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This address had the desired effect, Cabinet, and Keeper of the Herbarium; and proper measures were ordered to Faujas St Fond, Assistant Keeper of the be taken for the preservation of the Cabinet, and Corresponding Secretary; animals, and their removal to the Mu- Geoffrey, Sub-demonstrator of the Caseum; which, however, was deferred binet; Vanspaendonck,Painter; Thoutill eighteen months after.
in, First Gardener. A decree of the Legislative Assembly The general administration of the having about this time suppressed the Cabinet belonged to the Assembly, and universities, the faculties of medicine, the care of the collections to the seve&c., there was reason to fear that the ral Professors; the places of keeper King's Garden would have been in- and assistant keepers of the Cabinet volved in the same proscription; but, were therefore suppressed. But, as it as the people were led to believe that was necessary to have some person it was destined for the culture of me- charged with the key of the galleries, dicinal plants, and that the laboratory the preservation of the objects, and the of chemistry was a manufactory of reception of visitors, these were devolsaltpetre, the establishment escaped ved on M. Lucas, who had passed his destruction. At last, on the 10th of life in the establishment, and enjoyed June, 1793, a decree for the organiza- the confidence of M. Buffon. M. André tion was obtained, chiefly by the ex. Thouin, being made Professor of Agriertions of M. Lakanal, President of culture, M. John Thouin was appointthe Committee of Public Instruction. ed First Gardener. Four places of AsThe following are some of the most sistant Naturalist were created, for essential articles :
the arrangement and preparation of “ The establishment shall hence objects under the direction of the Proforth be called the Museum of Natu-, fessors; and these appointments were ral History
in favour of MM. Desmoulins, Du“ Its object shall be the teaching fresne, Valenciennes, and Deleuze, of Natural History in all its branches. the two first for Zoology, the others
“ Twelve courses of lectures shall for Mineralogy and Botany; and three be given in the Museum. 1. A course painters were attached to the establishof Mineralogy. 2. A course of Gene- ment--M. Marechal, and the brothers, ral Chemistry. 3. A course of Chem Henry and Joseph Redouté. At the mistry applied to the Arts. 4. A course same time the Library was disposed of Botany. 5. A course of Rural Bo- for the reception of the books and tany. 6. A course of Agriculture. drawings ; which last already filled 7 and 8. I'wo courses of Zoology. 9. sixty-four port-folios. A course of Human Anatomy. 10. A The animals were removed from the course of Comparative Anatomy. 11. A Menagerie at Versailles in 1794. The course of Geology. 12. A course of report of the Committee of Public InIconography."
struction approved the regulations of The third section provides for the the Professors, and fixed the organiformation of a library, where all the zation of the Museum in its present books on natural history in the public form, with the exception of slight morepositories, and the duplicates of those difications exacted by the change of in the National Library, shall be as- circumstances. A law in conformity, sembled ; and also the drawings of of the 11th of December, 1797, creplants and animals taken from nature ated a third chair of Zoology, to which in the Museum.
M. de Lacépède was appointed, gave By the above decree, twelve chairs the whole administration of the estawere established, without naming the blishment to the Professors, increaprofessors; the distribution of their sed their salary from 2000 to 5000 functions being left to the officers francs ; fixed the expenses of the folthemselves. These were MM. Dau- lowing year at 194,000 francs ; and benton, keeper of the Cabinet, and Pro- ordained the purchase of certain addifessor of Mineralogy in the College of tional lands for the Garden. France; Fourcroy, Professor of Che- Notwithstanding this apparent promistry ; Brogniart, Demonstrator ; gress, however, the delightful region Desfontaines, Professor of Botany ; of which we are now sketching the De Jussieu, Demonstrator ; Portal, history, began, in common with every Professor of Anatomy; Bertrud, De other institution, to experience the monstrator ; Lamarck, Botanist of the effects of what the ingenious Professor
Feldborg would have called, “ the four naturalists. The persons appointwretched state of the world at that ed to accompany him were Maugé and juncture.” The reduced state of the Levillain, for zoology ; Ledru, for bofinances, the depreciation of the funds, tany; and Reidley, gardener of the the cessation of foreign commerce, and Museum, a man of active and indefathe employment of every species of re- tigable zeal. venue and industry for the prosecu- Captain Baudin weighed anchor from tion of the war, “ bella horrida bella," Havre on the 30th September, 1796. were serious hindrances to the project He was wrecked off the Canary Isles, of improvement. Painful contrasts but was furnished with another vessel were visible in all directions. Houses by the Spanish government, and shaped and lands of great value were annexed his course towards Trinidad. That to the Garden, and inagnificent collec- island, however, had in the meantime tions were acquired ; yet funds were fallen into our hands. The party, being wanting to pay the workmen, and thus unable to land, repaired first to your common potato was cultivated St Thomas, and then to Porto Rico, in beds destined for the rarest and where they remained about a year, and most beautiful of exotic flowers. Ere then returned to Europe. They enlong, however, some of the official ad- tered the port of Frecamp in June, ministrators of the Museum were call. 1798. The collections, forwarded by ed to situations in the government of the Seine, arrived at the Museum on the nation, and used their influence in the 12th of July following. favour of their favourite haunts_"lo- Never had so great a number of lia ving the spot which once they gloried ving plants, and especially of trees, in.
from the West Indies been received at At the end of the year 1794, the once; there were one hundred large Amphitheatre of the Garden was fi- tubs, several of which contained stocks nished in its present state, and in it from six to ten feet high. They had was opened, on the 25th of January, been so skilfully taken care of during 1795, the Normal School ; an extraor- the passage, that they arrived in fuii dinary institution, but founded on an vegetation, and succeeded perfectly in unfeasible and visionary plan. It was the hot-houses. The two zoologists fancied that men already ripe in years, brought back a numerous collection of by a few lectures from eminent mas- quadrupeds, birds, and insects. That ters, might be rendered capable of ex- of birds, made by Maugé, was partitending instruction, and diffusing cularly interesting, from their perfect through the provinces the elements of preservation, and from the fact, that science, which very few of themselves the greater part were new to the Mua had been prepared by previous education to understand. Every reasonable In 1798, the Professors presented a man felt the impossibility of realizing Memoir to the government, exposing such a scheme, and the institution fell the wants of the Museum. The magof itself soon after. It had the good nificent collections which had been effect, however, of exciting the public received were still in their cases, liable attention and fixing it upon an esta- to be destroyed by insects, and comblishment, become, as it were, the paratively useless for want of room to type of all institutions that might be display them. There were no means formed for the study of nature. of nourishing the animals, because the
The most important event connect- contractors who were not paid refused ed with the history of the Garden to make further advances. The lions which occurred about this period, was became sulky for lack of food ; and the voyage of Captain Baudin. In 1796, even the tigers shewed symptoms of this gentleman informed the officers displeasure, and forewent their" wontof the Museum, that, during a long ed cheerfulness.” The same distress residence in Trinidad, he had formed existed in 1799, which was the more a rich collection of natural history, to be regretted from the value of the which he was unable to bring away, recent collections. Of these the more but which he would return in quest important were the following :-In of if they would procure him a vessel. June, 1795, arrived the cabinet of the
The proposition was acceded to by the Stadtholder, rich in every branch of « government, with the injunction that natural history, and especially of zoo
Captain Baudin should take with him logy. In February, M. Destontaines
gave the Museum his collection of in- valuable of them, in order to provide sects from the coast of Barbary. In food for the remainder. Hen Pen herNovember of the same year, a collec- self was never in a greater scrape. tion was received from the Low Coun- The face of things, however, speedily tries; and that of precious stones was changed. The events of November, removed from the Mint to the Mu- 1799, by displacing and concentrating seum. In February, 1797, the Minis- power,established a new order of things, ter procured the African birds, which whose chief by degrees rendered himhad served for the drawings of Levail- self absolute, and by his astonishing lant's celebrated work. In 1798, the achievements cast a dazzling lustre on collection formed by Brocheton in the nation,
and suddenly created great Guyana, and the numerous objects of resources. The extraordinary man
who animated and vegetable nature collect- was placed at the head of affairs felt ed under the tropics by Captain Bau- that his power could not be secured by din and his indefatigable associates, victory alone, and that, having made filled the hot-houses and the galleries himself formidable abroad, it was neof the Museum.
cessary to gain admiration at home by The government manifested the favouring the progress of knowledge, most unceasing and lively concern for by encouraging the arts and sciences, the establishment, and did everything and by erecting monuments which in its power to pronote its interests ; should contribute to the glory
and prospenury repressed their noble perity of the “great nation.” rage,” and rendered it impossible to But, the proceedings of Buonaparte furnish the necessary funds for the in the bird and beetle line being less arrangement of the collections, the re- generally known than his floating at pairs of the buildings, the payment of Tilsit, or his sinking at Waterloo, the salaries, and the nourishment of their narration will afford materials the animals. These last-named gentry for another article, which, however, were indeed placed under very trying must be postponed till next month. circumstances; and, shortly after this We shall then bring down the history period, it was even deemed necessary to of this magnificent establishment to authorize M. Delauney, Superintend- the present times, and conclude by a ent of the Menagerie, to kill the least description of its existing state.
I do not care a farthing about any relled with any one. You are going to man, woman, or child, in the world. put me in mind of my duel with CapYou think that I am joking, Jemmy; tain Maxwell. I acknowledge I fought but you are mistaken. What! you it, and fired three shots. What then? look at me again with those honest Could I avoid it? I was no more aneyes of yours staring with wonder, gry with him, when I sent the mesand making a demi-pathetic, demi-an- sage, than I was at the moment of my gry appeal for an exception in your birth. Duelling is an absurd custom favour. Well, Jemmy, I do care about of the country, which I must comply you, my honest fellow, so uncork the with when occasion requires. The ocother bottle.
casion had turned up, and I fought of Did you ever see me out of humour course. Never was I happier than in your life for the tenth part of a se- when I felt the blood trickling over cond?-Never, so help me, God !— Did my shoulders—for the wise laws of you ever hear me speak ill of another? honour were satisfied, and I was rid I might, perhaps, have cracked a joke of the cursed trouble. I was sick of -indeed, I have cracked a good many the puppyism of punctilio, and the such in my time at a man's expense booby legislation of the seconds, and behind his back ; but never have I was glad to escape from it by a scratch. said anything which I would not say I made it up with Maxwell, who was to his face, or what I would not take an honest, though a hot-headed and from him with treble hardness of re- obstinate man-and you know I was coil, if it so pleased him to return it; executor to his will. Indeed, he dined but real bonâ fide evil-speaking was with me the very day-week after the never uttered by me. I never quar- duel. Yet, spite of this cquanimity, I repeat it, that I do not care for any nonsensical matters. But that feryour human being on earth, (thè present is
gone. I am still outside the same; company always excepted, more than but inside how different ! I laugh to I care for one of those filberts which scorn the nonsense I hear vented about you are cracking with such laudable me in the clubs which I frequent. assiduity:
The zeal about nothings, the bustle Yes-- it is true I have borne my- about stuff, the fears and the precauself towards my family unexception- tions against fancied dangers, the inably, as the world has it. I married dignation against writings which no off my sisters, sent my brothers to the decent man thinks of reading, or colleges, and did what was fair for my against speeches which are but the mother. But I shall not be hypocrite essence of stupidity; in short, the enough to pretend to high motives for whole tempest in a tea-pot appears to so doing, My father's death left them me to be ineffably ludicrous. I join entirely to me, and what could I do now and then, nay very often, in with them? Turn them out ? That these discussions; why should not I? would be absurd, and just as absurd Am I not possessed of the undoubted to retain them at home without treat- liberties of a Briton, invested with the ing them properly. They were my fa- full privilege of talking nonsense ? mily. My own comforts would have And, if any of my associates laugh inbeen materially invaded by any other side at me, why, I think them quite line of conduct. I therefore executed right. the filial and fraternal affections in a But I have dirtied my fingers with manner which will be a fine topic of ink, you say, and daubed other peopanegyric for my obituary. God help ple's faces with them. I admit it. the idiots who write such things! They My pen has been guilty of various to talk of motives, and feelings, and political jeux d'esprit, but let me the impulses that sway the human whisper it, Jemmy, on both sides. heart! They, whose highest ambition Don't start, it is not worth while. it is to furnish provender, at so much My Tory quizzes I am suspected of; a line, for magazine or newspaper. Yet suspected I say, for I am not such a from them shall I receive the tribute goose as to let them be any more than of a tear. The world shall be informed mere matters of suspicion ; but of in due time, and I care not how soon, quizzes against Tories I am no more that “ Died at his house, &c. &c. thought guilty than I am of petty a gentleman, exemplary in every rela- larceny. Yet such is the case. I write tion of life, whether we consider him with no ill feeling ; public men or as a son, a brother, a friend, or a citi- people who thrust themselves before zen. His heart,” and so on to the end the public in any way, I just look on as of the fiddle faddle. The winding up phantoms of the imagination, as things of my family affairs, you know, is, that to throw off common-places about. I have got rid of them all; that I pay the You know how I assassinated Jack good people a visit once a-month, and ****, in the song which you transcriask them to a humdrum dinner on bed for me; how it spread in thoumy birth-day, which you are perhaps sands, to his great annoyance. Well, aware occurs but once a-year. on Wednesday last, he and I supped alone. I feel that I am alone.
tete-a-tete, and a jocular fellow he is. My politics—what then? I am, It was an accidental rencounter-he externally at least, a Tory, à toute was sulky at first, but I laughed and outrance, because iny father and my sung him into good humour. When grandfather (and I cannot trace my the second bottle had loosened his genealogy any higher) were so before tongue, he looked at me most sympame. Besides, I think every gentleman thetically, and said, May I ask you should be a Tory; there is an easi- a question ?-A thousand, I replied, ness, a suavity of mind, engendered proviảed you do not expect me to anby Toryism, which it is vain for you swer them.-Ah, he cried, it was a to expect from fretful Whiggery, or shame for you to abuse me the way bawling Radicalism, and such should · you did, and all for nothing; but, hang be a strong distinctive feature in every it, let bygones be bygones--You are gentleman's character. And I admit, too pleasant a fellow to quarrel with. that, in my youth, I did many queer I told him he appeared to be under things, and said many violent and a mistake-He shook his head-emp
tied his bottle, and we staggered of one another. They vibrate not tohome in great concord. In point of gether; they are ready to enter into faet, men of sense think not of such the same communication, with any things, and mingle freely in society passer-by. Nay, perhaps, Hassan's as if they never occurred.' Why then plan was more social. He was relieshould i be supposed to have any ved from inquiries as to the characfeeling whatever, whether of anger or ter of his table-mates. Be they fair, pleasure about them?
be they foul, they were nothing to My friends? Where are they? Ay, him. I am torn.ented out of my life Jemmy, I do understand what that by such punctilios as I daily must pressure of my hand means. But submit to. I wonder you keep comwhere is the other? Nowhere ! Ac- pany says a friend-friend! well, no quaintances I have in hundreds matter-with R. He is a scoundrel boon companions in dozens—fellovys he is suspected of having cheated fifto whom I make myself as agreeable teen years ago at play, he drinks ale, as I can, and whose society gives me he fought shy in a duel business, he pleasure. There's Jack Meggot-the is a Whig—á Radical, a Muggletobestjoker in the world-Will Thomson nian, a jumper, a moderate man, a -an unexceptionable ten-bottle-man Jacobin; he asked twice for soup, he -John Mortimer, a singer of most wrote a libel, his father was a low atrenowned social qualities—there's, torney, nobody knows him in good but what need I enlarge the catalogue? society, &c. &c. &c. Why, what is it You know the men I mean. I live to me? I care not whether he broke with them, and that right gaily, but every commandment in the decalogue, would one of them crack a joke the provided he be a pleasant fellow, and less, drink a glass the less, sing a song that I am not mixed up with his ofthe less, if I died before morning ? fences. But the world will so mix Not one nor do I blame them, for, me up in spite of myself. Burns used if they were ingulfed in Tartarus, i to say, the best company he was ever should just go through my usual dai- in was the company of professed ly round-keep moving in the same blackguards. Perhaps he was right. monotonous tread-mill of life, with I dare not try. other companions to help me through, My early companions I did care as steadily as I do now. The friends for, and where are they? Poor Tom of my boyhood are gone-ay-all- Benson, he was my class-fellow at all gone! I have lost the old fami- school ; we occupied the same rooms liar faces, and shall not try for others in college, we shared our studies, our to replace them. I am now happy amusements, our flirtations, our follies, with a mail-coach companion, whom our dissipations together. A more hoI never saw before, and never will see nourable or upright creature never exagain. My cronies come like sha- isted. Well, sir, he had an uncle, lieudows, so depart. Do you remember tenant-colonel of a cavalry regiment, the story of Abon Hassen, in some of and at his request Tom bought a the Oriental tales? He was squan- cornetcy in the corps. I remember the dering a fine property on some hol- grand-looking fellow strutting about low friends, when he was advised to in the full splendour of his yet unspottry their friendship by, pretending ted regimentals, the cynosure of the poverty, and asking their assistance. bright eyes of the country town in It was refused, and he determined which he resided. He came to Lonnever to see them morenever to make don, and then joined his regiment. All a friend-nay, not even an acquaint- was well for a while; but he had alance; but to sit, according to the cus- ways an unfortunate itch for play. In tom of the East, by the way-side, and our little circle it did him no great invite to his board the three first harm; but his new companions played passers-by, with whom he spent the high, and far too skilfully for Tomnight in festive debauchery, making perhaps there was roguery, or perhaps it a rule never to ask the same per- there was not-I never inquired. At sons a second time. My life is almost all events, he lost all his ready-money. the same-true it is that I know the He then drew liberally on his family'; exterior conformation, and the pecu- he lost that too ; in short, poor Tom liar habits of those with whom I as- at last staked his commission, and lost sociate, but our hearts are ignorant it with the rest. This, of course, could