Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

Quellennachweis. In der bei John Hunt erschienenen Ausgabe führt der Dichter seine Hauptquellen mit den Worten an:

The foundation of the following story will be found partly in the account of the mutiny of the Bounty in the South Seas [in 1789] and partly in Mariner's Account of the Tonga Islands.“

Der Titel von dem am Schlusse des vorigen Kapitels erwähnten Auszug lautet „Extract from the Voyage by Captain Bligh.“ Moore hat nun in seiner Ausgabe von der Insel“ 1) den Text der Quellenangabe etwas geändert, indem von dem ersten Werke der Titel genauer angegeben und der Name und Stand des Verfassers hinzugefügt ist. ) Indes sind die in Anführungszeichen gesetzten Worte „Narrative . . . bis einschliesslich 1789“ und „Mariner's .... bis einschliesslich Tonga Islands nicht die genauen Titel der zwei Werke. Blighs Bericht erschien zuerst als „A Narrative of the Mutiny on Board His Majesty's Ship Bounty, and the subsequent Voyage of Part of the Crew, in the Ships Boat, from Tofoa, one of the Friendly Islands, to Timor, a Dutch Settlement in the East Indies. Written by William Bligh. London 1790, printed for George Nicol". Diese Schrift nahm Bligh 1792 in sein umfangreicheres Werk auf ,, A Voyage to the South Sea" 3)

Den Bericht von der Meuterei bildet das dreizehnte Kapitel, und bis einschliesslich Kapitel 17 wird dann die Fahrt des einen Teiles der Mannschaft behandelt. Viele kleine Textänderungen u. a. hat Bligh bei der Einfügung der älteren Schrift in die neuere vorgenommen. Dies ist sofort bei einem Vergleiche beider Ausgaben ersichtlich, und der Verfasser spricht in der Vorrede zur „Reise nach der Südsee selbst davon: „being drawn up in a hasty manner, it 4) required many corrections“. 5)

Welches von beiden Werken des Kapitäns der Dichter bei der Abfassung der Insel" benutzt hat, kann durch den Text des Anhanges entschieden werden. Zunächst deutet schon Extract from the Voyage.. auf die zweite Schrift hin. Nun hat Byron in den Auszug viele Stellen aufgenommen, die vor dem 13. Kapitel in der „Voyage“ stehen, also sich in der „Narrative" nicht finden können.

1) 1833.

-) Diese Fassung Moores hat Coleridge dann in seine Ausgabe herübergenommen.

3) Der genaue Titel lautet: „A Voyage to the South Sea, undertaken by Command of His Majesty. In his Majesty's Ship the Bounty commanded by William Bligh. Including an Account of the Mutiny on Board the said Ship and the subsequent Voyage of Part of the Crew, in the Ship's Boat, from Tofoa, one of the Friendly Islands, to Timor, a Dutch Settlement in the East Indies, published by Permission of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. London: printed for George Nicol. 1792.“ 4) D. i. A. Narrative .

V. 1790.
5) Der Text der Vorrede ist nicht paginiert!

Allein ein kleines Bedenken kommt noch in betracht, das sich aber leicht beseitigen lässt. In der Vorrede zu Voyage ... heisst es:

for the accomodation of the purchasers of the Narrative already published those who desire it, will be supplied with the other parts of the Voyage separate; i. e. the part previous to the mutiny, and the additional account after leaving Timor“.

Also Byron könnte bei seinem Auszuge die Narrative von 1790 zur Verfügung gehabt haben und ausserdem noch die Ergänzungslieferungen. Dies ist aber nicht der Fall, vielmehr hat ihm die ganze ,,Voyage ...“ in einen Bande vorgelegen. Ein Vergleich von zwei Stellen seines Auszuges mit den beiden genannten Ausgaben soll das zeigen.

Auszug: On demanding the reason of such violence the only answer was abuse for not holding my tongue.

Ausgabe 1792: 1 demanded the reason of such violence, but received no other answer than abuse for not holding my tongue.')

Ausgabe 1790: I demanded the reason of such violence, but received no other answer than threats of instant death, if I did not hold my tongue.?)

Also es folgt daraus: „abuse for not holding my tongue“ hat Byron aus der „Voyage“ und nicht aus der „Narrative“.

Vergleichen wir noch eine weitere Stelle aus den drei Berichten:

Auszug: The master, the gunner, the surgeon, master's mate and Nelson the gardener, were kept confined below, and the fore-hatchway was guarded by centinels.

Ausgabe 1792: The master, the gunner, the surgeon, Mr. Elphinstone, master's mate, and Nelson, were kept confined below; and the fore-hatchway was guarded by centinels.)

Ausgabe 1790: Mr. Elphinstone, the master's mate was kept in his birth; Mr. Nelson, botanist, Mr. Peckover, gunner, Mr. Ledward, surgeon, and the master, were confined to their cabins; and also the clerk Mr. Samuel, but he soon obtained leave to come on deck. The fore-hatchway was guarded by centinels.4)

Also man sieht, die Stelle des „Auszugesund die der Ausgabe von 1792 stimmen fast wörtlich überein, nur hat letztere noch den Eigennamen Mr. Elphinstone, während der Beruf Nelsons in diesem Satze nicht angegeben ist. Indes weicht die Ausgabe von 1790 bedeutend von der Fassung des Auszuges ab.

So ist es denn klar, dass Byron die Ausgabe von 1792 benutzt hat und nicht die von 1790. Wenn nun Coleridge im ersten Gesange die den verschiedenen Versen entsprechenden Stellen aus Bligh nach der Narrative citiert, so ist dies als durchaus falsch zu bezeichnen.

Wann Byron dieses Werk zuerst gelesen hat, war mir unmöglich festzustellen. Indes muss er das Buch mindestens seit 1818 gekannt haben, da er im zweiten Gesange des „Don Juan" in der 62., 63., 70., 82., 102. Strophe es als Quelle benutzt hat.

Als zweite Schrift führt der Dichter Mariners „Account of the Tonga Islands“ an."). Die erste Ausgabe erschien 1814, soweit mir bekannt ist, sind andere dann 1817, 1818 und 1827 erschienen. Es bleibt von den vor 1823 erschienenen Auflagen wohl unaufgeklärt,

1) Seite 154,155.
2) Seite 2
3) Seite 155.
4) Seite 2.

6) Der genauere Titel ist: „An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands in the South Pacific Ocean, compiled and arranged from the extensive Communications of Mr. William Mariner, several years resident in those Islands. By John Martin, M. D. In two volumes“.

welche der Dichter benutzt bat. Auch wissen wir nicht, wann er das Buch zuerst gelesen hat. Da eine Besprechung dieses Werkes in der Quarterly Review Band XVII Jahrg. 1817 sich findet ), in welcher von Rob. Southey es gerühmt wird, so wäre nicht ausgeschlossen, Byron ist dadurch auf diese Erzählung hingewiesen worden. Auf den ,, Account bezieht sich der Dichter auch in den Anmerkungen zu II, 1; IV, 6; IV, 7.

Endlich giebt in der Note zu IV, 12 ,,Thiebault's account of Frederic the 2d“2) als Quelle für einen Zug der Erzählung an. Dieses Werk ist schon mit in der Liste von historischen Schriften erwähnt, welche Byron bis 1807 gelesen hatte.)

1) Siehe Allibones Dictionary of English Literature, Artikel Mariner.

Der genauere Titel lautet: „Mes Souvenirs de vingt Ans de Séjour à Berlin. Frédéric le Grand, sa famille, sa Cour, son Gouvernement, son Académie, ses Ecoles et ses Amis littérateurs et philosophes par Dieudonné Thiebault. Paris, An XII, Chez Buisson.“

3) Letters and Journals and Life, Ausgabe Moore Bd. I, S. 142.

II. Quellen. A. Studie über den ersten Gesang. 1. Verhältnis des ersten Gesanges zum Berichte Blighs.

Zunächst sei der Bericht Blighs 1) von der Meuterei gegeben, 2) und auf die Stellen hingewiesen, welche der Dichter im ersten Gesange poetisch verwertet hat.

„The master had the first watch; the gunner the middle watch; and Mr. Christian the morning watch 3)... Just before sun-rising, while 14) was yet asleep, Mr. Christian,“) with the master-at-arms, gunner's mate, and Thomas Burkit, seaman, came into my cabin, and, seizing me, tied my hands with a cord behind my back, threatening me with instant death if I spoke or made the least noise:6) I, however, called as loud as I could in hopes of assistance; but they had already secured the officers, who were not of their party, by placing centinels at their doors. ?). There were three men at my cabin door, besides the four within; Christian had only a cutlass in his hand, the others had muskets and bayonets. I was hauled out of bed, and forced on deck %) in my shirt, suffering great pain from the tightness with which they had tied my hands. I demanded the reason of such violence, but received no other answer than abuse for not holding my tongue. 9) The master, the gunner, the surgeon, Mr. Elphinstone, master's mate, and Nelson, were kept confined below; and the fore-hatchway was guarded by centinels. The boatswain and carpenter, and also the clerk, Mr. Samuel, were allowed to come upon deck, where they saw me standing abaft the mizenmast, with my hands tied behind my back, under a guard, with Christian at their head. The boatswain was ordered to hoist the launch out, with a threat, if he did not do instantly, to take care of himself.10) When the boat was out, Mr. Hayward and Mr. Hallet, two of the midshipmen, and Mr. Samuel, were ordered into it. I demanded what their intention was in giving this order, and endeavoured to persuade the people near me not to persist in such acts of violence; but it was to no effect: „Hold your tongue, Sir, or you are dead this instant,“ was constantly repeated to me. The master, by this time, had sent to request that he might come on

1) Kapitän Bligh erhielt im August 1787_das Kommando des englischen Schiffes Bounty und segelte im Dezember nach Tahiti, um im Auftrage der Regierung von dort den Brotfruchtbaum nach Westindien zu verpflanzen. Am 26. Oktober kam er auf der Südseeinsel an, und am 4. April des folgenden Jahres wurde die Fahrt nach Westindien fortgesetzt. Da brach am 29. April früh während der Reise eine Meuterei aus, die den Zweck des Unternehmens vollständig zu nichte machte. Siehe Vorrede zur Narrative. — Vgl. Ausg. Coleridge V, S. 582/583,

2) Der hier citierte englische Text steht Bligh „Voyage“, Seite 154—162.
3) Island I, V. 1.
49 D. i. Bligh.
5) Ueber Christian, siehe Island, Ausgabe Coleridge, S. 622, Anm. 1.
6) V. 25/26 und V. 51 ff.
7) V. 65/68.
8) Vgl. Anm. 6.
9) V. 69/70 (von I demanded an).
10) V. 81 ff. (von The boatswain an).

deck, which was permitted; but he was soon ordered back to his cabin. I continued my endeavours to turn the tide of affairs, when Christian changed the cutlass which he had in his hands for a bayonet that was brought to him, and holding me with a strong gripe by the cord that tied my hands, he with many oaths threatened to kill me immediately, if I would not be quiet;-) the villains round me had their pieces cocked and bayonets fixed.) Particular people were called on to go into the boat, and were hurried over the side; 3) whence I concluded that with these people I was to be set adrift: I therefore made another effort to bring about a change, but with no other effect than to be threatened with having my brains blown out. The boatswain and seamen, who were to go in the boat were allowed to collect twine, canvass, lines, sails, cordage, an eightand-twenty gallon cask of water, and Mr. Samuel got 150 lbs. of bread, with a small quantity of rum and wine, also a quadrant and compass;4) but he was forbidden, on pain of death, to touch either map, ephemeris, book of astronomical observations, sextant, timekeeper, or any of my surveys or drawings. The mutineers having forced those of the seamen whom they meant to get rid of, into the boat, Christian directed a dram to be served to each of his own crew.). I then unhappily saw that nothing could be done to effect the recovery of the ship; there was no one to assist me, and every endeavour on my part was answered with threats of death. The officers were next called upon deck, and forced over the side into the boat, while I was kept apart from every one, abaft the mizenmast, Christian, armed with a bayonet, holding me by the bandage that secured my hands. The guard round me had their pieces cocked, but on my daring the ungrateful wretches to fire, they uncocked them.) Isaac Martin, one of the guard over me, I saw, had an inclination to assist me, and as he fed me with shaddock, {my lips being quite parched] we explained our wishes to each other by our looks; but this being observed, Martin was removed from me.) He then attempted to leave the ship, for which purpose he got into the boat; but with many threats they obliged him to return. The armourer, Joseph Coleman, and two of the carpenters, M’Intosh and Norman, were also kept contrary to their inclination; and they begged of me, after I was astern in the boat, to remember that they had declared they had no hand in the transaction. Michael Byrne, I am told, likewise wanted to leave the ship. 6) It is of no moment for me to recount my endeavours to bring back the offenders to a sense of their duty; .. but it was to no purpose, for I was kept securely bound, and no one except the guard suffered to come near me. To Mr. Samuel I am indebted for securing my journals and commission, with some material ship papers. He attempted to save the time-keeper, and a box with my surveys, drawings, and remarks for fifteen years past ...., when he was hurried away, with „Damn your eyes. ..."9). It appeared to me, that Christian was some time in doubt whether he should keep the carpenter, or his mates; at length he determined on the latter, and the carpenter was ordered into the boat. He was permitted, but not without some opposition, to take his tool chest. Much altercation took place among the mutinous crew during the whole business; some swore „I'll be damned if he does not find his way home, if he gets any thing with him,“ [meaning me); and when the carpenter's chest was carrying away, „Damn my eyes, he will have a vessel built in a month.“ While others laughed at the helpless situation of the boat, being very deep, and so little room for those who were in her.10) As for Christian, he seemed as if meditating destruction on himself or every one else. I asked for arms, but they laughed at me, and said I was well acquainted with the people among whom I was going, and therefore did not want them; four cutlasses, however, were thrown into the boat, after we were veered astern. The officers and men being in the boat, they

1) V. 69/70 (von he with many . .]
2) V. 71/74.
3) V. 125.
4) V. 87 ff. (von The boatswain an.)
5) V. 97/104 (von Christian an.)
6) V. 71/79 (von The guard an.
7) V. 143/150.
8) V. 127/129.

9) Dieser Fluch gab vielleicht die Anregung zu Canto III, V. 125 u. V. 136, vergl. S. 37, Anmerkung 1 dieser Arbeit.

10) V. 130 ff. (von While others an).

« ForrigeFortsæt »