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conspirator from St. Petersburgh on Christmas day. On the 9th of February Mr. Brougham moved that a copy of this convention be laid on the table of the house. He remarked upon the singularity of a treaty in which monarchs were the actual diplomatists; cited an expression of Voltaire, that " a colloquy of kings* boded no good to nations ;" and especially observed, that the pious strain of the contracting parties in the document had an ominous coincidence with the vocabulary of the Empress Catherine, when she called upon the Poles, “ as they loved their God, and kissing the cross of their Redeemer, to come unto her their tender mother," after she had just massacred 30,000 Poles at Warsaw, and driven 30,000 more forth upon the world. Lord Castlereagh refused to produce the treaty; said it was communicated to the prince regent the very first by the emperor Alexander, and approved, though not acceded to; wondered how any candid person could question the good faith and piety of the allies ; and declared his solemn conviction that the alliance was one of " charity and peace.” The majority of the house of commons acted upon

his authority, or adop ted his views.

The following is the text of this momentous compact, comprised in the compass of a preamble, and three short articles :

“ In the name of the most holy and indivisible Trinity.

“ Their majesties the emperor of Austria, the king of Prussia, and the emperor of Russia, having, in consequence of the great events which have marked

# L'abouchement des rois.

the course of the three last years in Europe, and ega pecially of the blessings which it has pleased Divine Providence to shower down upon those states which place their confidence and their hope on it alone, solemnly declare, that the present act has no other object than to publish in the face of the whole world their fixed resolution, both in the administration of their respective states, and in their political relations with every


government, to take for their sole guide the precepts of that holy religion, — namely, the precepts of justice, Christian charity, and peace, which, far from being applicable only to private concerns, must have an immediate influence on the councils of princes, and guide all their steps, as being the only means of consolidating human institutions, and remedying their imperfections. In consequence, their majesties have agreed on the following articles :

“ Art. 1. Conformably to the words of the Holy Scriptures, which command all men to consider each other as brethren, the three contracting monarchs will remain united by the bonds of a true, and indissoluble fraternity; and, considering each other as fellow-countrymen, they will, on all occasions, and in all places, lend each other aid and assistance ; and regarding themselves, towards their subjects and armies, as fathers of families, they will lead them in the same spirit of fraternity with which they are animated to protect religion, peace, and justice.

2. In consequence, the sole principle in force, whether between the said government or between their subjects, shall be that of doing each reciprocal

service, and of testifying, by unalterable good-will, the mutual affection with which they ought to be animated to consider themselves as members of one and the same Christian nation, the three allied princes looking on themselves as merely delegated by Providence to govern three branches of one family, namely, Austria, Prussia, and Russia ; thus confessing, that the Christian nation, of which they and their people form a part, has in reality no other sovereign than Him to whom alone power really belongs, because in Him alone are found all treasures of love, science, and infinite wisdom ; that is to say, God, our Divine Saviour, the word of the Most High, the word of life. Their majesties consequently recommend to their people, with the most tender solicitude, as the sole means of enjoying that peace which arises from a good conscience, and which alone is durable, to strengthen themselves every day more and more in the principles and exercise of the duties which the Divine Saviour has taught mankind.

“ 3. All the powers who shall choose solemnly to avow the sacred principles which have dictated the present act, and shall acknowledge how important it is for the happiness of nations that those truths should henceforth exercise over the destinies of mankind all the influence which belongs to them, will be received with equal ardour and affection into this holy alliance.

“ Done in triplicate, and signed at Paris, the year of grace 1815, Sept. 14. (26.)


The deep intent of this treaty was seed by many persons of very inferior sagacity to a Brougtam and a Voltaire, but escaped the great mass of she people through the most intelligent nations of Europe. Many persons, struck by its singularity, by its evangelical diction, and vague mysticism of tone, thought that it originated in an excess sincere enthusiasm. The sovereigns, astonished, it was supposed, at their marvellous deliverance, and conscious of their demerit, were impressed with the belief of a miraculous interposition of the Almighty.

A particular train of thought too singly pursued, - association of ideas, — nervous temperament, natural or induced, — are undoubtedly more powerful in some cases than reason and reality, and there are many instances of good sense and the highest order of intellect, blended with the delusions of fanaticism, in the pursuit of great ends. But Alexander of Russia, false, adroit, ambitious, and inor. dinately vain,-yet without even that genius which is but a strong manifestation of the imagination, or of the passions, - was not a Richelieu, or a Cromwell, to blend the delusions of fanaticism with a remorseless policy like the first, or with an enlightered superior reason like the second. To establish a fraternal league of mutual and benevolent toleration and concord, between the protestant religion of Prussia, the catholic religion of Austria, the Greek religion of Russia, in that beneficent spirit of devout hospitality which prevailed between the local religions and household gods of the various nations of heathen antiquity, was a conception be


yond the understanding of Alexander, Francis, and Frederick William.

This alliance then may be ascribed to other motives. The popular mind was invited into action by the sovereigns themselves during the last and successful stage of the contest with Napoleon. This

power, diffused and consolidated by secret and even mystic organisation, survived its first object, became more developed and enlightened, and threatened a war of revolutionary innovation against feudal despotism and divine right. The emperor of Russia, encouraged by the success with which he had already imposed upon the easy faith of the world, trumpeted by madame de Stael, and other conceited, selfish, and parasitical traffickers in that great staple of selfishness and charlatanerie - the popular literature of Europe — affecting a sort of tutelage of nations, having every where his literary emissaries and informers - of whom the wretched Kotzebue was one and adopting a canting mysticism of diction which the most vulgar impostors easily assume*,- the emperor of Russia, with these means and motives, may be reasonably supposed to have contemplated in this league a sort of theocratic despotism to be exercised by a trium

* Among other influences in the formation of the holy league, has been reckoned that of the German sibyl, madame de Krudener, upon the emperor of Russia. But it was not until the beginning of 1816, that she began her preachings at Bale, whilst the imperial mystic was at St. Petersburgh. He subsequently took her under his protection, upon her being condemned to silence in Switzerland and Germany; and may possibly have affected prophetic communion with her, as Numa and Sertorius with the nymph and the hind.

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