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105

Iactat et ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messis.
Quid dicam, iacto qui semine comminus arya
Insequitur cumulosque ruit male pinguis arenae?
Deinde satis fluvium inducit riyosque sequentis,

um exustus ager morientibus aestuat herbis,
Ecce supercilio clivosi tramitis undam
Elicit ? illa cadens raucum per

levia murmur
Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva.
Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis,
Luxuriem segetum tenera depascit in herba,

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winter,' as if he had said . Mysia et Gargara continuation of the description, or a differse iactant.' Wagn. however adopts another ent picture, irrigation from a height as interpretation suggested by Macrobius (ubi distinguished from irrigation on a level. sup.), ‘No Mysian cultivation can equal a • Herbis' must mean the blades of corn, common field in a dry winter :' but then not the grass, which would not be growing ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messis' would in a corn-field. With the language comp. be very awkwardly expressed. ‘Cultu'then is E. 7. 57, “ Aret ager : vitio moriens sitit not to be pressed, the meaning being merely aëris herba." • Mysian farming is never so successful,' &c. 108.] • Clivosi tramitis,' i.e. clivi per 103.] Comp. 2. 82.

quem unda tramitem facit,'trames ' being 104.] Quid dicam,' a form of enumera- used proleptically. The force of ecce’ at tion, v. 311. “Qui,' antecedent omitted, once giving the picture and expressing the as in E. 2. 71, &c. •Iacto,' 2. 317. The unexpected relief to the soil, should not be metaphor, as Keightley has seen, is from a neglected. • And when the scorched land soldier throwing his lance, and then coming is in a glow, and the corn-blades dying_0 to close quarters sword hand.

joy ! from the brow of the channelled slope 105.] *Ruit,' ' levels,' whereas “ he entices the flood: see ! down it tumbles, acervos,” Hor. 2 S. 5. 22, means “to heap waking hoarse murmurs among the smooth up.' So “ Sol ruit, A. 3. 508, means stones, and allaying the sun-struck ground goes down ;' “ruebat dies,” A. 10. 256, as it bubbles on.'

was coming up. The notion of the word 109.] Serv. reminds us that 'elices' is seems to be that of violent movement: the the technical word for drains, and aqui. direction of the movement depends on the lices' for men employed to discover water. context. • Cumulos' seems rightly under. The latter word may be derived from ‘lacio,' stood by Dickson (vol. i. p. 518) of the though the older form aquileges' points earth at the tops of the ridges, which is rather to • lego :' the former is perhaps still brought down by rakes or hurdles on the more doubtful, as the analogy of colliciae' seed, comparing Col. 2. 4, § 8,“ inter duos or 'colliquiae' is in favour of liquo.' .Illa latius distantis sulcos medius cumulus sic- cadens :' Toù jév te nepopéovtos, ÚTÒ yncam sedem frumentis praebeat.” « Male φίδες άπασαι 'Οχλεύνται το δε τ' ώκα pinguis,' .non pinguis,' like 'male sanus κατειβόμενον κελαρύζει, ΙΙ. 21. 260. for insanus, Serv., an interpretation which 110.j . Temperat:' “ frigidus aera vesper enables us to give arenae' its ordinary Temperat,” 3. 337. Contrast Hor. 3 Od. sense, and agrees better, as Wagn. remarks, 19. 6, “ quis aquam temperet ignibus ?” with what follows, where dry ground re- where it is the cold that is mitigated. quiring irrigation is spoken of.

111.] .Quid, qui' is explained by 'di. 106.] “ Satis, segetibus, agris satis, id cam,' v. 104, otherwise the construction est, seminatis : nam participium est,” Serv. might be the same as in E. 9. 44 (note). Sequentis, quia quo duxerit sequuntur," • Gravidis- aristis :' Cerda comp. Hes. Id. In Il. 21. 257 foll., on which parts of Works 473, wdé kev ådpoouvy otaxies this description are closely modelled, the vevolev ēpača. trench-maker ύδατος ρόον ηγεμονεύει, and '112.) Heyne comp. Pliny 18. 17, Lux. the water φθάνει δέ τε και τον άγοντα. uria segetum castigatur dente pecoris in From the description it seems plain that the herba dumtaxat: et depastae quidem vel irrigation takes place in warm weather, after saepius nullam in spica injuriam sentiunt.'' the corn has begun to get up.

This luxuriance was occasionally corrected 107.] It is not clear whether this is a by harrowing, ‘pectinatio,' Id. ib. 21.

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115

Cum primum sulcos aequant sata ? quique paludis
Collectum humorem bibula deducit arena ?
Praesertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans
Exit, et obducto late tenet omnia limo,
Unde cavae tepido sudant humore lacunae.

Nec tamen, haec cum sint hominumque boumque labores
Versando terram experti, nihil inprobus anser
Strymoniaeque grues et amaris intiba fibris
Officiunt aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi
Haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem
Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda,

120

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113.] ‘Sulcos' here are the tops of the 119.] Versare,' like 'vertere,' v. 2, with furrows, or rather the ridges between the a further notion of frequency. 'Inprobus :' furrows, as Dickson remarks (vol. i. p. 517 probus' is frequently coupled with • punote).

dicus' (comp. note on v. 80), expressing 114.] ‘Deducere,' of drawing off water, the civic virtue of moderation and respect v. 269.

• Bibula arena' might be referred, for the rights of others. Hence “inprobus' with Keightley, to the soil from which the denotes the absence of such moderation and water is drawn off, called arena' with re- respect, and as such is applied to the wanton ference to the water, but the scope of the malice of a persecuting power which makes passages seems rather to require that it its victims like itself, E. 8. 49 (note), to the should be taken instrumentally, so that it unscrupulous rapacity of a noxious animal, would seem to refer to the drains, which 3. 431, A. 2. 356 &c., and even to things Col. 2. 2 and others recommend to have which are exacting and excessive, v. 145, half filled with small stones or gravel. Heyne A. 12. 687. So here the goose is characrefers to Dickson to show that sand is some- terized as unconscionable, regardless of its times mixed with soil in order to absorb own and the farmer's dues. Comp. the use moisture, but he does not give the page, and of ảvaidns, e. g. of Sisyphus' stone. Of I have not found it. “ Bibulam lavit (pavit) the goose Palladius (1. 30) says, “ Anser aequor arenam,” Lucr. 2. 376.

locis consitis inimicus est, quia sata et 115.] • Incertis mensibus' is explained morsu laedit et stercore,” the latter part of of the months when the weather cannot be the charge being, as Martyn observes, a depended on, i. e. the spring and autumn vulgar error. (comp. v. 311 foll. Lucr. 6. 357–378); 120.] •Strymoniae :' see on E. 1. 55. in this case the spring. Forb. comp. Lucan No other writer seems to speak of cranes as 4. 49, “ incertus aer.' The words them- enemies to the farmer. • Intiba :' chicory selves would more naturally mean “at un. or succory would be injurious, as Turnebus certain seasons.' Probus, Gramm. 1, men- (27. 25) explains, both directly, as a weed, tions a reading certis.'

and indirectly, as attracting geese, which 116.] • Exit’ of a river, A. 2. 496. are fond of it (Col. 8. 14). • Amaris fibris' 117.] •Sudant humore,' Lucr. 6. 943. would rather point to the direct effect; but Keightley rightly gives the force of the line, the words may be merely ornamental. "Whence if the water is not drawn off before 121.] Umbra,' v. 157. E. 10. 76, “nothe sun begins to act on it, it might rot the cent et frugibus umbrae." “Pater ipse :' plants.

comp. generally Hes. Works 42 foll. where 118–146.] • Besides all this, the farmer the difficulties introduced by Zeus are attrihas many enemies to fight with—birds, buted to his resentment against Prometheus. weeds, and shade. Such is Jove's ordi. Ipse' added to the name of a god seems nance: it was he that introduced labour. to express dignity, as Wagn. remarks, the Before him men had everything to their great Father himself,' though this does not hands, and property was not: he brought always exhaust its meaning. See on v. 328. in dangers and difficulties, to sharpen hu. 122.] 'Per artem,' A. 10. 135. man wit: and so inventions and discoveries 123.] Movit,' 2. 316. Comp. the use multiplied, under pressure of want.'

of • suscito' v. 97, .agito,' note on v. 72. 118.] · Boumque labores,' v. 325 ; "ho- •Corda,' in older Latin, the intellect.' “Aliis minumque urbisque labores,” A. 2. 284. cor ipsum animus videtur, ex quo excordes,

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Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.
Ante Iovem nulli subigebant arva coloni;

125
Ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum
Fas erat : in medium quaerebant, ipsaque tellus
Omnia liberius, nullo poscente, ferebat.
Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris,
Praedarique lupos iussit, pontumque moveri,

130
Mellaque decussit foliis, ignemque removit,
Et passim rivis currentia vina repressit,
Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis

Paulatim, et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam, vecordes, concordesque dicuntur, et Nasica Fruges et Cererem ferunt,” Hor. 3 Od. 24. ille prudens, bis consul, corculum, et egregie 12. Forb. cordatus homo catus Æliu' Sextus,” Cic. 129.] The extinction of the serpent and Tusc. 1. 9. So “hebeti cognoscere corde, the pacification of the wolf are to signalize Lucr. 4. 51, the opp. of acuens corda.' the return of the golden age.

E. 4. 24., This and the next line give the good side of 5. 60. Malum' may be used, as Serv. the changes of the silver age, as if labour thinks, because "virus’ is a neutral word were necessary for the development of man. for animal fluid : but it seems more obvious The old mythology, however, like our own to take • virus' in its ordinary sense, and revelation, taught that man first became regard malum' as a piece of descriptive deteriorated, and that the change in his simplicity, like “ malos fures,” Hor. 1 S. I. relation to nature was intended as his 77. •Ater' frequently occurs as an epithet punishment.

of serpents, when it would not be easy to 126.] • Ne' is the reading of the best say whether it is to be construed in its MSS. : others have nec,' which was once primitive sense of black,' or its derivative adopted by Heyne. The latter would not meaning of deadly,' though it may include be incorrect, as “nec-quidem ' might ap- both. In 4. 407, where it is applied to a parently stand for et ne quidem :' but it tiger, it seems to mean the latter. is at any rate unnecessary.

The sense

130.] Moveri,' deponent, 'to swell.' seems to be, the ground was sacred not only To understand it of sailing would anticipate from breaking up by the plough but from v. 136, as Heyne remarks.

Forb. comp. division by the landmark. The thought will Lucr. 5. 1999, where the sea is described as hardly bear to be put into a more prosaic rising and falling idly so long as there were shape, as though agriculture and property no ships for it to threaten ; but the two

doubtless connected, Virgil would passages are contrasted as well as parallel, scarcely speak of the latter as necessarily what is the second stage with Virgil answergoing before the former. Ov. M. 1. 136 post. ing to the normal state with Lucretius. pones the division of the land till the brazen 131.] ‘Mella :' E. 4. 30, note. age, cultivation having begunr in the silver. • Ignemque removit :' kpúte rūp, Hes. For • limitatio’see Dict. Ant. (ed. 2) ‘ager,' Works 50, who goes on to tell how Promeor agrimensores' (ed. 1). "Signare'may theus defeated the purpose of Zeus by stealcontain a reference to assignatio.'

ing the fire. 127.] • In medium,' 4. 157, with a view 132.] “ Flumina iam lactis, iam flumina to the common stock. This refers to ne nectaris ibant,” Ov. M. 1. lll. • Passim' signare quidem, &c. Ipsaque tellus' to with • currentia.' • ante Iovem.' • Ipsaque tellus :' kaptöv 133.] 'Usus: see on 2. 22. It is virtually d'Epepe Seidwpoç ãoovpa Aúrouárn nollóv personified, whence meditando.' *Ex Te kai apdovov, Hes. Works 118. So even tunderet artis,' 4. 315, where `experientia,' in Lucretius' view of the world (2. 1159), v. 316, answers to 'usus' here. Cerda · Ipsa dedit dulcis fetus et pabula laeta, comp. Hom. Hymn to Hermes, 508, copins Quae nunc vix nostro grandescunt aucta εκμάσσατο τέχνην. labore."

134.] · Paulatim' is illustrated by Lucr. 128.] * Liberius' seems to include both 5. 1452, “Usus et inpigrae simul experiengenerosity and freedom from external con- tia mentis Paulatim docuit pedetemtim prostraint. “ Inmetata quibus iugera liberas gredientis.” Comp. the following lines,

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Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem.

135
Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas ;
Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit,
Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton;
Tum laqueis captare feras, et fallere visco
Inventum, et magnos canibus circumdare saltus. 140
Atque alius latum funda iam verberat amnem;
Alta petens, pelagoque alius trahit humida lina.
Tum ferri rigor atque argutae lamina serrae, ---
Nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum-
Tum variae venere artes. Labor omnia vicit

145 Inprobus et duris urguens in rebus egestas. which Virgil doubtless had before him. We mark of the return of the golden age, E. 5. might have expected «ut' for 'et' here, 60. Cerda quotes Soph. Ant. 343 foll., andet' for 'ut' (which is given by some where man is said to show his sagacity by MSS.) in the next line : Virgil, however, snaring beasts, birds, and fishes. has chosen to vary the expression, coupling 140.] See on E. 6. 56. a particular fact with a general, and then 141.j . Funda,' Dict. A. “Retis.' subjoining a second particular, as a co-ordi. 142.] The structure of the line shows nate clause with the two. “Sulcis' seems unmistakeably that alta petens' refers to to mean not in but' by furrows.' Might what has gone before. The meaning seems get corn by ploughing.'

merely to be that the fisher throws his cast135.] “ Quaerit pars semina flammae, ing-net as deep as he can. The words are Abstrusa in venis silicis,” A. 6. 6. 'Ab- elsewhere used of the sea ; but as they strusum,' 'thrust away’ (by Jupiter). ·Ex- are also applied to shooting into the air cuderet,' A. 1. 174.

(A. 5. 508, where the structure of the 136.] 'Alnos,' as growing on the river line is the same), there can be no reason banks (E. 6. 63, note), and thus suggesting why they should not here be said of a the experiment. “Sensere,' • felt the weight river, of which altus

is not an of.'

common epithet (4. 333). • Lina' used 137.] · Facere nomen alicui' is a phrase of a net like liva. The drag-net is here (4.272), to which numeros' is added here meant. by a kind of zeugma.

With the thought 143.] “Ferri rigor,' 'ferrum rigidum.' comp. Soph. Naup. fr. 2 (Wagn.), édɛūpɛ o' “Rigor auri solvitur aestu,” Lucr. 1. 492. äotpwv uérpa kai teplotpopàs... "Apk- Ov. M. 1. 141, of the iron age, “ Iarnque του στροφάς τε και Κυνός ψυχράν δύσιν. nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum Still closer, if the parallel may be allowed, Prodierat.” • Serrae :' the invention of the is Psalm 147. 4, “ He telleth the number of saw was attributed by some to Daedalus the stars : He calleth them all by their (Pliny 7. 56), by others to his nephew (Ov. names."

M. 8. 244, where the hint is said to have 138.] For the lengthening of the last syl- been taken from the back-bone of a fish), by lable of Pleiadas,' comp. E. 2. 53 note. others to Talus (Sen. Ep. 90).

Hyadas,' A. I. 744. Lycaonis Arcton,' 144.] A. 6. 181. Jacob Bryant thought like “ Scyllam Nisi,” E. 6. 74. Ovid con. the present line spurious, and Heyne agrees nects the three similarly (M. 13. 293), with him. It is certainly awkward, as one “Pleiadasque, Hyadasque, inmunemque might have supposed that cleaving of wood aequoris Arcton." • Claram' is emphatic. did not go on in the golden age; but Virgil Aratus (Phaen. 40) speaks of Helice as may very well not have been thoroughly καθαρή και επιφράσσασθαι έτοιμη, Πολλή consistent in his conception of the progress φαινομένη ελίκη πρώτης από νυκτός. The of society. present line is of course mainly in apposi. 145.] Vicit’ the best MSS. ; vincit,' tion to 'nomina,' but it may have also a the other reading (Pal.), is less appropriate, reference to numeros,' as it is itself a sort as the poet is narrating, not uttering a senof enumeration.

timent. 139.] The absence of snares is to be one 146.] Inprobus,' note on v. 119.

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150

Prima Ceres ferro mortalis vertere terram
Instituit, cum iam glandes atque arbuta sacrae
Deficerent silvae et victum Dodona negaret.
Mox et frumentis labor additus, ut mala culmos
Esset robigo segnisque horreret in arvis
Carduus ; intereunt segetes, subit aspera silva,
Lappaeque tribolique, interque nitentia culta
Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avenae.
Quod nisi et adsiduis herbam insectabere rastris,
Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci

155

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Whether the notion here is that of excess, relapse into barbarism, not to dwell on the as there suggested, or of unscrupulousness, question how it is that man still has the is not easy to say. Emm. comp. Theocr. option of following a diet which since the 21. 1, α πενία, Διόφαντε, μόνα τάς τέχνας golden age has been forbidden him. εγείρει.

150.] Soon however the wheat had 147–159.] · As for agriculture, it was plagues of its own.' • Labor,' of the sufintroduced by Ceres. Even that was after- ferings of things inanimate, v. 79. •Ut' wards made difficult by diseases in the wheat may merely denote a consequence, as in and the intrusion of weeds : in fact, the accidit ut;' but the passage will gain farmer has to use every exertion if he would force if we suppose it to indicate the will not submit to failure and hunger.'

of Jupiter, 'additus ut' implying some-. 147.] The sowing of corn has been thing like . edictum est ut.' "The baleful already mentioned (v. 134) as a feature of mildew was bidden to eat the stems, and the silver age; its introduction is here the lazy thistle to set up its spikes in the spoken of more at length. Ceres,' v. 7. fields.'"

148.] It is doubtful whether "glandes 151.] · Robigo,' mildew, was controlled, atque arbuta' are the subject of deficerent' according to the Italian belief, by a god, ( sacrae silvae' being the gen.), or its Robigus,' or a goddess, Robigo,' who object. “Deficere' generally takes an acc. were propitiated by a special festival, the of the person or thing failed or forsaken. Robigalia' (see Dict. A. - Robigalia,' where Varro however, R. R. 3. 16, has deficiant the existence of these deities is questioned). animum,' speaking of bees, and the analogy “Segnis,' as it were, the symbol of inof sufficio' may be urged. Comp. 2. 520, activity, growing up where the field is left "dant arbuta silvae.” * Sacrae’is explained to itself. by · Dodona.' Comp. 2. 15,

152 ] See on E. 5. 37 for the belief that que lovi quae maxima frondet Aesculus, these various weeds were really diseases in atque habitae Graiis oracula quercus. the wheat. The sacredness of the groves recalls the 153.] Lappae' is explained by Keightley associations of golden age. Virgil's to be cleavers, clivers, or goose-grass.' notion seems to be that in the silver Triboli, rpißolor, caltrops, so called from age the supply of acorns was checked, in their resemblance to the pieces of iron of order that man might be driven to some that name thrown among an enemy's other kind of food; here however, as else- cavalry. “Lolium tribulique fatigant Tri. where, he is apparently embarrassed by the ticeas messis et inexpugnabile gramen," conflicting views of human degeneracy and Ov. M. 5. 485. • Nitentia culta' answer, human development. Acorns are as Keightley says, to the nitidae fruges' naturally conceived of as the food of of Lucr. 1. 252. savages than as the diet of the golden age; 154.] See on E. 5. 37. and so in Ov. M. 1. 101 foll., after we have 155.] .Quod nisi,' Madv. § 449. Herheard that every part of the earth yielded bam insectabere :' comp. inexpugnabile every kind of product freely, it is rather gramen,' quoted above from Ovid.

• Herstrange to be told that men in those times bam' is the reading of Med. and other lived on arbutes, strawberries, cornels, mul- good MSS., and suits the context better berries, and acorns fallen from the tree. than “terram,' which Heyne retained. At the end of the present paragraph (v. 159) 156.] · Aves :' “avidaeque volucres Sea meal of acorns is evidently regarded as a mina iacta legunt,” Ov. I. c.

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