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cond on all true Christians; and that miraculous powers are not so much for the use of Christians, as for the sake and for the conviction of unbelie, vers, viii. 1.

Baptism also and the Lord's supper are sometimes called Xapíruela. Ignatius saw Por lycarp at Smyrna-και σνευματικών αυτώ κοινωνήσας χαρισμαTurmet quum eum spiritualium charismatum participem fecisset-Martyr. Ignat. § iii. Trespaloma' xapiouale videntur hic significare symbola eucharistica. Certe baptisma nun raro apud veteres vocatur xópurua. Clericus.

In the form for the ordination of presbyters, they pray that the presbyter may have the gift of healing conferred


him-όπως πλησθείς ενεργημάτων ιατρικών, και λόγο διδακτικά, εν σραότηλι παιδεύη σε τόν λαόν.-ut repletus operationibus vim sanandi habentibus, ac sermone ad docendum apto, erudiat cum mansuetudine populum tuum. viii. 16. taken, I suppose, from 1 Cor. xii. 9. ãana di χαρίσματα ιαμάτων. .

They introduce the apostles, one or all, sometimes speaking and commanding in their own names, and sometimes citing the New Testament as we now cite it. This single observation is sufficient to overset the book. Jesus Christ, say they, began to do, before he began to teach, ως σν λέγει ο Λεκάς: Ων ήρξατο ο Ιησες σουέιν sj Sodacxer. This is wanting in one of the MSS. says

Le Clerc, and seems to have been struck out by some critic, sho thought it wrony to introduce the apostles citing the testimony of Luke. But it signified nothing to strike out one passage, whilst five hundred of the same kind were left. Besides, it was all in vain, because, though the citation here were taken away, the allusion to it would remain, ii. 6.

They repeat it over and over, lest Christians should chance to forget it, that a bishop is a god, a god upon


earth, and a king, and infinitely superior to a king, and ruling over rulers and kings. They command Christians to give him tribute as to a king, and to reverence him as a god, and to pay him tythes and firstfruits, according, say they, to God's command ; and they strictly forbid Christians to make any enquiry, and to take any notice, whether he disposes of these revenues well or ill, ii. 11. 26. 35, et passim: which seems to have been drawn up at a time when there were Christian emperors. Here is strange language indeed! even far beyond all eminencies and holinesses.

Le Clerc had a suspicion that Leontius, an Arian bishop of the fourth century, was the inventor, or the interpolator of the Constitutions. Le Clerc received the hint from Thomas Bruno, who was a learned and ingenious man, and a canon of Windsor in the days of Charles II. The learned Isaac Vossius, who also was canon of Windsor, dedicated to him his book de Sibyllinis Oraculis. Bruno conjectured, that Leontius might be the collector of the greater part of the Apostolical Canons, and says many things in favour of Leontius. Speaking of the religious controversies in the time of Constantius, which were not very edifying, he

says; Et certe præter unum Athanasium inter orthodoxos, et Leontium inter Arianos, vix ullos reperias homines quadratos, dictis, factis, formulis suis Fidei stantes ; sed potius versipelles, chamaeleontes, nunc in hanc, nunc in illam partem paratos, prout ferebat unimus vapaErvasevivlar apud Imperatorem ; qui vel eunuchos Imperatorios opibus ecclesiæ et nummis, vel mulierculas év yurasa xavi tebe sermonum lenociniis et blanditiis pelliciebant in partes suas, omniaque pro libitu suo agebant, ferebant, teris majore ex parte, more pecudum, non qua cundum


erat, sed

qua ibatur, prospicientibus, &c. Judic. de Cahon. in the second vol. of the Patres Apostolici.

It is certain that Leontius carried his head high e. nough. He reprimanded the emperor Constantius for meddling in ecclesiastical affairs, and sent word to the empress Eusebia, who is said to have been haughty, that he would not comply with her request, and pay her a visit, unless she would promise to bow down be. fore him and receive his blessing, and then to stand up whilst he sat, till he should give her leave to sit down ; which put the lady into a violent rage.

See Tillemont Hist. des Emp. iii. 381. or Le Clerc Dissert. de Constit. in the Patr. Apost.

I know not whether Leontius learned from the Jews to take this state upon him. Their rabbins say, that the high-priest never went to court but when he had a mind, and that then he sat before the king, and the king stood

See Basnage Hist, des Juifs. i. 4.

It is, I believe, labour lost to enquire who the compiler was: we can only say of this pretended Clemens, that he was long-lived ; and if any one should ever compile a book de Macrobüs, or de Incredibilibus, like those of Phlegon and Palcephatus, he ought to take notice of our author, for he fourished in the first, second, third, and fourth centuries; it is no wonder there fore if his memory failed him sometimes, and if he fell into some small mistakes. But there have been two men since the Christian æra, who in length of days greatly surpassed him ; Josephus Ben Gorion, who, according to his own chronology, lived to be a thousand years old ; and the Wandering Jewe, who was seen by an Armenian bishop five hundred years ago, and is supposed to be still alive, and pursuing his travels.



in his presence.

The Constitutions confirm many frivolous precepts by texts of scripture which in these critical days would be thought inconclusive. For example ; a vintner's money must not be accepted by the bishop. Why? because Isaias, i. 22. according to the LXX, says, Thy vintners mix wine with water, iv. 6. But it would be endless to produce their misinterpreted and misapplied citations of scripture, both canonical and apocryphal.

The antiquity of Solomon's Song is sufficiently established by the Hebrew original, and by the version of the LXX, and it is mentioned in the lxxvith Apostolical canon.

It has been observed that it is never cited in the New Testament *. It is mentioned as a book of the Old Testament by Melito, in Eusebius E. H. iv. 26. and Hippolytus and Origen wrote commentaries upon it: whether any Christian before them has cited it, I know not. A writer, whom I need not mention, is for uncanonizing it; but there is nothing new under the sun. Theodorus Mopsuestenus was of the same mind, who lived in the fourth and fifth centuries, and was a learned bishop, a bold critic, and an enemy to allegorical interpretations. Leontius of Jcrusalem finds great fault with him, and says,-- Imo et sanctorum sanctissimum Canticum canticorum ab omnibus divinarum rerum peritis et ab omnibus Ecclesiis cuncti orbis notum, et a Judæis inimicis crucis Christi in admiratione habitum, libidinose pro sua et mente et lingua meretricia interaretans, sua supra modum incredibili audacia er libris sacris abscidit. It seems, Theodorus took the Spouse in that book

he one of Solomon's queens. See Fabricius Bibl. G. X. 159.


* Vitringa is of opinion that there are allusions to it in the New Testament. Al Apocalyps, iii. 20. p. 158

This Theodorus, and Origen, are looked upon as the fathers of a doctrine, which in the fifth century was called Pelagianism, or Semi-Pelagianism. Cardinal Noris charges them with it in his Historia Pelagiana, and I verily believe that he does them no great wrong, and that they had notions entirely different from those of Augustin, and of Jansenius, about predestination, and that the arguments of the bishop of Hippo, or of the bishop of Ypres, would have converted neither the one nor the other.

The Anti-Jansenists of the church of Rome condemn the predestinarian doctrines of Luther, and Calvin, and Jansenius: but excuse Augustin, and pretend to agree with this Latin father, whilst they plainly reject bis notions. They are not so ingenuous as the monk, who being pressed with an argument taken from St Paul, replied, that St Paul might as well have refrained from saying some things which smelt of the faggot.

Chardin tells us, that the sublimest and best esteemed poetry among the Persians is that which sets out religions subjects in the phrase of libertines. Whether this be applicable to Solomon's Song, I will not take upon me to determine. There are also many passages in the Old, and some in the New Testament, where things spiritual are couched under phrases, which the reserved modesty of modern language will hardly permit us to illustrate.

The Constitutions however twice allude to Solomon's Song, and they seem to have borrowed the allusions from the larger epistles of Ignatius.

Heretics, say they, are αλωπίκων μερίδες και χαμαιζήλων dutenmwrepavisací. vulpium partes, et vinearum humiliorum vastatores. vi. 13. And again : tir éxmancíay Oty &raq.


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