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ebé Sultan immediately becomes mo- grandeur of the Ottoman prince, who parch and high priest. The fuccef- never is required to bend the knee fors of Mahomed, who aisumed the to any mortal; while the first prince title of Kalif, or Vicar of the Pro- in Europe, who has only the rank of phet, succeslively removed their royal deacon in the Roman hierarchy, can leats from Medina ro Couffa, on the only be placed after the dean of the Euphrates, and at last established it cardinals in a pontifical ceremony. 1 at Bagdat, where it remained many The aigrette is, among the Ottoages. Thele kaliffs at first affumed mans, the mark of Imperial power; both the pontificare and royalty, ud the sultan and his children only have til the Turkish sultans began to find the privilege of wearing it. It is comihow dangerous it was to be subject to posed of many large diamonds fura foreigo pontiff, who pofleffed a fo- mounted with black plùmes, of great tereignty; they dreaded expoling value, and is placed in the middle of themselves to the payment of eccle- the turban, above the forehead. fiaftical dues; therefore opposed his "The fultan has a palace on the Balls, and prevented the exportation canal of the Black Sea, and another of fpecie. They would doubtless in the middle of the port. It is ą, without this have seen an army of grand and magnificent fight to see this dervises spring up, under the name of sovereign and his train pass in his the company of Mahomet, who would gondolas; the figure of a cock, of have undermined the Faperial autho- folid gold, which is upon the royal rity, and joined with the Kaliff of gondola, diftinguithes it from the rest. Bagdat in the abuse of their miniftry. All of them are richly painted and These reasons combined were tutti. gilt, rowed by stout boatmen ; they ciently powerful to induce the Sul- pass through the water with a surprize tans to deprive the Kaliffs of their ing celerity, while the artillery of the double authority: They at first res. Seraglio, the arsenal, and the shipsi peated them from policy, but by de. by repeated discharges of artillery, grees they affumed the prieftly power falute bis Highness as he passes. tothemselves, and the esteem for them, The fultan, like the other prioces which was supported only by opinions of Europe, has many great officers of grew weaker, and ai laft disappeared his household, who hold the first rank The fulian bow in his joigt charac. in the empire; their employments ters of Kaliff and supreme Imam, re- are in general similar to those in ogards the Mufti only as his secretary ther European courts, except the el, and interpreter, to explain the Alco- tablishment of the eunuchs, which are
From bencé arises the real peculiar to the Asiatic princes.
Account of some extraordinary Structures on the tops of Hills in the Highlands.
By Alexander Fraler Tytler, Esq; (Continued from p. 103.)
UT those ancient fortifications sible to ascertain the æra iñ, which
and more interesting object of fpecu- some useful light might be thrown aplation, than those uncertain and in- on the ancient history of this country, deed fruitless conjectures as to the and the condition of society in those mode in which they have been rear- remote periods. This I shall now ed. It is evident; that, were it pos. attempt; and, in the course of a short
172 Ancient Fortifications in the Highlands of Scotland. disquisition upon that subject, fhall “ ribus enim dejectis ubi amplum cirhave occasion to mark the progress of “ culum fepierunt, ibi calas ibid-m architecture in Britain, from its first “ fibi ponunt, et pecori ftabula conintroduction into the southern pirts, “ duni, ad vium quidem non longi till it had atrained to consider able “ têmporis." Strabo Gengr. lib. 4. perfection, and the knowledge of the Of this nature were all the British art of building had extended itself, towns in the southern part of the in some degree, to the remotest quar. illand at the time of Cæsar. Such ters of the island.
was the town of Callibelaous, probabAt the time when those fortifica: ly a place of the greatest confideration tions were reared, it is evident that in the island, as being the residence the use of mortar was unknown. As of that chief under whom the whole it must be fuppofed that the builders of the southern Britons agreed to u. exerted the utmost of their architec- nite their forces to oppole the Rotural skill (so far as strength was con: mans at their second descent upon the cerned) in fabricating those structures, coasts. “ Ab his cognoscit non lon. we cannot doubt that, as the country ge ex loco oppidum Callibelani. aabounded in linie-stones had its use “ beffe, filvis paludibusque munitum, been known as a cement, it must have quo fatis magnus hominum
pecobeen employed in such works. This " risque nimeras convenerit.” Cæl. brings them at once up to a period of de Belio Gail. lib. cap. 21. This optine prior to the Roman establish- pidum Cambelani was Verulamium, ments in the tiorthern parts of Brio the present St Albans. (See Camtain. The Romans employed mor- dens and Horsley's Britannia Roma. tar in all their buildings, of which na.) London, or the capital of the many remains are at present exifting Trinobante's, was then a place of inte. in those parts of the island where they rior note to Verulam. The Romans are known to have formed serile- dignified the latter with the title of a ments. They taught the Britons the municipium, while the former was use of that cement, of which, till then simply an oppidum ; and therefore they were ignorant.
strictly correfpondent to Cæsar's geAt the time of Cæsar's invasion of neral description ; a portion of a thick Britain, the in!'abitants of the south- wood surrounded with a dirch and em, and probably the most civilized rampart. part of the islam, lived in huis con- If such was the appearance of LonAtructed with turf, or with the branche don at the time of the second invalon es of trees. Their towns or villages of the iNand by Cæfar, which hapwere nothing more than an inclofed pened fifty-five years before the part of a wood, surrounded by a diich Christian #ra, we have certain eviand rampart, within the circle of dence, ifiat'the fouthern Britons had which they scared their buts. “ Op- undergone a remarkable change ja pidum voca't -Britanni cum sylvas im- their mode of life, and nrade a great
arque foffa munierunt.” progress in retinement and civilization : Cæl, de Bell. Gill. lib. 5. cap. 21. in the space of 107 years, which elap
These inclotures or towns were but a fed from that time to the great victemporary residence, and probably re- tcry gained over the Romans by their forted to, only when it was necessary Queen Boadicea. Ar this latter pe. to defend themselves against an ene- riod; Tacitus mentions London as a my. They were lo spacious as to af- Aourishing town, which, though not ford securiiy, boin to the inhabitants dis nified sith the title of a Romaa themselves and to their cattle. “ Ur- colony, was a place of trade and opu“ bium loco ipüs iunt nemora. Arbo. leuce, and a great resort for merch
“ Londinum quidem cogno- erected any buildings in the illand « mento coloniæ non insigne, sed co- which could serve as a model of res! “ pia negociatorum et commeatuum gular architecture. In the fifth year “ maxime celebre." Annal. lib. 14. of the Emperor Nero happened that cap. 33. The Britons of the south signal defeat of the Romans by che had, therefore, profited very greatly British Queen Boadicea, occasioned by a short intercourse with the Ro- principally by the revolt, or, as Ta mans; and this progress will appear citus terms it, the rebellion of the more remarkable, when it is consider. Trinobanres. One great cause of this ed, that, from the time of Cæsar's in- revolt had beca the election of a magvalion to the reign of Claudius, during nificent temple to the livine Claudius, almost a complere century, there was
which the Britons regarded as an inno Roman army in Britain, nor any sulting monument of the Romag Nation or settlement of that people in power and their own abject Navery. the illand. The Britons, therefore, " Ad hæc teir,plum divo Claudio had, as yet, enjoyed little more than « conftitutum, quasi arx æternæ dothe fight of a polished and improved “ minationis afpiciebatur ; delectique people. Amidit the tumult of hosti- “ facerdotes, specie religionis, omnes lities, there was no opportunity to i- « fortunas effundebant.” Tacit. Ano mitate the practices, or study the ac- nal. lib. 14. cap. 31. That this temple complishments of the people by whom was a structure of great magnitude they were invaded; but they faw e- and folidity, appears from this cirnough to convince them of their own cumstance, that the Romans retreated Signal inferiority in all the arts of to it as their last strong hold, and, cultivated life, and to excite a desire for two days, defended themselves in to imitate them in a subsequent season it against the besieging Britons. “Ceof tranquillity. This they obtained tera quidem impetu direpta aut inby the retreat of the Romans; and “ censa sunt : Templum in quo mi. profiting to the utmost by those lights “ les le conglobaverat, biduo obselthey had acquired, they made a more “ sum expugnatumque.” sapid advancement or civilization, 32. than perhaps in any after period of The Britons, prosecuting their suctheir history. Cities were built, har. cefi, attacked, pillage:d, and fee fire bours constructed for the accommo- to several of the Roman forts and dation of mercantile fleets, and money garrisons, London and Verulam Coined for the niedium of trade. The were destroyed; and, in those two coinage of Cunobeline, the successor places, (a convincing proof of their of Calliolanus, and Sovereign of the magnitude and pop dition) the BriCalii and Trinobantes, from the tons mafficred about 70,009 Roman mints of Colchester, Verulam, and citizens and their allies. But these London, is a proof, not only of an temporary successes were soon checkextensive commerce, but of a very ed by a dreadfu' defeat of the Britons considerable advancement in the arts. by Saetonius Paulinus, in which
In this interval, therefore, between 80,000 were left deal upon the field of the invasion of Cæfar and the reign bartle. Fron that time, the Romans of Claudius, this period of rapid im- advanced into the internal part of provement, it is probable the Britons the island ; and finding themselves of the south firit learned the art of more feebly refift:d, as their power constructing durable buildings with became more known, began now 10 mortar ; though we do not find from apply themselves to the civilization of any clallic author, that, before the the rude people whom they had subreign of Nero, the Ronians had dued. Julius Agricola, in the second
174 Å tient Firtifications in the Highlands of Scotland. year of his com mand, as Proprætor the second year of Hadrian, A. D. of Britain, A. 1). 79. reduced the in- 120, when that Emperor built his habitants of North Wales, of Che- vallum across the itland, between Sol. Thire, and of Lancashire, io absolute
trich and the mouth of the Tyne; subjection, and conquered the isle of he confidered the Roman Province Anglesey. Hiving fufficieatly evin- as extending no further to the nortli ced his power, he tried the effect of than that rampart.
6 Murum per alluring the natives to an easy fubmif- “ octoginta millia pafluum primus fion, by giving tem a taite of the en- “ duxit qui bárbaros Romanosque joyments of a polished people: To- “ dividerei." Vit. Hadr. Hift. Aug. wards this purp vse, the Romans en- Scrift. couraged the } itons to build regular This interval; therefore, of more towns, asisted them in constructing than thirty years, must have been a teniples, marke --places, and commo. period of remarkable inprovement to dious dwellings, and taught tiem the favage Caledonians. Maintaining even the use of the baths and porti- a constant intercourse with the Rocos, and all the luxuries of the Ro- mans, not diftinguished by extraordiman banquets. To this precise pe nary hostilities, and gradually regainriod, we may refer the foundation of ing a country in which they found many of the towns in the west of the recent works of a polished people, England, which are known to have they could not fail to acquire niuch had a Roman origin, as Lancalter, knowledge in the arts. Ai the time, Manchester, Warrington, Ribchefter, therefore, when Adrian built his rama Overborough, Coloe, &c.
part, A. D: 120, we know, almoft to Aribis vime, therefore, A. D. 79, a certainty, that the inhabitants of the Britons of irche north-western paris Scotland, as far to the north as the of England, kad acquired a contider: Grampian mountains, understood and able knowledge of regular architec- practised the art of constructing du. fure. But ail to the north of the table buildings with mortar. The Roman conquests, we must presume forts or castella erected by Agricola, was in its original state of barbarism. which Tacitus says wete so trongly Improvement, however, must have conftructed as to resist the utmoft efkept pace with the advances of the forts of the enemy, to take them bý Romans into tlie country; and it is storm, were now in the poffeffion of therefore not difficult to mark its the Caledonians. The Roman castella progress. In the yeur so, we find were circular, and sumetimes square, Agricola emplo, ed in erecting a chain inclosures, furrounded with a strong of forts between the friths of Clyde wall of stone, hewn into square blocks
, and Forth; and in 83, the last year and cemented with mortar: The of his command, he had penetrated to space inclosed was sufficient to coo the foot of the Grampian mountains tain various buildings likewise of in the northern paris of Angus. Itone, barracks for the wintet habitaFrom this time, curing the remainder tion of the troops, granaries for proof the reign of Domitian, and thro' visions, and sometimes baths. The the whole of the reigns of Nerva and form of thele caftella may be seen in of Trajan, a period of above thirty the sculptures opon the Trajan cojears, the Romanit made no progress lumn, and their construction may be in the island. The northern parts of learut from Vegetius. The remaing the province were ill defended, and of a bath belonging to one of these sbe Caledonians, in that interval, re- castella, poobably erected by Agricocovered all that part of Scotland la, were discovered, within thele few Which Agricola hiid gaiged; for, io years, at tlie village of Dalnoter, be
tween Glasgow and Dumbarton. The The moft northerly Roman Alation, Caledonians had witnessed the build- according to Ptolemy, is the oppston ing of those structures, which were sqaroridor, or caltra ala ta, which, in the Teared with the most perfect skill in itinerary of Richard, is termed Pro
military archite&ture, from materials rotone. This, I think, there is every î which the country furnished in abun- reason to believe to have been that
dance. They were now in poffesfior fortified promontory,, now called the of the structures themfelves. It is Burgh of Moray. Ant any rate, it is reasonable, therefore, to conclude, certain there were se reral Roman ftathat they now learnt the art of con, tions in that neighbo prhood, as TuesAructing regular buildings with stone fis, Varis, and Pto: otone, which is and mortar, and practised it, both for fufficient for our purpose. It is then the purposes of deience and habita- evident, that, in the reign of Antotion ; because the contrary supposition sinus Pius, and with in a few years of would do violence to all probability. A D. 140, the dai t of this vallum,
The wall of Adrian, which was the Romans had fised præsidia and built in izo, and that of Antoninus built castella in the rieighbourhood of Pius, built, as Horsley thinks, in 140, Inverness, from which part of Scotwere both constructed solely of turf, land, there was an uminterrupted miBat they were defended by caftella, litary road, as appe:urs by Richard's placed at intervals of various distance, itinerary, to the Land's end in Corn. ăccording to the nature of the ground. wall. At this period, therefore, the The wall of Antoninus ran across frca inhabitants of this region of Scotland Dambarton on Clyde to Cramond must have been acquainted, from the on the frith of Forth, and was pro. practice of the Roni ans, with the art bably in the precise line of the castel- of building with mortar. And, as la built by Agricola. It was at this the structure of these hill-fortifica, period, and under the command of tions demonstrates the ignorance of Lollius Urbicus, the lieutenant of the builders of the use of that cement, Antoninus, that the Romans made the most complete evidence thence atheir farthest advances into the island' rises, that they were reared prior to of Britain. After the erection of this the time above mentioned, that is, anew vallum, which had probably been bove sixteen centuries and a half areared in the idea, that the country go. to the north of it was hardly worth
But how far beyond that period we securing, Urbicus marched to the are to search for the date of those linDorthward, and finding, beyond his gular fortifications, ftill remains in expectation, that the country, especi- doubt. All that we can, with cerally along the fea-coatt, was open and tainty, conclude, is, that they belong fertile, he appears to have prosecuted to a period of extreme barbarism. his conquests as far north as Inver. They must have been constructed by a nefs. For this fact, we want indeed people scarcely removed from the the authority of any Roman historian; itate of favages, who lived under no but the Geography of Ptolemy, and impression of fixed or regulated prothe late discovered itinerary of Rich- perty in land, whose only appropriaard of Cirencester, prove, beyond all red goods were their cattle, and whose doubt, that there were Roman fta- sole security, in a life of constant detions in the neighbourhood of Inver- predation, was the retreat to the fum. ness; and there is no other Roman ge- mits of those hills of difficult access, neral, but Urbicus, who, to the days of which they had ferrified in the best Prolemy, can be fupposed to have pal- manner they could. As the space in. fed the limits of Agricola's conquests. closed was incapable of containing a