in eternal night, heavens with confidence.' with its silence that knows no seasons, and 252.] • Hinc' seems to refer to the whole its thick pall deepening the gloom.'

of the preceding passage from v. 231, 248.] Wagn. connects 'semper' with which has been devoted to an exposition of what follows : but the rhythm produced by certain parts of the mundane system. That the old pointing is surely superior. 'Ob- system has been mentioned at the outset tenta nocte,' which is introduced rather care- (* Idcirco,' v. 231) as the guarantee for the lessly after “nox,' is perhaps imitated from regularity of the seasons, on the knowledge Hom. Od. 11. 19, alémi vùž ólon rétaral of which the proceedings of the husband. delloloi Bporoioi. 'Densantur' Med., 'den- man depend, and now Virgil enforces the sentur' Rom. Both forms of the verb are conclusion-- It is on the strength of this used by Virgil.

that we know beforehand,' &c.

Vv. 257,

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Possumus, hinc messisque diem tempusque serendi,
Et quando infidum remis inpellere marmor
Conveniat, quando armatas deducere classis,

255
Aut tempestivam silvis evertere pinum:
Nec frustra signorum obitus speculamur et ortus,
Temporibusque parem diversis quattuor annum.

Frigidus agricolam si quando continet imber,
Multa, forent quae mox caelo properanda sereno, 260
Maturare datur : durum procudit arator

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Vomeris obtunsi dentem : cavat arbore lintres;

Aut pecori signum aut numeros inpressit acervis. 258 must clearly belong to this paragraph, the watch for:' here it means merely to not to that which follows, as Prof. Ramsay pay attention to.' has pointed out in the Classical Museum, vol. 259—275.] . Even rainy weather has its 5, pp. 107 foll. They come in fact under employments; and so have holy days.'

Hinc,' which is the introduction to the 259.] Hitherto Virgil has been insisting whole paragraph. • Hence it is that our on the importance of the weather : he now watchings for the rising and setting of the shows that weather which is bad for ordistars, and our attention to the course of the nary out-door purposes is good for other seasons are not thrown away.' 'Tempes- things. • Frigidus imber' cannot apply to tates' seems rightly understood by Keightley the winter, on account of "si quando :' beof changes of weather, which agrees with sides, winter occupations are mentioned vv. . dubio caelo.'

305 foll. Frigidus' is an ordinary epithet 253.] The weather and the seasons are of rain, as chilling the air, just as hiemps' matters of equal importance to landsmen and is used indifferently of storm and winter. seamen (vv. 204 foll. : comp. v. 456), so the • Continet,' keeps him from his work :' con. occupations of both are mentioned here. •In- fines him to the house. “ Dum se continet fidum' is significant, as showing the import- Auster, Dum sedet et siccat' madidas in carance of knowing when to venture on the sea. cere pennas,” Juv. 5. 100. There may be a distinction, as Voss thinks, 260.) • Properare,' 'to hurry,' is conbetween remis,' the smaller craft, and trasted with maturare,' 'to get done in 'classis,' the larger ; but it seems more likely good time.' See A. 1. 137. The contrast that Virgil first speaks generally of putting is noticed by Gell. Jo. 11., Macr. Sat. 6. 8, to sea, and then contrasts the fleet when who follow a remark of Nigidius Figulus, rigged with the cutting down of the timber. “ Mature est quod neque citius neque serius

255.] 'Armatas,' rigged.' “ Armari sed medium quiddam et temperatum est.” classem cursumque parari,” A. 4. 299. 261.] • Procudit' is explained by .ob. • Deducere' of ships, A. 3. 71., 4. 398. tunsi. Forb. quotes Lucr. 5. 1264, “ Et Cerda comp. Hor. 1 Od. 4. 1, “Solvitur prorsum quamvis in acuta ac tenuia posse acris hiemps grata vice veris et Favoni, Tra- Mucronum duci fastigia procudendo.” huntque siccas machinae carinas."

262.] • Lintres' were troughs into which 256.] «Tempestivam' with evertere:' grapes were put after the vintage. úpaia réuveobai túla, Theophr. cited by mihi servabit plenis in lintribus uvas,” Ursinus. Cato 31, whom Macr. Sat. 6. 4, Tibull. 1. 5. 23. Cato (11) mentions them rather unreasonably charges Virgil with among the requisite apparatus for a vinecopying, says of pines and other trees, yard, saying that two are required for a “cum effodies, luna decrescente eximito, vineyard of 100 jugera. They appear to post meridiem, sine vento austro. Tum have been the same as 'naviae' (Fest. s. v. erit tempestiva, cum semen suum maturum 'navia ') which were made from a single erit.” Pall. (12. 15) says that the best time piece of wood, and so called from their reof the year is February.

semblance to ships or canoes, whence both 258.] · Parem’ is intended to contrast

• Arbore' is a sort of material with diversis,' as Serv. remarks. The ablative, like "ocreas lento ducunt ar. seasons are diverse, yet as they are of equal gento,” A. 7. 634. lengths, and succeed each other regularly, 263.] Branding cattle is mentioned again they make the year uniform. •Speculamur' 3. 158. It was done with boiling pitch, in v. 257 appears to mean strictly .to be on generally towards the end of January and

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Exacuunt alii vallos furcasque bicornis,
Atque Amerina parant lentae retinacula viti.

265
Nunc facilis rubea texatur fiscina virga ;
Nunc torrete igni fruges, nunc frangite saxo.
Quippe etiam festis quaedam exercere diebus
Fas et iura sinunt: rivos deducere nulla
Religio vetuit, segeti praetendere saepem,

270
Insidias avibus moliri, incendere vepres,

Balantumque gregem fluvio mersare salubri. April (Col. 7. 9., 11. 2). It is not easy to the authority of Varro that irrigation was see how the acervi’ can have had numbers forbidden, and appealing to the Pontifical stamped on them if they were werely heaps books to show that works might be finished of corn, as apparently they are in vv. 158, on holy days, though not begun, and con185 ; so we must either suppose • inpressit' sequently that water already let on might to be used by a kind of zeugma, the heaps be let off ; but the extract he gives is being really numbered in some other way, or rather in favour of the other interpretation : understand 'acervi’ as sacks or vessels of “ feriis denicalibus aquam in pratum du

cere, nisi legitimam, non licet: ceteris feriis 264.] The valli' and `furcae' were omnes aquas licet deducere(comp. Col. 2. probably intended to support the vines. 21 (22), where there is a similar distinction See 2. 359.

between the sanctity of 'feriae denicales' 265.] Col. (4. 30), speaking of willows for and that of other holy days). Macr., Sat. tying up the vine (salices viminales '), enu. 3. 3, explains deducere ' by detergere,' merates three sorts—the Greek, the Gallic, alleging that old water courses might be and the Sabine or Amerian, the last of cleaned on holy days, but not new which has a slender red twig.

made : and so Columella, 1. c., enumerates 266.] ‘Facilis, pliant,' an epithet be- among lawful things “ fossas veteres tergere longing rather to 'virga,' as Keightley re

et purgare."

But it is not easy to extract marks. • Rubea' of briars. “ Vincula this sense out of the words of Virgil, though qualia sunt ex rubo,” Col. 4. 31. Serv. Heyne attempts to do so, arguing that he makes it an adjective from “Rubi' in who cleans a water-course lets the water Apulia (Hor. 1 S. 5. 94); but there is no flow, 'deducit.' If any argument could be reason to suppose that the twigs there were founded on the greater or less appropriategood for basket-making.

ness of the work in question to holy days, 267.] A. 1. 178, 179. The roasting or it would be natural to suppose Virgil to be drying was to make the corn easier to grind. speaking of drawing off a stream which had

268.] Why, even on holy days a hus- suddenly overflowed in the corn-field. On bandman may do something. So Cato 2, the other hand, Mr. Macleane remarks that speaking of the means which the landowner to lead the water down the channels would has of checking the amount of work done by be a work of daily necessity for gardens in his servants, mentions holy-day employ- hot weather. ments after those for rainy weather. The 270.] Religio’ is here used in its techthings which may or may not be done on nical sense as a restraining, not an imperaholy days are enumerated at length by Col. tive power. “Segeti praetendere saepem 2 21 (22).

raises another difficulty, as Col. 1. c. says 269.] ‘Fas et iura,' divine and human that the pontiffs forbid the making of laws' (Serv.), who however seems wrong in hedges for corn on holy days. Forb. and seeking for a real distinction where Virgil Keightley suppose that old hedges might probably only intended surplusage. Rivos be repaired, though not new ones made: deducere :' it is not clear whether letting but Virgil's words are surely express. water on or off is meant. The language 271.] 'Insidias avibus moliri' seems to will bear either equally, according to the use refer to snaring mischievous birds (vv. 119, of deducere,' though “ deducere aquam in 156), as that would be a work of necessity, vias,” Cato 155 (156), is used for drawing which ordinary bird-catching would not be. water off from a field, and · deducit' occurs • Incendere vepres :' Cato, 2 (quoted by in a similar sense above, v. 113, as opposed Keightley), mentions vepres recidi' among to inducit,' v. 106. Serv. maintains that the works for holy days. the latter must be intended, asserting on 272.] Washing sheep for cleanliness was

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Saepe oleo tardi costas agitator aselli
Vilibus aut onerat pomis; lapidemque revertens
Incusum aut atrae massam picis urbe reportat. 275

Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna
Felicis operum. Quintam fuge: pallidus Orcus
Eumenidesque satae ; tum partu Terra nefando

Coeumque Iapetumque creat, saevumque Typhoea, not allowed on holy days, according to of ipsa' seems to be that the mere position Macr. and Col. ll. cc., who observe that of days in the month gives them a certain • salubri' is emphatic, indicating that the fitness or unfitness for agricultural purposes, washing is to cure disease. Comp. 3. 445 irrespectively of more scientific considerafoll. * Balantum ’is doubtless meant to be tions. • Dedit' is commonly taken as an forcible, the sheep bleating when they are aorist : but it may mean that the moon has washed, as in 3. 457, when they are in made the ordinance once for all in regupain : but it is elsewhere no more than a lating the month. •Alio ordine' opp. to generally descriptive epithet, discriminating “uno ordine,” A. 2. 102. It is as if Virgil sheep from other cattle by their bleat, as in had said .omnis dies non pariter felicis A. 7. 538. To which class such passages fecit.' Alios' is followed by quintam,' as Enn. Alex. fr. 1. 5, Lucr. 2. 369., 6. as in Tibull. 3. 6. 32 (quoted by Wund.), 1132 are to be referred, is hard to say. “ Venit post multos una serena dies.”

273.] Varro ap. Serv. says that markets 277.] 'Felicis operum,'' happy in respect were held on holy days, to give countrymen of (agricultural) work' ('operum'as in 2. an opportunity of going to town. Col. 1. c. 472: comp. the title of Hesiod's poem), quotes Cato (138) as saying that mules, like “infelix animi,” A. 4. 529 (see on G. 3. horses, and asses had no holy days, adding 498), “ fortunatus laborum,”11. 416. The that the pontifical books forbad the har- construction is virtually equivalent to that nessing of mules on “feriae denicales.' with the abl. 'Quintam fuge :' * Agitator aselli,' the driver, like “ equorum lépatas {Ealéaodai, érzi xalenai te agitator," A. 2. 476, i. e. not the man whose

kai aivai. business it was to drive asses ( asinarius'), 'Εν πέμπτη γάρ φασιν Ερινύας αμφιποbut the peasant who happens to drive the λεύειν ass to market.

We need hardly inquire "Όρκον γεινόμενον, τον "Έρις τεκε πημwhether aselli' belongs primarily to écos- έπιόρκους. (Hes. Works 802.) tas' or to “agitator.'

274.] . Vilibus 'harmonizes with onerat,' Wilfully or ignorantly Virgil misinterprets implying, as Serv. remarks, that they are Hesiod, confounding “Oproç, the god of the abundant. · Lapidem incusum' is ex- oath, with the Latin Orcus, the god of plained by Serv. of a mill-stone, which is the dead, and making the Eumenides born indented that it may crush the corn better. themselves on the fifth, instead of attending

275.] ‘Picis :' pitch would be useful for on the birth (if that be Hesiod's meaning, marking cattle, securing casks, repairing which is doubtful, especially as some copies vessels, &c.

give τιννυμένας for γεινόμενον) of "Ορκος. 276—286.] “The days of the lunar month For a similar misinterpretation see E. 8. 58 are not all equally lucky for work. The note. • Pallidus' of the ghastliness of fifth is bad, the seventeenth good, and, in a death, Horace's Pallida mors.' different way, the ninth.'

278.] • Tum' seems better taken with 276.] Virgil is said by Pliny (18. 32) to Serv. in its ordinary sense of 'then’ than have followed Democritus in this enumera- with Forb. as "moreover.' It appears to be tion of lucky and unlucky days. Hesiod added here because it had been omitted (Works 765 foll.) bad treated the subject in the previous clause. No other extant at much greater length. Varro, 1. 37, has authority appears to fix the birth of the a chapter on the same subject, but his treat- giants to this day. ment of it is entirely different. Virgil's own 279.] The birth of • Coeus' and `Iapetus' treatment is sufficiently cursory, only three is mentioned Hes. Theog. 134, that of “Tydays being named in all, for good or for evil, phoeus,' ib. 821 foll., the latter not taking and those not accurately represented, at place till after the expulsion of the Titans least according to Hesiod, who was evi- from heaven. The two former were the dently to some extent bis model. The force sons of Earth and Uranus, the latter of

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Et coniuratos caelum rescindere fratres.
Ter sunt conati inponere Pelio Ossam
Scilicet, atque Ossae frondosum involvere Olympum;
Ter Pater exstructos disiecit fulmine montis.
Septuma post decumam felix et ponere vitem,
Et prensos domitare boves, et licia telae
Addere; nona fugae melior, contraria furtis.

Multa adeo gelida melius se nocte dedere,

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Earth and Tartarus. •Typhoeus' is dis- 805, where the seventeenth follows the tinguished from the rest by the epithet fifth immediately, though the work which

saevus,' as he was the most formidable he assigns to it is not the same as here. Of (Hes. I. c.). •Creat :' see on E. 8. 45. the works which Virgil assigns to the seven* Typhoea' is probably a trisyllable, the teenth planting is referred by Hes. to the two last vowels coalescing (comp. Orphea,' thirteenth, taming cattle to the fourteenth, E. 6. 30), as in Greek (Tupwéa), though it weaving to the twelfth. Ponere,' 'to plant might be scanned as a dactyl, hypermetri. in order;' 2. 273, E. 1. 74. “Felix ponere:' cally or otherwise. See on 2. 69.

see on E. 5. 1. 280.] It is doubtful whether “fratres' 285.) • Prensos domitare, perhaps for refers to the giant-brood generally, or to the prendere et domitare:' + pnúvaivéni xeipa two · Aloidae.' The deeds mentioned in riosis, Hes. v. 797. Taking in hand, 'prenthe following lines are ascribed to the latter dere,' is the first step towards breaking in, by Homer (Od. 11.304 foll.), and by Virgil 'domitare. Comp. 3. 206, 7. Licia telae himself (A. 6. 582, where the words “re- addere,' 'to add the leashes of the woof to scindere caelum' occur again): but the the warp,' to weave. See Dict. A. ' tela,' • Aloidae 'were the sons not of Earth, but where Tibull. 1. 6. 78, Firmaque conof Poseidon and Iphimedeia. Possibly ductis adnectit licia telis,” is compared. Virgil may have misunderstood the passage 286.] “Fugae' seems to refer to fugitive in the Odyssey, where they are said in slaves. Virgil however, as Heyne ren ks, Homeric phrase to have been nourished by may be speaking not in their interest, but the Earth, though the word there used is in that of the husbandman, who is warned to äpovpa. “Rescindere may be to break be on his guard that day, while on the other open,' like “ vias rescindere,” Lucr. 2. 406, hand he need not watch agains Sieves. In or it may be compared with Aesch. Prom. Hesiod the ninth day is merely mentioned 357 (of Typhoeus), ús tnv Alòs Tupavvido as good for work of any sort. • Contraria εκπέρσων βία.

furtis :' “ avibus contraria cunctis,” Lucr. 6. 281.] "Οσσαν επ’ Ούλύμπω μέμασαν 741. θέμεν, αυτάρ επ' "Οσση Πήλιον είνoσί- 287–296.] Some work is fittest for pullov, iv' oúpavos áußatós ein, Hom. l. night or early morning, mowing for inc. Virgil reverses the positions of Pelion stance; and long winter evenings may be and Olympus, and transfers to the latter well spent by the husbandman cutting the epithet attached to the former. The torches, by his wife in weaving, or boiling non-elision of the 'i' and 'o' and the and skimming.' shortening of the latter are in imitation of 287.] As in vv. 259 foll., Virgil's thought the Greek rhythm, and are appropriate here seems to be that no part of the husbandand elsewhere where the subject reminds us man's time is unemployed, and that every of Greek poetry.

work should be done at its right time. 282.] •Scilicet,' agreeably to its etymo- Gelida nocte' is doubtless contrasted with logy (scire licet'), introduces an explanation medio aestu,' at the same time that it inor development. Here it introduces the dicates the cool dew as that which makes details of the conspiracy of the giants. work easier. Melius se dedere :' the ge• Involvere' is used in its strict sense of neral sense is that many operations are per

rolling upon,' like “ involvitur aris,” A. 12. formed better at certain times. Virgil ex292. Olympus is heaved up the sides of Ossa. presses the notion of performance by se

283.] The three-fold attempt seems to be dedere,' to indicate the dependence of the Virgil's invention.

husbandman upon nature. Thus the use of 284.] • Septuma post decumam,' the 'se dare' here is parallel rather to the seventeenth, as is evident from Hesiod, v. instances where it is equivalent to occur.

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