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Iactat et ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messis.
Quid dicam, iacto qui semine comminus arva
Insequitur cumulosque ruit male pinguis arenae?
Deinde satis fluvium inducit rivosque sequentis,
Et, cum exustus ager morientibus aestuat herbis,
Ecce supercilio clivosi tramitis undam
Elicit? illa cadens raucum per levia murmur
Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva.
Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis,
Luxuriem segetum tenera depascit in herba,

winter,' as if he had said 'Mysia et Gargara
se iactant.' Wagn. however adopts another
interpretation suggested by Macrobius (ubi
sup.), 'No Mysian cultivation can equal a
common field in a dry winter:' but then
'ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messis' would
be very awkwardly expressed. 'Cultu'then is
not to be pressed, the meaning being merely
'Mysian farming is never so successful,' &c.
103.] Comp. 2. 82.

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105.] Ruit,' 'levels,' whereas "ruam acervos," Hor. 2 S. 5. 22, means to heap up.'


So Sol ruit," A. 3. 508, means 'goes down;' "ruebat dies," A. 10. 256, was coming up.' The notion of the word seems to be that of violent movement: the direction of the movement depends on the context. 'Cumulos' seems rightly understood by Dickson (vol. i. p. 518) of the earth at the tops of the ridges, which is brought down by rakes or hurdles on the seed, comparing Col. 2. 4, § 8, "inter duos latius distantis sulcos medius cumulus sic cam sedem frumentis praebeat.' • Male pinguis,' non pinguis,' like 'male sanus for insanus,' Serv., an interpretation which enables us to give 'arenae' its ordinary sense, and agrees better, as Wagn. remarks, with what follows, where dry ground requiring irrigation is spoken of.

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106.] "Satis, segetibus, agris satis, id est, seminatis: nam participium est," Serv. "Sequentis, quia quo duxerit sequuntur,' Id. In Il. 21. 257 foll., on which parts of this description are closely modelled, the trench-maker ὕδατος ῥόον ἡγεμονεύει, and the water φθάνει δέ τε καὶ τὸν ἄγοντα. From the description it seems plain that the irrigation takes place in warm weather, after the corn has begun to get up.

107.] It is not clear whether this is a



continuation of the description, or a different picture, irrigation from a height as distinguished from irrigation on a level. 'Herbis' must mean the blades of corn, not the grass, which would not be growing in a corn-field. With the language comp. E. 7. 57, "Aret ager: vitio moriens sitit aëris herba."

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'Clivosi tramitis,' i. e. clivi per 108.] quem unda tramitem facit,'' trames' being used proleptically. The force of 'ecce' at once giving the picture and expressing the unexpected relief to the soil, should not be neglected. And when the scorched land is in a glow, and the corn-blades dying-O joy! from the brow of the channelled slope he entices the flood: see! down it tumbles, waking hoarse murmurs among the smooth stones, and allaying the sun-struck ground as it bubbles on.'

109.] Serv. reminds us that 'elices' is the technical word for drains, and ‘aquilices' for men employed to discover water. The latter word may be derived from 'lacio,' though the older form aquileges' points rather to 'lego:' the former is perhaps still more doubtful, as the analogy of 'colliciae or colliquiae' is in favour of 'liquo.' 'Illa cadens: τοῦ μέν τε προρέοντος, ὑπὸ ψηφῖδες ἅπασαι Οχλεῦνται· τὸ δέ τ ̓ ὦκα κατειβόμενον κελαρύζει, ΙΙ. 21. 260.

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110.] Temperat:' "frigidus aera vesper Temperat," 3. 337. Contrast Hor. 3 Od. 19. 6, "quis aquam temperet ignibus?" where it is the cold that is mitigated.

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111.] Quid, qui' is explained by 'dicam,' v. 104, otherwise the construction might be the same as in E. 9. 44 (note). 'Gravidis-aristis :' Cerda comp. Hes. Works 473, de Kev ådpoovvy oтAXVEĽ νεύοιεν ἔραζε.

112.] Heyne comp. Pliny 18. 17, "Luxuria segetum castigatur dente pecoris in herba dumtaxat: et depastae quidem vel saepius nullam in spica injuriam sentiunt." This luxuriance was occasionally corrected by harrowing, 'pectinatio,' Id. ib. 21.

Cum primum sulcos aequant sata? quique paludis
Collectum humorem bibula deducit arena ?

Praesertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans
Exit, et obducto late tenet omnia limo,

Unde cavae tepido sudant humore lacunae.



Nec tamen, haec cum sint hominumque boumque labores
Versando terram experti, nihil inprobus anser
Strymoniaeque grues et amaris intiba fibris
Officiunt aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi
Haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem
Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda,

' 113.] Sulcos' here are the tops of the
furrows, or rather the ridges between the
furrows, as Dickson remarks (vol. i. p. 517

114.] Deducere,' of drawing off water, v. 269. 'Bibula arena' might be referred, with Keightley, to the soil from which the water is drawn off, called 'arena' with reference to the water, but the scope of the passages seems rather to require that it should be taken instrumentally, so that it would seem to refer to the drains, which Col. 2. 2 and others recommend to have half filled with small stones or gravel. Heyne refers to Dickson to show that sand is sometimes mixed with soil in order to absorb moisture, but he does not give the page, and I have not found it. "Bibulam lavit (pavit) aequor arenam," Lucr. 2. 376.

115.] Incertis mensibus' is explained of the months when the weather cannot be depended on, i. e. the spring and autumn (comp. vv. 311 foll. Lucr. 6. 357-378); in this case the spring. Forb. comp. Lucan 4. 49,"incertus aer.' The words themselves would more naturally mean 'at uncertain seasons.' Probus, Gramm. 1, mentions a reading 'certis.'

116.] Exit' of a river, A. 2. 496. 117.] Sudant humore,' Lucr. 6. 943. Keightley rightly gives the force of the line, 'Whence if the water is not drawn off before the sun begins to act on it, it might rot the plants.'

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119.] Versare,' like 'vertere,' v. 2, with a further notion of frequency. Inprobus :' 'probus' is frequently coupled with 'pudicus' (comp. note on v. 80), expressing the civic virtue of moderation and respect for the rights of others. Hence 'inprobus' denotes the absence of such moderation and respect, and as such is applied to the wanton malice of a persecuting power which makes its victims like itself, E. 8. 49 (note), to the unscrupulous rapacity of a noxious animal, 3. 431, A. 2. 356 &c., and even to things which are exacting and excessive, v. 145, A. 12. 687. So here the goose is characterized as unconscionable, regardless of its own and the farmer's dues. Comp. the use of avaidng, e. g. of Sisyphus' stone. Of the goose Palladius (1. 30) says, "Anser locis consitis inimicus est, quia sata et morsu laedit et stercore," the latter part of the charge being, as Martyn observes, a vulgar error.

120.] Strymoniae:' see on E. 1. 55. No other writer seems to speak of cranes as enemies to the farmer. 'Intiba:' chicory or succory would be injurious, as Turnebus (27. 25) explains, both directly, as a weed, and indirectly, as attracting geese, which are fond of it (Col. 8. 14). 'Amaris fibris' would rather point to the direct effect; but the words may be merely ornamental.

121.] Umbra,' v. 157. E. 10. 76, "nocent et frugibus umbrae." "Pater ipse:' comp. generally Hes. Works 42 foll. where the difficulties introduced by Zeus are attributed to his resentment against Prometheus. Ipse' added to the name of a god seems to express dignity, as Wagn. remarks, the great Father himself,' though this does not always exhaust its meaning. See on v. 328. 122.] Per artem,' A. 10. 135.


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123.] Movit,' 2. 316. Comp. the use of' suscito' v. 97, 'agito,' note on v. 72. 'Corda,' in older Latin, 'the intellect.' "Aliis cor ipsum animus videtur, ex quo excordes,

Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.
Ante Iovem nulli subigebant arva coloni;

Ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum
Fas erat in medium quaerebant, ipsaque tellus
Omnia liberius, nullo poscente, ferebat.


Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris,
Praedarique lupos iussit, pontumque moveri,
Mellaque decussit foliis, ignemque removit,
Et passim rivis currentia vina repressit,
Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis
Paulatim, et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam,

vecordes, concordesque dicuntur, et Nasica
ille prudens, bis consul, corculum, et egregie
cordatus homo catus Eliu' Sextus," Cic.
Tusc. 1. 9. So "hebeti cognoscere corde,"
Lucr. 4. 51, the opp. of acuens corda.'
This and the next line give the good side of
the changes of the silver age, as if labour
were necessary for the development of man.
The old mythology, however, like our own
revelation, taught that man first became
deteriorated, and that the change in his
relation to nature was intended as his


126.] Ne' is the reading of the best MSS.: others have 'nec,' which was once adopted by Heyne. The latter would not be incorrect, as 'nec-quidem' might apparently stand for 'et ne-quidem:' but it is at any rate unnecessary. The sense seems to be, the ground was sacred not only from breaking up by the plough but from division by the landmark. The thought will hardly bear to be put into a more prosaic shape, as though agriculture and property are doubtless connected, Virgil would scarcely speak of the latter as necessarily going before the former. Ov. M. 1. 136 postpones the division of the land till the brazen age, cultivation having begun in the silver. For 'limitatio' see Dict. Ant. (ed. 2) 'ager,' or 'agrimensores' (ed. 1). 'Signare' may contain a reference to assignatio.'

127.] In medium,' 4. 157, with a view to the common stock. This refers to 'ne signare quidem,' &c. 'Ipsaque tellus' to 'ante Iovem.' 'Ipsaque tellus:' kαрπov δ' ἔφερε ζείδωρος ἄρουρα Αυτομάτη πολλόν Tε Kai aplovov, Hes. Works 118. So even in Lucretius' view of the world (2. 1159), “Ipsa dedit dulcis fetus et pabula laeta, Quae nunc vix nostro grandescunt aucta labore."

128.] Liberius' seems to include both generosity and freedom from external constraint. "Inmetata quibus iugera liberas



Fruges et Cererem ferunt," Hor. 3 Od. 24. 12. Forb.

129.] The extinction of the serpent and the pacification of the wolf are to signalize the return of the golden age. E. 4. 24., 5.60. 'Malum' may be used, as Serv. thinks, because 'virus' is a neutral word for animal fluid: but it seems more obvious to take 'virus' in its ordinary sense, and regard 'malum' as a piece of descriptive simplicity, like "malos fures," Hor. 1 S. 1. 77. 'Ater' frequently occurs as an epithet of serpents, when it would not be easy to say whether it is to be construed in its primitive sense of 'black,' or its derivative meaning of 'deadly,' though it may include both. In 4. 407, where it is applied to a tiger, it seems to mean the latter.

130.] Moveri,' deponent, to swell.' To understand it of sailing would anticipate v. 136, as Heyne remarks. Forb. comp. Lucr. 5. 1999, where the sea is described as rising and falling idly so long as there were no ships for it to threaten; but the two passages are contrasted as well as parallel, what is the second stage with Virgil answering to the normal state with Lucretius.

131.] Mella :' see E. 4. 30, note. Ignemque removit :' ρve dè πup, Hes. Works 50, who goes on to tell how Prometheus defeated the purpose of Zeus by stealing the fire.

132.] "Flumina iam lactis, iam flumina nectaris ibant," Ov. M. 1. 111. 'Passim' with 'currentia.'

133.] 'Usus' see on 2. 22. It is virtually personified, whence meditando. 'Extunderet artis,' 4. 315, where 'experientia,' v. 316, answers to 'usus' here. Cerda comp. Hom. Hymn to Hermes, 508, coping ἐκμάσσατο τέχνην.

134.] 'Paulatim' is illustrated by Lucr. 5. 1452, "Usus et inpigrae simul experientia mentis Paulatim docuit pedetemtim progredientis." Comp. the following lines,

Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem.
Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas;
Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit,
Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton;
Tum laqueis captare feras, et fallere visco
Inventum, et magnos canibus circumdare saltus.
Atque alius latum funda iam verberat amnem ;
Alta petens, pelagoque alius trahit humida lina.
Tum ferri rigor atque argutae lamina serrae,—
Nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum-
Tum variae venere artes. Labor omnia vicit
Inprobus et duris urguens in rebus egestas.

which Virgil doubtless had before him. We
might have expected 'ut' for 'et' here,
and 'et' for 'ut' (which is given by some
MSS.) in the next line: Virgil, however,
has chosen to vary the expression, coupling
a particular fact with a general, and then
subjoining a second particular, as a co-ordi-
nate clause with the two. 'Sulcis' seems
to mean not in but by furrows.' 'Might
get corn by ploughing.'

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135.] "Quaerit pars semina flammae, Abstrusa in venis silicis," A. 6. 6. strusum,' thrust away' (by Jupiter). cuderet,' A. 1. 174.

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136.] Alnos,' as growing on the river banks (E. 6. 63, note), and thus suggesting the experiment. Sensere,' 'felt the weight of.'

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mark of the return of the golden age, E. 5.
60. Cerda quotes Soph. Ant. 343 foll.,
where man is said to show his sagacity by
snaring beasts, birds, and fishes.
140.] See on E. 6. 56.

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141.] Funda,' Dict. A. 'Retis.'

142.] The structure of the line shows unmistakeably that 'alta petens' refers to what has gone before. The meaning seems merely to be that the fisher throws his casting-net as deep as he can. The words are elsewhere used of the sea; but as they are also applied to shooting into the air (A. 5. 508, where the structure of the line is the same), there can be no reason why they should not here be said of a river, of which 'altus' is not an uncommon epithet (4. 333). 'Lina' used of a net like λíva. The drag-net is here meant.

137.] Facere nomen alicui' is a phrase (4.272), to which numeros' is added here by a kind of zeugma. With the thought 143.] Ferri rigor,' 'ferrum rigidum.' comp. Soph. Naup. fr. 2 (Wagn.), ¿qeupe d'"Rigor auri solvitur aestu," Lucr. 1. 492. ἄστρων μέτρα καὶ περιστροφὰς ... "Αρκ- Ον. Μ. 1. 141, of the iron age, “ Iamque του στροφάς τε καὶ Κυνὸς ψυχρὰν δύσιν. nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum Still closer, if the parallel may be allowed, Prodierat." 'Serrae :' the invention of the is Psalm 147. 4, "He telleth the number of saw was attributed by some to Daedalus the stars: He calleth them all by their (Pliny 7. 56), by others to his nephew (Ov. names." M. 8. 244, where the hint is said to have been taken from the back-bone of a fish), by others to Talus (Sen. Ep. 90).



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138.] For the lengthening of the last syllable of Pleiadas,' comp. E. 2. 53 note. Hyadas,' A. 1. 744. Lycaonis Arcton,' like "Scyllam Nisi," E. 6. 74. Ovid connects the three similarly (M. 13. 293), Pleiadasque, Hyadasque, inmunemque aequoris Arcton." 'Claram' is emphatic. Aratus (Phaen. 40) speaks of Helice as καθαρὴ καὶ ἐπιφράσσασθαι ἑτοίμη, Πολλή φαινομένη ἑλίκη πρώτης ἀπὸ νυκτός. The present line is of course mainly in apposition to nomina,' but it may have also a reference to numeros,' as it is itself a sort of enumeration.

139.] The absence of snares is to be one

144.] A. 6. 181. Jacob Bryant thought the present line spurious, and Heyne agrees with him. It is certainly awkward, as one might have supposed that cleaving of wood did not go on in the golden age; but Virgil may very well not have been thoroughly consistent in his conception of the progress of society.

145.] Vicit' the best MSS.; 'vincit,' the other reading (Pal.), is less appropriate, as the poet is narrating, not uttering a sentiment.

146.] Inprobus,' note




Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terram
Instituit, cum iam glandes atque arbuta sacrae
Deficerent silvae et victum Dodona negaret.
Mox et frumentis labor additus, ut mala culmos
Esset robigo segnisque horreret in arvis
Carduus; intereunt segetes, subit aspera silva,
Lappaeque tribolique, interque nitentia culta
Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avenae.
Quod nisi et adsiduis herbam insectabere rastris,
Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci

Whether the notion here is that of excess,
as there suggested, or of unscrupulousness,
is not easy to say. Emm. comp. Theocr.
21. 1, ὰ πενία, Διόφαντε, μόνα τὰς τέχνας

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147-159.] As for agriculture, it was introduced by Ceres. Even that was afterwards made difficult by diseases in the wheat and the intrusion of weeds: in fact, the farmer has to use every exertion if he would not submit to failure and hunger.'

147.] The sowing of corn has been already mentioned (v. 134) as a feature of the silver age; its introduction is here spoken of more at length. Ceres,' v. 7.

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148.] It is doubtful whether 'glandes atque arbuta' are the subject of 'deficerent' ('sacrae silvae' being the gen.), or its object. 'Deficere' generally takes an acc. of the person or thing failed or forsaken. Varro however, R. R. 3. 16, has 'deficiant animum,' speaking of bees, and the analogy of 'sufficio' may be urged. Comp. 2. 520, "dant arbuta silvae." Sacrae' is explained by 'Dodona.' Comp. 2. 15, "nemorumque lovi quae maxima frondet Aesculus, atque habitae Graiis oracula quercus." The sacredness of the groves recalls the associations of the golden age. Virgil's notion seems to be that in the silver age the supply of acorns was checked, in order that man might be driven to some other kind of food; here however, as elsewhere, he is apparently embarrassed by the conflicting views of human degeneracy and human development. Acorns are more naturally conceived of as the food of savages than as the diet of the golden age; and so in Ov. M. 1. 101 foll., after we have heard that every part of the earth yielded every kind of product freely, it is rather strange to be told that men in those times lived on arbutes, strawberries, cornels, mulberries, and acorns fallen from the tree. At the end of the present paragraph (v. 159) a meal of acorns is evidently regarded as a



relapse into barbarism, not to dwell on the question how it is that man still has the option of following a diet which since the golden age has been forbidden him.

150.]Soon however the wheat had plagues of its own.' 'Labor,' of the sufferings of things inanimate, v. 79. 'Ut' may merely denote a consequence, as in 'accidit ut;' but the passage will gain force if we suppose it to indicate the will of Jupiter, additus ut' implying some-. thing like edictum est ut.' The baleful mildew was bidden to eat the stems, and the lazy thistle to set up its spikes in the fields.'

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