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in its present application and amount, was not necessary to support the dignity of the crown; and he appealed to gentlemen, who had read the present lift, whether there were many names on that list which could contribute to the fupport of the dignity of the crown. He confidered that list as an hospital for incurables; for men who were sick and weak in principle and ability ; 'adding, that from his observation, persons who were not fit for any situation whatsoever in the ftate, thought themselves entitled to receive a pension as a reward for the negative accomplishment of being qualified to be a burtheh to their country; he farther observed, that the majority on that list appeared to be a description of perfons who were too low to be much respected, and yet, perhaps, too high to be absolutely neglected; they might, with propriety, be stiled the lumber of every administration.

He said that he trusted that no person would contend that the present pension lift was necessary to support the dignity of the House; and observed, that the most respectable persons whose names were on that list, must find it difficult to refift the prejudice which would be excited against them in the public mind, when they were observed to be in such bad company. That the circumstance of the names of so many members of the House appearing on that list, as pensioners during the pleasure of the minister, had subjected individuals in the House to suspicions and reports very injurious to their legislative character. Amongst others there was one which had made great impreslion on the public mind, which, therefore, he should state, and which intimated that it had been a practice of certain members in the House, to whom penfions had lately been granted, to carry them instantly to market, and expose them to sale; that from this circumstance the people had been induced to consider modern pensions to members of parliament, as in effect a present from the minister to the member of a specific sum, for his parliamentary services. The characters of men invested with such


an important trust as that of legislators, ought not only to be chaste but unsuspected. He observed that neither the mem-, bers nor the House could possess that degree of respect and confidence necessary to support their authority, if every man in this city was empowered to say that he had seen the price of a certain member's parliamentary services, or the equivalent, hawking about the Exchange, like a sheet of lottery tickets, and offered for sale to every broker, money-scrivener or usurer. That it had been even reported that a clause was inserted in some of the affignments of pensions, by which the member covenanted, that in case he should be deprived of his pension, in confequence of any difference in opinion, on political subjects, between him and the minifter, that part of the purchase money was to be refunded, which gave occafi. on to a money-broker in this city to affert lately, that he had the conscience of a certain member of the House of Commons in his pocket,

He said he hoped that after this statement no person would contend that the pension list, in its present application and amount, could contribute either to support the dignity of the crown, (unless he proved that the dignity of the crown was to derive support from the disgrace of parliament) nor to the support of the dignity of the House, (unless he proved that the support of the dignity of that House was to originate in the degradation and contempt of its members. }

He observed that part of his bill involved the question of constitution, and disabled persons who had pensions during pleasure or for a number of years, from fitting in the Huufe of Commons. He stated that it had appeared by the list that many members of the House had pensions during pleasure ; and contended that they were dependent on the will of the minifter. To those who argued that a pensioner during pleafure was not dependent, I would answer that human nature spoke against them; that as long as the hopes of reward, or


the fears of a diminution of income, had any infuence on the minds of men, a pensioner during pleasure must be dependent ; for the truth of this position he appealed to the feelings of every man who had the pride of station to maintain, or the wants of a family to satisfy. He said that he was warranted by the language of the different English acts of parliament, excluding such penfioners from the House of Commons, to affirm, which he should without hesitation, that & member of that House, who had a pension during pleasure, was not an independent man. He did not wilh to injure the feelings of any man; the gentlemen who were so circum, {tanced ought pot to impute blame to him, but they should lament that they were destined to live under a free constituti, on, 'the principles and policy of which were fo repugnant to their practice. He said that the only answer he should make to those who still contended that a grant of a pension to a member of that House during pleasure was not inconsistent with the principles of the constitution, was, that reason fpoke against them; as nothing could be so absurd as to suppose, that the constitution invested the House of Comnons with a power of controul over the crown, and at the same time in. vested the crown with a prerogative of granting pensions to members of that House during the pleasure of the crown, which, by making the members dependent on the crown, rendered that controul useless.

He then adverted to the third part of his bill, which disabled any person from being elected or fitting in the House, who held any office or place of profit created after the first of January 1787. He said, if gentlemen would examine the lif of places created within these last twenty years, they would find that most, if not all, those places exceeding three hundred pounds yearly, had been created to accommodate and gratify members of that House, which made the measure indispensably neceffary; and he observed, that the best remedy for the abufe was to prevent the temptation to commit it.


He then reminded the House, that English precedent hrad been resorted to by administration, to justify the introduction of a riot-act; when they recollected the circumstance attend. ing the riot-act in England, they would not reject the whole of his bill, unlefs they wished to convince every man in the country, that they were determined to adopt only the penal laws of the English code ; those which tended to punish the subject, but not those framed to advance or secure his liberty. The circumstance to which he alluded was, that in the same feffion in which Geo. I. gave the affent to the riot-act, he alfo affented to an act to secure the independence and honour of the Commons, by depriving any pensioner, for a number of years, from fitting in that Houfe; thus while the crown received in one hand from the parliament an encrease of its power, it gave to that parliament with the other an additio nal security against the abuse of that encreafed power; from this circumstance, he said, a policical maxim was to be de. duced, which had not entered into the contemplation of the present ministers; that in order to attach the people of any country to its government, the legislature fhould bind them to the state by benefits, and never hope to make men good citizens by profcription. That part of his bill was a tran script of that act of George I. to which he had alluded,

Upon dividing the house, there appeared for reading the bill on the ift of August,-Ages 129,-Noes 65:

On the 12th of April, Mr. Secretary Orde again proceed. ed to take into consideration the state of education in this squatry, which he described as in fo deplorable a situation, at least so far as relpects the lower classes of the community, that it might be truly said of them," for lack of learning the land perisheth.”

To a want of education, and confequently a want of that moral and religious sense of duty to the legislzture and obedience to the laws, which is the great bond of society, he imputed all the violent and atrocious acts which had too often

disgraced disgraced this nation. Men of strong sensibility and ingenious but ardent minds, under the guidance of education may be led to undertakings the moft honourable to themselves and most beneficial to their country; but if repreffed by ignorance or misled by error, they either become torpid and useless to their country, or that vigour of mind which nature bestowed as a blessing to society turns to a curse ; and the legislature which has first neglected to train its youth to virtue and reli. gion is never after able to prevent the perpetration of crimes even by the most fanguinary laws. The necessity therefore of educating youth with a just reverence for religion and the laws, he pressed upon the committee in the strongest manner, and put to the feelings of country gentlemen the advantages and satisfaction they must receive from training the rising generation to virtue. He made fome comparisous between men cven in the lowest ranks of society in other countries, to whofe education the state paid fome attention, and the unfortunate neglected peasantry of Ireland, who though blessed with minds as vigorous, and forms as true as any people on earth; and though inhabitants of a country poffeffing the advantages of a free constitution, and the benefits of an ex, tended commerce, yet seem to be considered by the legila gure as of no manner of weight in the political scale,

Let it not be imagined, said he, that as a stranger affect, ing fastidious comparisons from my recollection of superior habits, better order, and more decent fubmiflion to the laws in another land of equal liberty with this, I am disposed to indulge the pitiful presumption of abasing the people among whom I now refide, and as one of whose representatives I account it an honour that I am placed here among you. No motives of such illiberal tendency gave birth to those reflections, which in the character of their representatives, and still more in that of one put in authority under their governor, I venture to offer upon the lamentable condition of the Irith peasantry. I conceivę very different ideas of their in


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